On Quaternions and Octonions

Author: John H. Conway,Derek A. Smith

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439864187

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 1497

This book investigates the geometry of quaternion and octonion algebras. Following a comprehensive historical introduction, the book illuminates the special properties of 3- and 4-dimensional Euclidean spaces using quaternions, leading to enumerations of the corresponding finite groups of symmetries. The second half of the book discusses the less familiar octonion algebra, concentrating on its remarkable "triality symmetry" after an appropriate study of Moufang loops. The authors also describe the arithmetics of the quaternions and octonions. The book concludes with a new theory of octonion factorization. Topics covered include the geometry of complex numbers, quaternions and 3-dimensional groups, quaternions and 4-dimensional groups, Hurwitz integral quaternions, composition algebras, Moufang loops, octonions and 8-dimensional geometry, integral octonions, and the octonion projective plane.

Octonions, Jordan Algebras and Exceptional Groups

Author: Tonny A. Springer,Ferdinand D. Veldkamp

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662126222

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 2261

The 1963 Göttingen notes of T. A. Springer are well known in the field but have been unavailable for some time. This book is a translation of those notes, completely updated and revised. The part of the book dealing with the algebraic structures is on a fairly elementary level, presupposing basic results from algebra.

Topological Geometrodynamics

Author: Matti Pitkanen

Publisher: Luniver Press

ISBN: 0955117089

Category: Science

Page: 824

View: 5988

Topological GeometroDynamics is a modification of general relativity inspired by the conceptual problems related to the definitions of inertial and gravitational energy in general relativity. Topological geometrodynamics can be also seen as a generalization of super string models. Physical space-times are seen as four-dimensional surfaces in certain eight-dimensional space. The choice of this space is fixed by symmetries of the standard model so that geometrization of known classical fields and elementary particle quantum numbers results. The notion of many-sheeted space-time allows re-interpretation of the structures of perceived world in terms of macroscopic space-time topology. The generalization of the number concept based on fusion of real numbers and p-adic number fields implies a further generalization of the space-time concept allowing to identify space-time correlates of cognition and intentionality. Quantum measurement theory extended to a quantum theory of consciousness becomes an organic part of theory. A highly non-trivial prediction is the existence of a fractal hierarchy of copies of standard model physics with dark matter identified in terms of macroscopic quantum phases characterized by dynamical and quantized Planck constant. The book is a comprehensive overview and analysis of topological geometrodynamics as a mathematical and physical theory.

The Geometry of the Octonions

Author: Tevian Dray,Corinne A. Manogue

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981440182X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 228

View: 8801

There are precisely two further generalizations of the real and complex numbers, namely, the quaternions and the octonions. The quaternions naturally describe rotations in three dimensions. In fact, all (continuous) symmetry groups are based on one of these four number systems. This book provides an elementary introduction to the properties of the octonions, with emphasis on their geometric structure. Elementary applications covered include the rotation groups and their spacetime generalization, the Lorentz group, as well as the eigenvalue problem for Hermitian matrices. In addition, more sophisticated applications include the exceptional Lie groups, octonionic projective spaces, and applications to particle physics including the remarkable fact that classical supersymmetry only exists in particular spacetime dimensions.Contents: Introduction"Number Systems: "The Geometry of the Complex NumbersThe Geometry of the QuaternionsThe Geometry of the OctonionsOther Number Systems"Symmetry Groups: "Some Orthogonal GroupsSome Unitary GroupsSome Symplectic GroupsSymmetry Groups over Other Division AlgebrasLie Groups and Lie AlgebrasThe Exceptional Groups"Applications: "Division Algebras in MathematicsOctonionic Eigenvalue ProblemsThe Physics of the OctonionsMagic Squares Readership: Advanced ubdergraduate and graduate students and faculty in mathematics and physics; non-experts with moderately sophisticated mathematics background. Key Features: This book is easily digestible by a large audience wanting to know the elementary introduction to octanionsSuitable for any reader with a grasp of the complex numbers, although familiarity with non-octonionic versions of some of the other topics would be helpfulMany open problems are very accessibleAdvanced topics covered are quite sophisticated, leading up to a clear discussion of (one representation of) the exceptional Lie algebras and their associated root diagrams, and of the octonionic projective spaces on which they act

On the Role of Division, Jordan and Related Algebras in Particle Physics

Author: Feza Grsey,Chia-Hsiung Tze

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810228637

Category: Science

Page: 461

View: 9892

This monograph surveys the role of some associative and non-associative algebras, remarkable by their ubiquitous appearance in contemporary theoretical physics, particularly in particle physics. It concerns the interplay between division algebras, specifically quaternions and octonions, between Jordan and related algebras on the one hand, and unified theories of the basic interactions on the other. Selected applications of these algebraic structures are discussed: quaternion analyticity of Yang-Mills instantons, octonionic aspects of exceptional broken gauge, supergravity theories, division algebras in anyonic phenomena and in theories of extended objects in critical dimensions. The topics presented deal primarily with original contributions by the authors.


Author: Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus,Hans Hermes,Friedrich Hirzebruch,Max Koecher,Klaus Mainzer,Jürgen Neukirch,Alexander Prestel,Reinhold Remmert

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642971229

Category: Mathematics

Page: 337

View: 7243

Aus den Besprechungen: "Ein Mathematikbuch der Superlativen, für Mathematiker (jeder Schattierung) und Nichtmathematiker (denen völlig unbekannte Dimensionen der Mathematik eröffnet werden - künstlerische, magische, historische, philosophische, wissenschaftstheoretische, "unlogische", phantasieerfüllte usw.). Der Aufbau ist meisterhaft, die Lektüre höchst anregend und leicht lesbar." Monatshefte für Mathematik #1 "Ein gelungenes Werk, das dem Vorurteil entgegenwirkt, Mathematik bestehe nur aus isolierten Theorien." Die NEUE HOCHSCHULE #1 "Das Lesen ist ein Genuß, den man sich nicht entgehen lassen sollte." Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung #1


Author: Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus,Hans Hermes,Friedrich Hirzebruch,Max Koecher,Klaus Mainzer,Jürgen Neukirch,Alexander Prestel,Reinhold Remmert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461210054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 398

View: 5661

This book is about all kinds of numbers, from rationals to octonians, reals to infinitesimals. It is a story about a major thread of mathematics over thousands of years, and it answers everything from why Hamilton was obsessed with quaternions to what the prospect was for quaternionic analysis in the 19th century. It glimpses the mystery surrounding imaginary numbers in the 17th century and views some major developments of the 20th century.

Introduction to Octonion and Other Non-Associative Algebras in Physics

Author: Susumo Okubo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521472159

Category: Science

Page: 136

View: 2439

In this book, the author applies non-associative algebras to physics. Okubo covers topics ranging from algebras of observables in quantum mechanics and angular momentum and octonions to division algebra, triple-linear products and YangSHBaxter equations. He also discusses the non-associative gauge theoretic reformulation of Einstein's general relativity theory. Much of the material found in this volume is not available in other works. The book will therefore be of great interest to graduate students and research scientists in physics and mathematics.

Analysis of Dirac Systems and Computational Algebra

Author: Fabrizio Colombo,Irene Sabadini,Franciscus Sommen,Daniele C. Struppa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817642556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 8959

* The main treatment is devoted to the analysis of systems of linear partial differential equations (PDEs) with constant coefficients, focusing attention on null solutions of Dirac systems * All the necessary classical material is initially presented * Geared toward graduate students and researchers in (hyper)complex analysis, Clifford analysis, systems of PDEs with constant coefficients, and mathematical physics

The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 4A

Combinatorial Algorithms

Author: Donald E. Knuth

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0133488853

Category: Computers

Page: 912

View: 2592

The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 4A: Combinatorial Algorithms, Part 1 Knuth’s multivolume analysis of algorithms is widely recognized as the definitive description of classical computer science. The first three volumes of this work have long comprised a unique and invaluable resource in programming theory and practice. Scientists have marveled at the beauty and elegance of Knuth’s analysis, while practicing programmers have successfully applied his “cookbook” solutions to their day-to-day problems. The level of these first three volumes has remained so high, and they have displayed so wide and deep a familiarity with the art of computer programming, that a sufficient “review” of future volumes could almost be: “Knuth, Volume n has been published.” —Data Processing Digest Knuth, Volume n has been published, where n = 4A. In this long-awaited new volume, the old master turns his attention to some of his favorite topics in broadword computation and combinatorial generation (exhaustively listing fundamental combinatorial objects, such as permutations, partitions, and trees), as well as his more recent interests, such as binary decision diagrams. The hallmark qualities that distinguish his previous volumes are manifest here anew: detailed coverage of the basics, illustrated with well-chosen examples; occasional forays into more esoteric topics and problems at the frontiers of research; impeccable writing peppered with occasional bits of humor; extensive collections of exercises, all with solutions or helpful hints; a careful attention to history; implementations of many of the algorithms in his classic step-by-step form. There is an amazing amount of information on each page. Knuth has obviously thought long and hard about which topics and results are most central and important, and then, what are the most intuitive and succinct ways of presenting that material. Since the areas that he covers in this volume have exploded since he first envisioned writing about them, it is wonderful how he has managed to provide such thorough treatment in so few pages. —Frank Ruskey, Department of Computer Science, University of Victoria The book is Volume 4A, because Volume 4 has itself become a multivolume undertaking. Combinatorial searching is a rich and important topic, and Knuth has too much to say about it that is new, interesting, and useful to fit into a single volume, or two, or maybe even three. This book alone includes approximately 1500 exercises, with answers for self-study, plus hundreds of useful facts that cannot be found in any other publication. Volume 4A surely belongs beside the first three volumes of this classic work in every serious programmer’s library. Finally, after a wait of more than thirty-five years, the first part of Volume 4 is at last ready for publication. Check out the boxed set that brings together Volumes 1 - 4A in one elegant case, and offers the purchaser a $50 discount off the price of buying the four volumes individually. The Art of Computer Programming, Volumes 1-4A Boxed Set, 3/e ISBN: 0321751043

Gewinnen Strategien für mathematische Spiele

Band 4 Solitairspiele

Author: Elwyn R. Berlekamp,John H. Conway,Richard K. Guy

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322831736

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 159

View: 2373

Der vierte Band ,,Solitairspiele" behandelt Ein-Personen-Spiele mit Ausnahme von Schach, Go etc. Ein Hauptteil ist dem berühmten ,,Game of Life" gewidmet.

The Beauty of Physics: Patterns, Principles, and Perspectives

Author: A. R. P. Rau

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191019895

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 3447

The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, there are not even any concrete material particles, only electric and magnetic fields executing simple harmonic motion. But, to a physicist, they are all "just a pendulum". The selection of topics reflects the author's own four-decade career in research physics and his resultant perspective on the subject. While aimed primarily at physicists, including junior students, this book also addresses other readers who are willing to think with symbols and simple algebra in understanding the physical world around us. Each chapter, on themes such as dimensions, transformations, symmetries, or maps, begins with simple examples accessible to all while connecting them later to more sophisticated realizations in more advanced topics of physics.

Hypercomplex Analysis

Author: Irene Sabadini,Michael Shapiro,Franciscus Sommen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3764398930

Category: Mathematics

Page: 289

View: 9260

Contains selected papers from the ISAAC conference 2007 and invited contributions. This book covers various topics that represent the main streams of research in hypercomplex analysis as well as the expository articles. It is suitable for researchers and postgraduate students in various areas of mathematical analysis.

Relativistic Reality

A Modern View

Author: J. D. Edmonds

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812796103

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 1585

It now appears that the old argument about Lorentz vs Galileo relativity is passing into history. The Lorentz symmetry may soon become obsolete itself just as the Galileo symmetry did about 1900. The tremendous successes of QED represent real progress in our quest to understand nature. The answer is not to go as most OC outsidersOCO but to go forward OCo beyond to new ideas and equations that will match nature even better than QED does. This book shows us a new view of relativity and quantum equations. It has new equations that extend Lorentz Maxwell and Dirac."

Gradings on Simple Lie Algebras

Author: Alberto Elduque,Mikhail Kochetov

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821898469

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 4204

Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of $E_8$ as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

Computational Noncommutative Algebra and Applications

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, on Computatoinal Noncommutative Algebra and Applications, Il Ciocco, Italy, 6-19 July 2003

Author: Jim Byrnes,Gerald Ostheimer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402019821

Category: Mathematics

Page: 428

View: 4539

The fusion of algebra, analysis and geometry, and their application to real world problems, have been dominant themes underlying mathematics for over a century. Geometric algebras, introduced and classified by Clifford in the late 19th century, have played a prominent role in this effort, as seen in the mathematical work of Cartan, Brauer, Weyl, Chevelley, Atiyah, and Bott, and in applications to physics in the work of Pauli, Dirac and others. One of the most important applications of geometric algebras to geometry is to the representation of groups of Euclidean and Minkowski rotations. This aspect and its direct relation to robotics and vision will be discussed in several chapters of this multi-authored textbook, which resulted from the ASI meeting. Moreover, group theory, beginning with the work of Burnside, Frobenius and Schur, has been influenced by even more general problems. As a result, general group actions have provided the setting for powerful methods within group theory and for the use of groups in applications to physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and signal processing. These aspects, too, will be covered in detail. With the rapidly growing importance of, and ever expanding conceptual and computational demands on signal and image processing in remote sensing, computer vision, medical image processing, and biological signal processing, and on neural and quantum computing, geometric algebras, and computational group harmonic analysis, the topics of the book have emerged as key tools. The list of authors includes many of the world's leading experts in the development of new algebraic modeling and signal representation methodologies, novel Fourier-based and geometric transforms, and computational algorithms required for realizing the potential of these new application fields.