On Numbers and Games

Author: John H. Conway

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781568811277

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 4864

ONAG, as the book is commonly known, is one of those rare publications that sprang to life in a moment of creative energy and has remained influential for over a quarter of a century. Originally written to define the relation between the theories of transfinite numbers and mathematical games, the resulting work is a mathematically sophisticated but eminently enjoyable guide to game theory. By defining numbers as the strengths of positions in certain games, the author arrives at a new class, the surreal numbers, that includes both real numbers and ordinal numbers. These surreal numbers are applied in the author's mathematical analysis of game strategies. The additions to the Second Edition present recent developments in the area of mathematical game theory, with a concentration on surreal numbers and the additive theory of partizan games.
Release

On Numbers and Games

Author: John H. Conway

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439864152

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 3468

ONAG, as the book is commonly known, is one of those rare publications that sprang to life in a moment of creative energy and has remained influential for over a quarter of a century. Originally written to define the relation between the theories of transfinite numbers and mathematical games, the resulting work is a mathematically sophisticated but eminently enjoyable guide to game theory. By defining numbers as the strengths of positions in certain games, the author arrives at a new class, the surreal numbers, that includes both real numbers and ordinal numbers. These surreal numbers are applied in the author's mathematical analysis of game strategies. The additions to the Second Edition present recent developments in the area of mathematical game theory, with a concentration on surreal numbers and the additive theory of partizan games.
Release

On numbers and games

Author: John Horton Conway

Publisher: Academic Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 399

Release

The Book of Numbers

Author: John H. Conway,Richard Guy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461240727

Category: Mathematics

Page: 310

View: 1061

"...the great feature of the book is that anyone can read it without excessive head scratching...You'll find plenty here to keep you occupied, amused, and informed. Buy, dip in, wallow." -IAN STEWART, NEW SCIENTIST "...a delightful look at numbers and their roles in everything from language to flowers to the imagination." -SCIENCE NEWS "...a fun and fascinating tour of numerical topics and concepts. It will have readers contemplating ideas they might never have thought were understandable or even possible." -WISCONSIN BOOKWATCH "This popularization of number theory looks like another classic." -LIBRARY JOURNAL
Release

An Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory

Author: Paul Teller

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691016276

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 7779

In a critically acclaimed work, philosophy professor Paul Teller lays forth the basic ideas of quantum field theory in a way that is understandable to readers who are familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Teller challenges philosophers to extend their thinking beyond the realm of quantum mechanics; and he challenges physicists to consider the philosophical issues that their explorations have encouraged.
Release

Surreal Numbers

How Two Ex-students Turned on to Pure Mathematics and Found Total Happiness : a Mathematical Novelette

Author: Donald Ervin Knuth

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201038125

Category: Computers

Page: 119

View: 7326

Nearly 30 years ago, John Horton Conway introduced a new way to construct numbers. Donald E. Knuth, in appreciation of this revolutionary system, took a week off from work on The Art of Computer Programming to write an introduction to Conway's method. Never content with the ordinary, Knuth wrote this introduction as a work of fiction--a novelette. If not a steamy romance, the book nonetheless shows how a young couple turned on to pure mathematics and found total happiness. The book's primary aim, Knuth explains in a postscript, is not so much to teach Conway's theory as "to teach how one might go about developing such a theory." He continues: "Therefore, as the two characters in this book gradually explore and build up Conway's number system, I have recorded their false starts and frustrations as well as their good ideas. I wanted to give a reasonably faithful portrayal of the important principles, techniques, joys, passions, and philosophy of mathematics, so I wrote the story as I was actually doing the research myself...". It is an astonishing feat of legerdemain. An empty hat rests on a table made of a few axioms of standard set theory. Conway waves two simple rules in the air, then reaches into almost nothing and pulls out an infinitely rich tapestry of numbers that form a real and closed field. Every real number is surrounded by a host of new numbers that lie closer to it than any other "real" value does. The system is truly "surreal." quoted from Martin Gardner, Mathematical Magic Show, pp. 16--19 Surreal Numbers, now in its 13th printing, will appeal to anyone who might enjoy an engaging dialogue on abstract mathematical ideas, and who might wish to experience how new mathematics is created. 0201038129B04062001
Release

Numbers and the Making of Us

Counting and the Course of Human Cultures

Author: Caleb Everett

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674504437

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 312

View: 5004

Number concepts are a human invention developed and refined over millennia. They allow us to grasp quantities precisely: recent research shows that most specific quantities are not perceived in the absence of a number system. Numbers are not innate or universal; yet without them, the world as we know it would not exist.
Release

Combinatorial Game Theory

Author: Aaron N. Siegel

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082185190X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 523

View: 7030

Combinatorial game theory is the study of two-player games with no hidden information and no chance elements. The theory assigns algebraic values to positions in such games and seeks to quantify the algebraic and combinatorial structure of their interactions. Its modern form was introduced thirty years ago, with the publication of the classic Winning Ways for Your Mathematical Plays by Berlekamp, Conway, and Guy, and interest has rapidly increased in recent decades. This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the subject, tracing its development from first principles and examples through many of its most recent advances. Roughly half the book is devoted to a rigorous treatment of the classical theory; the remaining material is an in-depth presentation of topics that appear for the first time in textbook form, including the theory of misère quotients and Berlekamp's generalized temperature theory. Packed with hundreds of examples and exercises and meticulously cross-referenced, Combinatorial Game Theory will appeal equally to students, instructors, and research professionals. More than forty open problems and conjectures are mentioned in the text, highlighting the many mysteries that still remain in this young and exciting field. Aaron Siegel holds a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley and has held positions at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Institute for Advanced Study. He was a partner at Berkeley Quantitative, a technology-driven hedge fund, and is presently employed by Twitter, Inc.
Release

Lessons in Play

An Introduction to Combinatorial Game Theory

Author: Michael Albert,Richard Nowakowski,David Wolfe

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439864373

Category: Mathematics

Page: 304

View: 7825

Combinatorial games are games of pure strategy involving two players, with perfect information and no element of chance. Starting from the very basics of gameplay and strategy, the authors cover a wide range of topics, from game algebra to special classes of games. Classic techniques are introduced and applied in novel ways to analyze both old and new games, several appearing for the first time in this book.
Release

Mathemagic

Magic, Puzzles and Games with Numbers

Author: Royal V. Heath

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486201104

Category: Games & Activities

Page: 126

View: 1406

Includes elementary puzzles, number stunts, mental multiplication, interest rates, oddities, and more.
Release

Game of Life Cellular Automata

Author: Andrew Adamatzky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781849962179

Category: Computers

Page: 579

View: 4518

In the late 1960s British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells’ states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway’s Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational, mathematical, physical and engineering aspects of The Game of Life cellular automata. Selected topics include phenomenology and statistical behaviour; space-time dynamics on Penrose tilling and hyperbolic spaces; generation of music; algebraic properties; modelling of financial markets; semi-quantum extensions; predicting emergence; dual-graph based analysis; fuzzy, limit behaviour and threshold scaling; evolving cell-state transition rules; localization dynamics in quasi-chemical analogues of GoL; self-organisation towards criticality; asynochrous implementations. The volume is unique because it gives a comprehensive presentation of the theoretical and experimental foundations, cutting-edge computation techniques and mathematical analysis of the fabulously complex, self-organized and emergent phenomena defined by incredibly simple rules.
Release

Understanding Numbers in Elementary School Mathematics

Author: Hung-Hsi Wu,Hongxi Wu

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821852604

Category: Mathematics

Page: 551

View: 8243

This is a textbook for pre-service elementary school teachers and for current teachers who are taking professional development courses. By emphasizing the precision of mathematics, the exposition achieves a logical and coherent account of school mathematics at the appropriate level for the readership. Wu provides a comprehensive treatment of all the standard topics about numbers in the school mathematics curriculum: whole numbers, fractions, and rational numbers. Assuming no previous knowledge of mathematics, the presentation develops the basic facts about numbers from the beginning and thoroughly covers the subject matter for grades K through 7. Every single assertion is established in the context of elementary school mathematics in a manner that is completely consistent with the basic requirements of mathematics. While it is a textbook for pre-service elementary teachers, it is also a reference book that school teachers can refer to for explanations of well-known but hitherto unexplained facts. For example, the sometimes-puzzling concepts of percent, ratio, and rate are each given a treatment that is down to earth and devoid of mysticism. The fact that a negative times a negative is a positive is explained in a leisurely and comprehensible fashion.
Release

Wonders of Numbers

Adventures in Mathematics, Mind, and Meaning

Author: Clifford A. Pickover

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195348002

Category: Mathematics

Page: 417

View: 614

Who were the five strangest mathematicians in history? What are the ten most interesting numbers? Jam-packed with thought-provoking mathematical mysteries, puzzles, and games, Wonders of Numbers will enchant even the most left-brained of readers. Hosted by the quirky Dr. Googol--who resides on a remote island and occasionally collaborates with Clifford Pickover--Wonders of Numbers focuses on creativity and the delight of discovery. Here is a potpourri of common and unusual number theory problems of varying difficulty--each presented in brief chapters that convey to readers the essence of the problem rather than its extraneous history. Peppered throughout with illustrations that clarify the problems, Wonders of Numbers also includes fascinating "math gossip." How would we use numbers to communicate with aliens? Check out Chapter 30. Did you know that there is a Numerical Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder? You'll find it in Chapter 45. From the beautiful formula of India's most famous mathematician to the Leviathan number so big it makes a trillion look small, Dr. Googol's witty and straightforward approach to numbers will entice students, educators, and scientists alike to pick up a pencil and work a problem.
Release

The Symmetries of Things

Author: John H. Conway,Heidi Burgiel,Chaim Goodman-Strauss

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439864896

Category: Mathematics

Page: 448

View: 5697

Start with a single shape. Repeat it in some way—translation, reflection over a line, rotation around a point—and you have created symmetry. Symmetry is a fundamental phenomenon in art, science, and nature that has been captured, described, and analyzed using mathematical concepts for a long time. Inspired by the geometric intuition of Bill Thurston and empowered by his own analytical skills, John Conway, with his coauthors, has developed a comprehensive mathematical theory of symmetry that allows the description and classification of symmetries in numerous geometric environments. This richly and compellingly illustrated book addresses the phenomenological, analytical, and mathematical aspects of symmetry on three levels that build on one another and will speak to interested lay people, artists, working mathematicians, and researchers.
Release

Numbers

Author: Heinz-Dieter Ebbinghaus,Hans Hermes,Friedrich Hirzebruch,Max Koecher,Klaus Mainzer,Jürgen Neukirch,Alexander Prestel,Reinhold Remmert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461210054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 398

View: 9676

This book is about all kinds of numbers, from rationals to octonians, reals to infinitesimals. It is a story about a major thread of mathematics over thousands of years, and it answers everything from why Hamilton was obsessed with quaternions to what the prospect was for quaternionic analysis in the 19th century. It glimpses the mystery surrounding imaginary numbers in the 17th century and views some major developments of the 20th century.
Release

A Brief History of Numbers

Author: Leo Corry

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198702590

Category: Mathematics

Page: 309

View: 1885

The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the mathematics of the 18th to the early 20th century. Focusing on both foundational debates and practical use numbers, and showing how the story of numbers is intimately linked to that of the idea of equation, this book provides a valuable insight to numbers for undergraduate students, teachers, engineers, professional mathematicians, and anyone with an interest in the history of mathematics.
Release