Peirce and Spencer-Brown

History and Synergies in Cybersemiotics

Author: Louis Kauffman,Soren Brier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781845401054

Category: Computers

Page: 159

View: 9702

This special double issue of Cybernetics and Human Knowing is comprised of a collection of papers devoted to the cybernetics and mathematics of Charles Sanders Peirce with a special focus on its synergies with George Spencer-Brown's thinking. Peirce was a truly original American philosopher and logician working in the late 1800s and early 1900s; Spencer-Brown is an English polymath, best known as the author of Laws of Form. The contributions reflect the extraordinary richness of Peirce's work and his relevance to present concerns in cybernetics. The similarities in the focus on some of the deep foundational subjects are astonishing, amongst those especially the concept of the void or Firstness and the continuity of mind and matter.
Release

The Hidden God

Pragmatism and Posthumanism in American Thought

Author: Ryan White

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231539592

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 9152

The Hidden God revisits the origins of American pragmatism and finds a nascent "posthumanist" critique shaping early modern thought. By reaching as far back as the Calvinist arguments of the American Puritans and their struggle to know a "hidden God," this book brings American pragmatism closer to contemporary critical theory. Ryan White reads the writings of key American philosophers, including Jonathan Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William James, and Charles Sanders Peirce, against modern theoretical works by Niklas Luhmann, Richard Rorty, Jacques Derrida, Sharon Cameron, Cary Wolfe, and Gregory Bateson. This juxtaposition isolates the distinctly posthumanist form of pragmatism that began to arise in these early texts, challenging the accepted genealogy of pragmatic discourse and common definitions of posthumanist critique. Its rigorously theoretical perspective has wide implications for humanities research, enriching investigations into literature, history, politics, and art.
Release

Emergence and Embodiment

New Essays on Second-Order Systems Theory

Author: Bruce Clarke,Mark B. N. Hansen

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822391388

Category: Science

Page: 294

View: 2453

Emerging in the 1940s, the first cybernetics—the study of communication and control systems—was mainstreamed under the names artificial intelligence and computer science and taken up by the social sciences, the humanities, and the creative arts. In Emergence and Embodiment, Bruce Clarke and Mark B. N. Hansen focus on cybernetic developments that stem from the second-order turn in the 1970s, when the cyberneticist Heinz von Foerster catalyzed new thinking about the cognitive implications of self-referential systems. The crucial shift he inspired was from first-order cybernetics’ attention to homeostasis as a mode of autonomous self-regulation in mechanical and informatic systems, to second-order concepts of self-organization and autopoiesis in embodied and metabiotic systems. The collection opens with an interview with von Foerster and then traces the lines of neocybernetic thought that have followed from his work. In response to the apparent dissolution of boundaries at work in the contemporary technosciences of emergence, neocybernetics observes that cognitive systems are operationally bounded, semi-autonomous entities coupled with their environments and other systems. Second-order systems theory stresses the recursive complexities of observation, mediation, and communication. Focused on the neocybernetic contributions of von Foerster, Francisco Varela, and Niklas Luhmann, this collection advances theoretical debates about the cultural, philosophical, and literary uses of their ideas. In addition to the interview with von Foerster, Emergence and Embodiment includes essays by Varela and Luhmann. It engages with Humberto Maturana’s and Varela’s creation of the concept of autopoiesis, Varela’s later work on neurophenomenology, and Luhmann’s adaptations of autopoiesis to social systems theory. Taken together, these essays illuminate the shared commitments uniting the broader discourse of neocybernetics. Contributors. Linda Brigham, Bruce Clarke, Mark B. N. Hansen, Edgar Landgraf, Ira Livingston, Niklas Luhmann, Hans-Georg Moeller, John Protevi, Michael Schiltz, Evan Thompson, Francisco J. Varela, Cary Wolfe
Release

Hypertext semiotics in the commercialized Internet

Author: Moritz Neumüller

Publisher: diplom.de

ISBN: 3832466878

Category: Computers

Page: 235

View: 5824

Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: Building on approaches that have succeeded in applying semiotic principles and methodology to computer science, such as computer semiotics, computational semiotics, and semiotic interface engineering, this dissertation establishes a systematic account for those researchers who are ready to look at hypertext from a semiotic point of view. Rather than a new hypertext model, this work presents the prolegomena of a theory of hypertext semiotics, interlacing the existing models with the findings of semiotic research, on all levels of the textual, aural, visual, tactile and olfactory channels. A short history of hypertext, from its prehistory to today's state of the art systems and the current developments in the commercialized World Wide Web creates the context for this approach which should be seen as a fortification of the connection between the media semiotic approach and computer semiotics. While computer semioticians claim that the computer is a semiotic machine and Artificial Intelligence scientists underline the importance of semiotics for the construction of the next hypertext generation, this paper makes use of a much broader methodological basis. These findings are placed in the context of the commercialization of the Internet. Besides identifying the main challenges for eCommerce from the viewpoint of hypertext semiotics, the author concentrates on information goods and the current limitations for a new economy, such as restrictive intellectual property and copyright laws. A semiotic analysis of iMarketing techniques and the Toywar complete the dissertation. Zusammenfassung: Diese Dissertation legt einen systematischen Ansatz für all jene Forscher dar, die bereit sind, Hypertext aus einer semiotischen Perspektive zu betrachten. Durch die Verknüpfung existierender Hypertext-Modelle mit den Resultaten aus der Semiotik auf allen Sinnesebenen der textuellen, auditiven, visuellen, taktilen und geruchlichen Wahrnehmung skizziert der Autor Prolegomena einer Hypertext-Semiotik-Theorie, anstatt ein völlig neues Hypertext-Modell zu präsentieren. Eine Einführung in die Geschichte der Hypertexte, von ihrer Vorgeschichte bis zum heutigen Entwicklungsstand und den gegenwärtigen Entwicklungen im kommerzialisierten World Wide Web bilden den Rahmen für diesen Ansatz, welcher als Fundierung des Brückenschlages zwischen Mediensemiotik und Computer-Semiotik angesehen werden darf. Während Computer-Semiotiker wissen, dass der Computer [...]
Release

Heinz Von Foerster 1911-2002

Author: Soren Brier

Publisher: Imprint Academic

ISBN: 9780907845911

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 6166

Dedicated to the life and work of Heinz Von Foerster, this is a double issue of the journal "Cybernetics and Human Knowing".
Release

Cybersemiotics

Why Information is Not Enough!

Author: Søren Brier

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 0802092209

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 477

View: 4623

Cybersemiotics not only builds a bridge between science and culture, it provides a framework that encompasses them both.
Release

Laws of Form

Author: G. Spencer-Brown

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780963989901

Category: Mathematics

Page: 141

View: 6886

Release

Theories of Information, Communication and Knowledge

A Multidisciplinary Approach

Author: Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan,Thomas M Dousa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400769733

Category: Philosophy

Page: 331

View: 5813

This book addresses some of the key questions that scientists have been asking themselves for centuries: what is knowledge? What is information? How do we know that we know something? How do we construct meaning from the perceptions of things? Although no consensus exists on a common definition of the concepts of information and communication, few can reject the hypothesis that information – whether perceived as « object » or as « process » - is a pre-condition for knowledge. Epistemology is the study of how we know things (anglophone meaning) or the study of how scientific knowledge is arrived at and validated (francophone conception). To adopt an epistemological stance is to commit oneself to render an account of what constitutes knowledge or in procedural terms, to render an account of when one can claim to know something. An epistemological theory imposes constraints on the interpretation of human cognitive interaction with the world. It goes without saying that different epistemological theories will have more or less restrictive criteria to distinguish what constitutes knowledge from what is not. If information is a pre-condition for knowledge acquisition, giving an account of how knowledge is acquired should impact our comprehension of information and communication as concepts. While a lot has been written on the definition of these concepts, less research has attempted to establish explicit links between differing theoretical conceptions of these concepts and the underlying epistemological stances. This is what this volume attempts to do. It offers a multidisciplinary exploration of information and communication as perceived in different disciplines and how those perceptions affect theories of knowledge.
Release

Francisco J. Varela 1946-2001

Author: Jeanette Bopry

Publisher: Imprint Academic

ISBN: 9780907845928

Category: Science

Page: 98

View: 5385

Dedicated to the life and work of Francisco Varela, this is an issue of the journal "Cybernetics and Human Knowing".
Release

Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Volume 14

A Journal of Second-Order Cybernetics Autopoiesis and Cyber-Semiotics

Author: Soeren Brier,Dirk Baecker,Ole Thyssen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 200

View: 7991

his book brings together international experts on the application of Niklas Luhmann's theory of society as autopoietic communication. Luhmann's sociological systems theory is counter-intuitive and in its detached coolness difficult for many to understand and accept. Naturally they ask: is it really worth the trouble to learn? This book demonstrates what this combination of systems theory, Batesonian information theory, von Foerster's second-order cybernetics, Maturana and Varela's autopoiesis and Husserl's phenomenology can offer.
Release

Zen and the Brain

Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness

Author: James H. Austin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262260350

Category: Medical

Page: 868

View: 9430

A neuroscientist and Zen practitioner interweaves the latest research on the brain with his personal narrative of Zen. Aldous Huxley called humankind's basic trend toward spiritual growth the "perennial philosophy." In the view of James Austin, the trend implies a "perennial psychophysiology"—because awakening, or enlightenment, occurs only when the human brain undergoes substantial changes. What are the peak experiences of enlightenment? How could these states profoundly enhance, and yet simplify, the workings of the brain? Zen and the Brain presents the latest evidence. In this book Zen Buddhism becomes the opening wedge for an extraordinarily wide-ranging exploration of consciousness. In order to understand which brain mechanisms produce Zen states, one needs some understanding of the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the brain. Austin, both a neurologist and a Zen practitioner, interweaves the most recent brain research with the personal narrative of his Zen experiences. The science is both inclusive and rigorous; the Zen sections are clear and evocative. Along the way, Austin examines such topics as similar states in other disciplines and religions, sleep and dreams, mental illness, consciousness-altering drugs, and the social consequences of the advanced stage of ongoing enlightenment.
Release

Information Communication Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Author: Van Slyke, Craig

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1599049503

Category: Computers

Page: 4288

View: 3949

The rapid development of information communication technologies (ICTs) is having a profound impact across numerous aspects of social, economic, and cultural activity worldwide, and keeping pace with the associated effects, implications, opportunities, and pitfalls has been challenging to researchers in diverse realms ranging from education to competitive intelligence.
Release

Ranulph Galnville and How to Live the Cybernetics of Unknowing

Author: Soren Brier,Phillip Guddemi,Louis H. Kauffman

Publisher: Andrews UK Limited

ISBN: 1845409051

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 318

View: 9924

A festschrift issue of Cybernetics and Human Knowing focusing on the work of Ranulph Glanville, cybernetician, design researcher, theorist, educator and multi-platform artist/designer/performer.
Release

Posthuman Metamorphosis

Narrative and Systems

Author: Bruce Clarke

Publisher: Fordham Univ Press

ISBN: 0823228517

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 242

View: 3804

From Dr. Moreau's Beast People to David Cronenberg's Brundlefly, Stanislaw Lem's robot constructors in the Cyberiad to Octavia Butler's human/alien constructs in the Xenogenesis trilogy, Posthuman Metamorphosis examines modern and postmodern stories of corporeal transformation throughinterlocking frames of posthumanism, narratology, and second-order systems theory. New media generate new metamorphs.New stories have emerged from cybernetic displacements of life, sensation, or intelligence from human beings to machines. But beyond the vogue for the cyborg and the cybernetic mash-up of the organic and the mechanical, Posthuman Metamorphosis develops neocybernetic systems theories illuminatingalternative narratives that elicit autopoietic and symbiotic visions of the posthuman.Systems theory also transforms our modes of narrative cognition. Regarding narrative in the light of the autopoietic systems it brings into play, neocybernetics brings narrative theory into constructive relation with the systems it brings into play, neocybernetics brings narrative theory intoconstructive relation with the systemic operations of observation, communication, and paradox. Posthuman Metamorphosis draws on Bruno Latour, Donna Haraway, Niklas Luhmann, Cary Wolfe, Mieke Bal, Katherine Hayles, Friedrich Kittler, and Lynn Margulis to read narratives of bodily metamorphosis as allegories of the contingencies of systems. Tracing the posthuman intuitions of both pre- andpost-cybernetic metamorphs, it demonstrates the viability of second-order systems theories for narrative theory, media theory, cultural science studies, and literary criticism.
Release

The Beginning of Heaven and Earth Has No Name

Seven Days with Second-Order Cybernetics

Author: Heinz von Foerster

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0823255638

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 8033

Heinz von Foerster was the inventor of second-order cybernetics, which recognizes the investigator as part of the system he is investigating. The Beginning of Heaven and Earth Has No Name provides an accessible, nonmathematical, and comprehensive overview of von Foerster's cybernetic ideas and of the philosophy latent within them. It distills concepts scattered across the lifework of this scientific polymath and influential interdisciplinarian. At the same time, as a book-length interview, it does justice to von Foerster's élan as a speaker and improviser, his skill as a raconteur. Developed from a week-long conversation between the editors and von Foerster near the end of his life, this work playfully engages von Foerster in developing the difference his notion of second-order cybernetics makes for topics ranging from emergence, life, order, and thermodynamics to observation, recursion, cognition, perception, memory, and communication. The book gives an English-speaking audience a new ease of access to the rich thought and generous spirit of this remarkable and protean thinker.
Release

Origins of Mind

Author: Liz Swan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400754191

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 5404

The big question of how and why mindedness evolved necessitates collaborative, multidisciplinary investigation. Biosemiotics provides a new conceptual space that attracts a multitude of thinkers in the biological and cognitive sciences and the humanities who recognize continuity in the biosphere from the simplest to the most complex organisms, and who are united in the project of trying to account for even language and human consciousness in this comprehensive picture of life. The young interdiscipline of biosemiotics has so far by and large focused on codes, signs and sign processes in the microworld—a fact that reflects the field’s strong representation in microbiology and embryology. What philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists can contribute to the growing interdiscipline are insights into how the biosemiotic weltanschauung applies to complex organisms like humans where such signs and sign processes constitute human society and culture.
Release

Observations on Modernity

Author: Niklas Luhmann

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804732352

Category: Social Science

Page: 147

View: 1392

This collection of five essays by Germany’s most prominent and influential social thinker both links Luhmann’s social theory to the question “What is modern about modernity?” and shows the origins and context of his theory. In the introductory essay, “Modernity in Contemporary Society,” Luhmann develops the thesis that the modern epistemological situation can be seen as the consequence of a radical change in social macrostructures that he calls “social differentiation,” thereby designating the juxtaposition of and interaction between a growing number of social subsystems without any hierarchical structure. “European Rationality” defines rationality as the capacity to see the difference between systems and their environment as a unity. Luhmann argues that, in a world characterized by contingency, rationality tends to become coextensive with imagination, a view that challenges their classical binary opposition and opens up the possibility of seeing modern rationality as a paradox. In the third essay, “Contingency as Modern Society’s Defining Attribute,” Luhmann develops a further and probably even more important paradox: that the generalization of contingency or cognitive uncertainty is precisely what provides stability within modern societies. In the process, he argues that medieval and early modern theology can be seen as a “preadaptive advance” through which Western thinking prepared itself for the modern epistemological situation. In “Describing the Future,” Luhmann claims that neither the traditional hope of learning from history nor the complementary hope of cognitively anticipating the future can be maintained, and that the classical concept of the future should be replaced by the notion of risk, defined as juxtaposing the expectation of realizing certain projects and the awareness that such projects might fail. The book concludes with “The Ecology of Ignorance,” in which Luhmann outlines prospective research areas “for sponsors who have yet to be identified.”
Release

Computing Nature

Turing Centenary Perspective

Author: Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic,Raffaela Giovagnoli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642372252

Category: Computers

Page: 269

View: 6398

This book is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe, and our present day attempts to understand it. If we see the universe as a network of networks of computational processes at many different levels of organization, what can we learn about physics, biology, cognition, social systems, and ecology expressed through interacting networks of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, cells, (and especially neurons when it comes to understanding of cognition and intelligence), organs, organisms and their ecologies? Regarding our computational models of natural phenomena Feynman famously wondered: “Why should it take an infinite amount of logic to figure out what one tiny piece of space/time is going to do?” Phenomena themselves occur so quickly and automatically in nature. Can we learn how to harness nature’s computational power as we harness its energy and materials? This volume includes a selection of contributions from the Symposium on Natural Computing/Unconventional Computing and Its Philosophical Significance, organized during the AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012, held in Birmingham, UK, on July 2-6, on the occasion of the centenary of Alan Turing’s birth. In this book, leading researchers investigated questions of computing nature by exploring various facets of computation as we find it in nature: relationships between different levels of computation, cognition with learning and intelligence, mathematical background, relationships to classical Turing computation and Turing’s ideas about computing nature - unorganized machines and morphogenesis. It addresses questions of information, representation and computation, interaction as communication, concurrency and agent models; in short this book presents natural computing and unconventional computing as extension of the idea of computation as symbol manipulation.
Release

Understanding Understanding

Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition

Author: Heinz von Foerster

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387217223

Category: Computers

Page: 362

View: 8097

In these ground-breaking essays, Heinz von Foerster discusses some of the fundamental principles that govern how we know the world and how we process the information from which we derive that knowledge. The author was one of the founders of the science of cybernetics.
Release

Information and Computation

Essays on Scientific and Philosophical Understanding of Foundations of Information and Computation

Author: Gordana Dodig Crnkovic,Mark Burgin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814295477

Category: Computers

Page: 496

View: 4966

This volume provides a cutting-edge view of the world's leading authorities in fields where information and computation play a central role.
Release