Paleoecology

Past, Present and Future

Author: David J. Bottjer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118455819

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 5437

Paleoecology is a discipline that uses evidence from fossils to provide an understanding of ancient environments and the ecological history of life through geological time. This text covers the fundamental approaches that have provided the foundation for present paleoecological understanding, and outlines new research areas in paleoecology for managing future environmental and ecological change. Topics include the use of actualism in paleoecology, development of paleoecological models for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, taphonomy and exceptional fossil preservation, evolutionary paleoecology and ecological change through time, and conservation paleoecology. Data from studies of invertebrates, vertebrates, plants and microfossils, with added emphasis on bioturbation and microbial sedimentary structures, are discussed. Examples from marine and terrestrial environments are covered, with a particular focus on periods of great ecological change, such as the Precambrian-Cambrian transition and intervals of mass extinction. Readership: This book is designed for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the earth and biological sciences, as well as researchers and applied scientists in a range of related disciplines.
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Belonging on an Island

Birds, Extinction, and Evolution in Hawai‘i

Author: Daniel Lewis

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300235461

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 4528

A lively, rich natural history of Hawaiian birds that challenges existing ideas about what constitutes biocultural nativeness and belonging This natural history takes readers on a thousand-year journey as it explores the Hawaiian Islands’ beautiful birds and a variety of topics including extinction, evolution, survival, conservationists and their work, and, most significantly, the concept of belonging. Author Daniel Lewis, an award-winning historian and globe-traveling amateur birder, builds this lively text around the stories of four species—the Stumbling Moa-Nalo, the Kaua‘I ‘O‘o, the Palila, and the Japanese White-Eye. Lewis offers innovative ways to think about what it means to be native and proposes new definitions that apply to people as well as to birds. Being native, he argues, is a relative state influenced by factors including the passage of time, charisma, scarcity, utility to others, short-term evolutionary processes, and changing relationships with other organisms. This book also describes how bird conservation started in Hawai‘i, and the naturalists and environmentalists who did extraordinary work.
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Tropical Rainforests

Past, Present, and Future

Author: Eldredge Bermingham,Christopher W. Dick,Craig Moritz

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226044688

Category: Nature

Page: 745

View: 1260

Synthesizing theoretical and empirical analyses of the processes that help shape these unique ecosystems, Tropical Rainforests looks at the effects of evolutionary histories, past climate change, and ecological dynamics on the origin and maintenance of tropical rainforest communities. Featuring recent advances in paleoecology, climatology, geology, molecular systematics, biogeography, and community ecology, the volume also offers insights from those fields into how rainforests will endure the impact of anthropogenic change. With more than sixty contributors, Tropical Rainforests will be of great interest to students and professionals in tropical ecology and conservation.
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Handbook of Sea-Level Research

Author: Ian Shennan,Antony J. Long,Benjamin P. Horton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118452577

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 4448

Measuring sea-level change – be that rise or fall – isone of the most pressing scientific goals of our time and requiresrobust scientific approaches and techniques. This Handbookaims to provide a practical guide to readers interested in thischallenge, from the initial design of research approaches throughto the practical issues of data collection and interpretation froma diverse range of coastal environments. Building on thirtyyears of international research, the Handbook comprises 38 chaptersthat are authored by leading experts from around the world. The Handbook will be an important resource to scientists interestedand involved in understanding sea-level changes across a broadrange of disciplines, policy makers wanting to appreciate ourcurrent state of knowledge of sea-level change over differenttimescales, and many teachers at the university level, as well asadvanced-level undergraduates and postgraduate research students,wanting to learn more about sea-level change. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/shennan/sealevel"www.wiley.com\go\shennan\sealevel/a
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Advances in Urban Ecology

Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems

Author: marina Alberti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387755106

Category: Science

Page: 366

View: 9651

This groundbreaking work is an attempt at providing a conceptual framework to synthesize urban and ecological dynamics into a common framework. The greatest challenge for urban ecologists in the next few decades is to understand the role humans play in urban ecosystems. The development of an integrated urban ecological approach is crucial to advance ecological research and to help planners and managers solve complex urban environmental issues. This book is a major step forward.
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Mediterranean Cold-Water Corals: Past, Present and Future

Understanding the Deep-Sea Realms of Coral

Author: Covadonga Orejas,Carlos Jiménez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319916071

Category: Nature

Page: 862

View: 630

What do we know about Mediterranean Cold (Deep)-Water coral ecosystems? In this book, specialists offer answers and insights with a series of chapters and short papers about the paleoecology, biology, physiology and ecology of the corals and other organisms that comprise these ecosystems. Structured on a temporal axis—Past, Present and Future—the reviews and selected study cases cover the cold and deep coral habitats known to date in the Mediterranean Basin. This book illustrates and explains the deep Mediterranean coral habitats that might have originated similar thriving ecosystems in today’s Atlantic Ocean.
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Environmental Archaeology

Principles and Practice

Author: Dena F. Dincauze

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521310772

Category: Social Science

Page: 587

View: 2887

Archaeologists today need a wide range of scientific approaches in order to delineate and interpret the ecology of their sites. But borrowing concepts from other disciplines demands a critical understanding, and the methods must be appropriate to particular sets of data. This book is an authoritative and essential guide to methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, paleobotany and faunal paleoecology. Their applications are illustrated by examples from the Paleolithic, through classical civilizations, to urban archaeology.
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Encyclopedia of Ecology

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 008091456X

Category: Science

Page: 3120

View: 759

The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication
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Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals

Volume I:History, Geology, and Magnetostratigraphy

Author: Richard H Tedford,Zhan-Xiang Qiu,Lawrence J Flynn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048187141

Category: Science

Page: 109

View: 8648

The Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China embodies the bulk of our knowledge on successions of terrestrial vertebrates in the northern part of East Asia. Everything we know about Asian mammals of the last 6 million years has a historical basis in the documentation of the geology of Yushe. This volume introduces the basin in its geological setting, describes the succession of fossiliferous strata, and shows how it is dated. It develops an unsurpassed level of precision for its age control. Geological maps and stratigraphic sections provide the backbone for individual studies to follow on varied fossil groups. The volume explores the history of exploration of the last century in Yushe Basin and places development of paleontology there into the context of the birth of the modern epoch of science in China.
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Beyond the Catch

Fisheries of the North Atlantic, the North Sea and the Baltic, 900-1850

Author: Louis Sicking,Darlene Abreu-Ferreira

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004169733

Category: History

Page: 422

View: 5928

Drawing on archaeological and written sources, this collection of essays presents fascinating new interpretations in the history of the fisheries by highlighting the consequences of the northern fisheries through interdisciplinary approaches to various themes, including the environment, economy, politics, and society in the medieval and early modern periods.
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Vegetation Dynamics on the Mountains and Plateaus of the American Southwest

Author: John Vankat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940076149X

Category: Science

Page: 461

View: 4654

The book provides information essential for anyone interested in the ecology of the American Southwest, including land managers, environmental planners, conservationists, ecologists and students. It is unique in its coverage of the hows and whys of dynamics (changes) in the major types of vegetation occurring on southwestern mountains and plateaus. It explains the drivers and processes of change, describes historical changes and provides conceptual models that diagrammatically illustrate past, present, and potential future changes. All major types of vegetation are covered: spruce-fir, mixed conifer, and ponderosa pine forests, pinyon-juniper vegetation, subalpine-montane grassland, and Gambel oak and interior chaparral shrublands. The focus is on vegetation that is relatively undisturbed, i.e., in natural and near-natural condition, and how it responds to natural disturbances such as fire and drought, as well as to anthropogenic disturbances such as fire exclusion and invasive species
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The Quaternary Period in the United States

Author: A.R. Gillespie,S.C. Porter,B.F. Atwater

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080474098

Category: Science

Page: 594

View: 5486

This book reviews advances in understanding of the past ca. two million years of Earth history - the Quaternary Period - in the United States. It begins with sections on ice and water - as glaciers, permafrost, oceans, rivers, lakes, and aquifers. Six chapters are devoted to the high-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets, to mountain glaciations of the western United States, and to permafrost studies. Other chapters discuss ice-age lakes, caves, sea-level fluctuations, and riverine landscapes. With a chapter on landscape evolution models, the book turns to essays on geologic processes. Two chapters discuss soils and their responses to climate, and wind-blown sediments. Two more describe volcanoes and earthquakes, and the use of Quaternary geology to understand the hazards they pose. The next part of the book is on plants and animals. Five chapters consider the Quaternary history of vegetation in the United States. Other chapters treat forcing functions and vegetation response at different spatial and temporal scales, the role of fire as a catalyst of vegetation change during rapid climate shifts, and the use of tree rings in inferring age and past hydroclimatic conditions. Three chapters address vertebrate paleontology and the extinctions of large mammals at the end of the last glaciation, beetle assemblages and the inferences they permit about past conditions, and the peopling of North America. A final chapter addresses the numerical modeling of Quaternary climates, and the role paleoclimatic studies and climatic modeling has in predicting future response of the Earth's climate system to the changes we have wrought.
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Ecosystem Management for Parks and Wilderness

Author: James K Agee,James K. Agee,Darryll R. Johnson

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 9780295968179

Category: Nature

Page: 237

View: 9472

The need for cooperation among government agencies as well as an interdisciplinary approach to the increasingly challenging and complicated problem of managing park and wilderness areas prompted the University of Washington College of Forest Resources, the National Park Service, and the Forest Service to sponsor an ecosystem management workshop for scientists, planners, and managers. To develop an improved conceptual approach to managing change in ecosystems crossing natural and political boundaries, the workshop focused on defining terms, uncovering areas of misunderstanding and barriers to cooperation, and developing methods to determine the most important problems and issues. Three needs emerged from the prioritization process: a precise definition of the management objectives for park and wilderness lands and how to integrate them with objectives for surrounding lands, nationally as well as site-specific; more information about physical, biological, and social components of park and wilderness ecosystems from both sides of political boundaries; and key indicators of ecosystem condition as well as methods for evaluating management effectiveness. All of these common themes point to a need for more precise direction in management goal setting and more accurate assessment of progress toward goals. The book includes an introductory chapter by the editors and summary in which they outline a direction for ecosystem management in the next critical decades. The other chapters by individual contributors include studies on laws governing park and wilderness lands, paleoecological records that reveal the historic effects of climatic variations on vegetation change, succession and natural disturbance in relation to the problems of what can and should be preserved, managing ecosystems for large populations of vertebrates, the management of large carnivores, effects of air pollution, lake acidification, human ecology and environmental management, the role of economics, cooperation in ecosystem management, and management challenges in Yellowstone National Park.
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Collapse

How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised Edition

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101502006

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 5026

In Jared Diamond’s follow-up to the Pulitzer-Prize winning Guns, Germs and Steel, the author explores how climate change, the population explosion and political discord create the conditions for the collapse of civilization Environmental damage, climate change, globalization, rapid population growth, and unwise political choices were all factors in the demise of societies around the world, but some found solutions and persisted. As in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond traces the fundamental pattern of catastrophe, and weaves an all-encompassing global thesis through a series of fascinating historical-cultural narratives. Collapse moves from the Polynesian cultures on Easter Island to the flourishing American civilizations of the Anasazi and the Maya and finally to the doomed Viking colony on Greenland. Similar problems face us today and have already brought disaster to Rwanda and Haiti, even as China and Australia are trying to cope in innovative ways. Despite our own society’s apparently inexhaustible wealth and unrivaled political power, ominous warning signs have begun to emerge even in ecologically robust areas like Montana. Brilliant, illuminating, and immensely absorbing, Collapse is destined to take its place as one of the essential books of our time, raising the urgent question: How can our world best avoid committing ecological suicide? From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Climate Change and Biodiversity

Author: Thomas E. Lovejoy

Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)

ISBN: 9788179930847

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 418

View: 7301

climate changes have had dramatic repercussions, including large numbers of extinctions and extensive shifts in species ranges
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