Optical Systems for Soft X Rays

Author: A.G. Michette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461322235

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 4984

A fundamental problem in cell biology is the cause of aging. The solution to this problem has not yet been obtained because,(l) until recently, it was not possible to image living cells directly. The use of low-energy (soft) X rays has made such imaging possible, perhaps thereby allowing the aging process to be understood and possibly overcome (a result that may well generate further social, moral, and ethical problems). Fortun ately this is not the only aspect of cell biology amenable to soft X-ray imaging, and it is envisaged that many less controversial studies--such as investigations of the detailed differences between healthy and diseased or malignant cells (in their natural states) and processes of cell division and growth-will be made possible. The use of soft X rays is not limited to biological studies-many applications are possible in, for example, fusion research, materials science, and astronomy. Such studies have only recently begun in earnest because several difficulties had to be overcome, major among these being the lack (for some purposes) of sufficiently intense sources, and the technological difficulties associated with making efficient optical systems. As is well known, the advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources, in particular, has alleviated the first of these difficulties, not just for the soft X-ray region. It is the purpose of this book to consider progress in the second.
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Soft X-ray Optics

Author: Eberhard Spiller

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819416544

Category: Science

Page: 278

View: 2804

This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction. Some of these structures can now be fabricated to have diffraction-limited resolution. The new possibilities are described in a simple, tutorial way.
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Optical Technologies for Extreme-Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Coherent Sources

Author: Federico Canova,Luca Poletto

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662474433

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 197

View: 6182

The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.
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Optical Engineering

The Journal of the Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Optical instruments

Page: N.A

View: 6121

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Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics

Author: Alexei Erko,Mourad Idir,Thomas Krist,Alan G. Michette

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540745602

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 534

View: 2340

This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.
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Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation

Principles and Applications

Author: David Attwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139643428

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 5239

This detailed, comprehensive book describes the fundamental properties of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and discusses their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft X-ray biomicroscopy. The author begins by presenting the relevant basic principles such as radiation and scattering, wave propagation, diffraction, and coherence. He then goes on to examine a broad range of phenomena and applications. The topics covered include spectromicroscopy, EUV astronomy, synchrotron radiation, and soft X-ray lasers. The author also provides a wealth of useful reference material such as electron binding energies, characteristic emission lines and photo-absorption cross-sections. The book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences. It will also appeal to practising engineers involved in semiconductor fabrication and materials science.
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Soft X-ray microscopy

19-21 July 1992, San Diego, California

Author: Chris J. Jacobsen,James E. Trebes,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers

Publisher: Society of Photo Optical

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 5122

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Gratings, Mirrors and Slits

Beamline Design for Soft X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Sources

Author: W B Peatman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789056990282

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 228

View: 3242

Intended to provide scientists and engineers at synchrotron radiation facilities with a sound and convenient basis for designing beamlines for monochromatic soft x-ray radiation, this text will also be helpful to the users of synchrotron radiation who want to help ensure that beamlines being built are optimized for the experiments to be performed on them. The primary purpose of a beamline is to capture as much of the light of the source as possible and then to transfer the desired portion of that light as completely as possible to the experiment. With the development of dedicated, brilliant synchrotron radiation sources, the first half of the task has been greatly simplified. The beamline designer must contend with the second half of the problem -- conserving the brilliance of the source through an optical system which monochromatizes and focuses the radiation.
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Handbook of Optics Third Edition, 5 Volume Set

Author: Optical Society of America

Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

ISBN: 0071753427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 5600

View: 9373

The most comprehensive and up-to-date optics resource available Prepared under the auspices of the Optical Society of America, the five carefully architected and cross-referenced volumes of the Handbook of Optics, Third Edition, contain everything a student, scientist, or engineer requires to actively work in the field. From the design of complex optical systems to world-class research and development methods, this definitive publication provides unparalleled access to the fundamentals of the discipline and its greatest minds. Individual chapters are written by the world's most renowned experts who explain, illustrate, and solve the entire field of optics. Each volume contains a complete chapter listing for the entire Handbook, extensive chapter glossaries, and a wealth of references. This pioneering work offers unprecedented coverage of optics data, techniques, and applications. Volume I covers geometrical and physical optics, polarized light, components, and instruments. Volume II covers design, fabrications, testing, sources, detectors, radiometry, and photometry. Volume III, all in full color, covers vision and vision optics. Volume IV covers optical properties of materials, nonlinear optics, and quantum optics. Volume V covers atmospheric optics, modulators, fiber optics, and x-ray and neutron optics. Visit www.HandbookofOpticsOnline.com to search all five volumes and download a comprehensive index.
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Laser-generated, synchrotron, and other laboratory X-ray and EUV sources, optics, and applications II

2-4 August 2005, San Diego, California, USA

Author: George A. Kyrala

Publisher: Society of Photo Optical

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 4099

Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.
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Trends in Optics

Research, Developments, and Applications

Author: Anna Consortini

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080543253

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 587

View: 5740

Anna Consortini, The President of the International Commission for Optics (ICO), has accommodated a broad spectrum of optical science topics in Trends in Optics. This book, a compilation of research reviews written by outstanding figures in the field of optics, is aimed not only at specialists in the optical sciences, but also at scientists in other fields who might want to broaden their knowledge of optics. The latest developments in this rapidly progressing field are described, and new applications are detailed--including some previously undisclosed material on the U.S. 'Star Wars project. Authoritative and approachable, this volume should provide comprehensive insight into the ever-expanding optical sciences. Key Features * Edited by the president of the International Commission for Optics * Includes research reviews written by experts in the field * Compiles a wide range of topics in optical science
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X-Ray Lasers 2006

Proceedings of the 10th International Conference, August 20-25, 2006, Berlin, Germany

Author: P.V. Nickles,K.A. Janulewicz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402060182

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 723

View: 5075

The search for table-top and repetitive pump schemes during the last decade has been the driving force behind the spectacular advances demonstrated during the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, organized in 2006 in Berlin. The proceedings of this series of conferences constitute a comprehensive source of reference of the acknowledged state-of the-art in this specific area of laser and plasma physics.
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X-Ray Lasers 2012

Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, 11–15 June 2012, Paris, France

Author: Stéphane Sebban,Julien Gautier,David Ros,Philippe Zeitoun

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319006967

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 290

View: 371

These proceedings comprise of invited and contributed papers presented at the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2012) which was held 11–15 June 2012 in Paris, France, in the famous Quartier Latin, inside the historical Center of Cordeliers. This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense coherent x-rays and progress towards practical devices and their applications are reported in these proceedings, including areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation. Recent achievements related to the increase of the repetition rate up to 100 Hz and shorter wavelength collisional plasma-based soft x-ray lasers down to about 7 nm are presented. Seeding the amplifying plasma with a femtosecond high-order harmonic of infrared laser was foreseen as the required breakthrough to break the picosecond frontier. Numerical simulations based on the Maxwell-Bloch model are presented in these proceedings, transposing the chirped pulse amplification technique to the x-ray domain in order to increase the time over which the femtosecond seed can be amplified. These proceedings also include innovative applications of soft x–ray lasers based on techniques and diagnostics relevant to topical domains such as EUV lithography, inertial confinement fusion, or warm dense matter physics.
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Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

New Trends

Author: Eric Beaurepaire,Hervé Bulou,Fabrice Scheurer,Kappler Jean-Paul

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642044980

Category: Science

Page: 421

View: 5035

Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.
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Quantum Nonlinear Optics

Author: Eiichi Hanamura,Yutaka Kawabe,Akio Yamanaka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540684840

Category: Science

Page: 231

View: 7152

This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, and mutual manipulation of light and matter. It also covers laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. In addition, latest results of the frontier of this science are presented. Problems and solutions help the reader to master and review the material.
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High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Cosmic Plasmas

IAU Colloquium 115

Author: International Astronomical Union. Colloquium,Paul Gorenstein,Martin V. Zombeck

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521370189

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 5345

This book gives an account of the proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Colloquium 115: High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Cosmic Plasmas. This was the first IAU meeting dedicated to high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of objects outside the solar system. A broad range of objects and astrophysical conditions are discussed. Results from the first generation of satellites with spectroscopic capability, i.e. the Einstein Observatory, EXOSAT, and Tenma, are reviewed from a perspective of a more precise interpretation allowed by improved theoretical models and plasma diagnostics. Laboratory and solar X-ray results that model or are relevant to conditions found in cosmic X-ray sources are also presented. The colloquium presents a forum for discussion of scientific objectives of new international missions in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy.
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Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080860213

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 2159

This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography. Key Features * Aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field * Contains a detailed chapter on laboratory sources * Provides an up-to-date description of state-of-the-art equipment and techniques * Includes a broad reference bibliography
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