No Right to Be Idle

The Invention of Disability, 1840s–1930s

Author: Sarah F. Rose

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469624907

Category: Political Science

Page: 398

View: 7265

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Americans with all sorts of disabilities came to be labeled as "unproductive citizens." Before that, disabled people had contributed as they were able in homes, on farms, and in the wage labor market, reflecting the fact that Americans had long viewed productivity as a spectrum that varied by age, gender, and ability. But as Sarah F. Rose explains in No Right to Be Idle, a perfect storm of public policies, shifting family structures, and economic changes effectively barred workers with disabilities from mainstream workplaces and simultaneously cast disabled people as morally questionable dependents in need of permanent rehabilitation to achieve "self-care" and "self-support." By tracing the experiences of policymakers, employers, reformers, and disabled people caught up in this epochal transition, Rose masterfully integrates disability history and labor history. She shows how people with disabilities lost access to paid work and the status of "worker--a shift that relegated them and their families to poverty and second-class economic and social citizenship. This has vast consequences for debates about disability, work, poverty, and welfare in the century to come.

No Right to Be Idle

The Invention of Disability, 1850-1930

Author: Sarah Rose

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781469630083

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 3044

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a major transformation was occurring in many spheres of society: people with every sort of disability were increasingly being marginalized, excluded, and incarcerated. Disabled but still productive factory workers were being fired, and developmentally disabled individuals who had previously contributed domestic or agricultural labor in homes or on farms were being sent to institutions and poorhouses. In this book, Sarah F. Rose pinpoints the origins and ramifications of this sea change in American society, exploring the ways that public policy removed the disabled from the category of "deserving" recipients of public assistance, transforming them into a group requiring rehabilitation in order to achieve "self-care" and "self-support." By tracing the experiences of advocates, program innovators, and disabled people caught up in this epochal transition, Rose masterfully integrates disability history and labor history. She shows how disabled people and their families were relegated to poverty and second-class economic and social citizenship. This has vast consequences for debates about disability, poverty, and welfare in the century to come.

The Routledge History of Disability

Author: Roy Hanes,Ivan Brown,Nancy E. Hansen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351774034

Category: History

Page: 514

View: 5660

The Routledge History of Disability explores the shifting attitudes towards and representations of disabled people from the age of antiquity to the twenty-first century. Taking an international view of the subject, this wide-ranging collection shows that the history of disability cuts across racial, ethnic, religious, cultural, gender and class divides, highlighting the commonalities and differences between the experiences of disabled persons in global historical context. The book is arranged in four parts, covering histories of disabilities across various time periods and cultures, histories of national disability policies, programs and services, histories of education and training and the ways in which disabled people have been seen and treated in the last few decades. Within this, the twenty-eight chapters discuss topics such as developments in disability issues during the late Ottoman period, the history of disability in Belgian Congo in the early twentieth century, blind asylums in nineteenth-century Scotland and the systematic killing of disabled children in Nazi Germany. Illustrated with images and tables and providing an overview of how various countries, cultures and societies have addressed disability over time, this comprehensive volume offers a global perspective on this rapidly growing field and is a valuable resource for scholars of disability studies and histories of disabilities.

Mental Retardation in America

A Historical Reader

Author: Steven Noll,James Trent

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814782485

Category: History

Page: 513

View: 2529

A collection of essays and documents chronicilizing the history of treatment, labeling, and understanding of mental retardating in the U.S. NYUP is one the forefront of publishing in disability studies.

Replaceable You

Engineering the Body in Postwar America

Author: David Serlin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226748839

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 244

View: 645

After World War II, the United States underwent a massive cultural transformation that was vividly realized in the development and widespread use of new medical technologies. Plastic surgery, wonder drugs, artificial organs, and prosthetics inspired Americans to believe in a new age of modern medical miracles. The nationalistic pride that flourished in postwar society, meanwhile, encouraged many Americans to put tremendous faith in the power of medicine to rehabilitate and otherwise transform the lives and bodies of the disabled and those considered abnormal. Replaceable You revisits this heady era in American history to consider how these medical technologies and procedures were used to advance the politics of conformity during the 1950s.

Framing the moron

The social construction of feeble-mindedness in the American eugenic era

Author: Gerald V O'Brien

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 1526103427

Category: History

Page: 203

View: 3877

Many people are shocked upon discovering that tens of thousands of innocent persons in the United States were involuntarily sterilized, forced into institutions, and otherwise maltreated within the course of the eugenic movement (190030). Such social control efforts are easier to understand when we consider the variety of dehumanizing and fear-inducing rhetoric propagandists invoke to frame their potential victims. This book details the five major themes employed within the context of eugenic propaganda, and provides numerous examples of their use based on original sources of the period. These include the organism, animal, war or national catastrophe, religious and object metaphors. Rhetoric related to these themes was utilized to demonstrate the extent of potential harm posed by the presumptive unrelenting child-bearing among unfit groups; a threat that could only be countered by ensuring that such persons did not breed. Early in the twentieth century the term "moron" was developed to describe the primary targets of eugenic control. This book demonstrates how the image of moronity in the United States was shaped by eugenicists. The book will be of interest not only to disability and eugenic scholars and historians, but to anyone who wants to explore the means by which pejorative metaphors are used to support social control efforts against vulnerable community groups. While readers may be appalled at the use of such rhetoric to support control efforts, they will also no doubt draw parallels regarding the use of similar language in contemporary socio-political speeches and writings.

The Temp Economy

From Kelly Girls to Permatemps in Postwar America

Author: Erin Hatton

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439900825

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 212

View: 2956

groundwork for a new corporate ethos of ruthless cost cutting and mass layoffs. --

Inventing the Feeble Mind

A History of Intellectual Disability in the United States

Author: James W. Trent

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199396183


Page: 392

View: 7995

Pity, disgust, fear, cure, and prevention - all are words that Americans have used to make sense of what today we call intellectual disability. Inventing the Feeble Mind explores the history of this disability from its several identifications over the past 200 years: idiocy, imbecility,feeblemindedness, mental defect, mental deficiency, mental retardation, and most recently intellectual disability. Using institutional records, private correspondence, personal memories, and rare photographs, James Trent argues that the economic vulnerability of intellectually disabled people (andoften their families), more than the claims made for their intellectual and social limitations, has shaped meaning, services, and policies in United States history.

The Thoughtful Leader

A Model of Integrative Leadership

Author: Jim Fisher

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442647981

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 5466

In The Thoughtful Leader, Jim Fisher provides an invigorating, inclusive and positive framework for teaching current and aspiring leaders in all walks of life.

The Palgrave Handbook of Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies

Author: Katherine Runswick-Cole,Tillie Curran,Kirsty Liddiard

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137544465

Category: Social Science

Page: 661

View: 1949

Disabled children’s lives have often been discussed through medical concepts of disability rather than concepts of childhood. Western understandings of childhood have defined disabled children against child development ‘norms’ and have provided the rationale for segregated or ‘special’ welfare and education provision. In contrast, disabled children’s childhood studies begins with the view that studies of children’s impairment are not studies of their childhoods. Disabled children’s childhood studies demands ethical research practices that position disabled children and young people at the centre of the inquiry outside of the shadow of perceived ‘norms’. The Palgrave Handbook of Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies will be of interest to students and scholars across a range of disciplines, as well as practitioners in health, education, social work and youth work.

Governing Habits

Treating Alcoholism in the Post-Soviet Clinic

Author: Eugene Raikhel

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501707051

Category: Medical

Page: 264

View: 3879

Critics of narcology—as addiction medicine is called in Russia—decry it as being "backward," hopelessly behind contemporary global medical practices in relation to addiction and substance abuse, and assume that its practitioners lack both professionalism and expertise. On the basis of his research in a range of clinical institutions managing substance abuse in St. Petersburg, Eugene Raikhel increasingly came to understand that these assumptions and critiques obscured more than they revealed. Governing Habits is an ethnography of extraordinary sensitivity and awareness that shows how therapeutic practice and expertise is expressed in the highly specific, yet rapidly transforming milieu of hospitals, clinics, and rehabilitation centers in post-Soviet Russia. Rather than interpreting narcology as a Soviet survival or a local clinical world on the wane in the face of globalizing evidence-based medicine, Raikhel examines the transformation of the medical management of alcoholism in Russia over the past twenty years. Raikhel's book is more than a story about the treatment of alcoholism. It is also a gripping analysis of the many cultural, institutional, political, and social transformations taking place in the post-Soviet world, particularly in Putin's Russia. Governing Habits will appeal to a wide range of readers, from medical anthropologists, clinicians, to scholars of post-Soviet Russia, to students of institutions and organizational change, to those interested in therapies and treatments of substance abuse, addiction, and alcoholism.

How to Be Idle

A Loafer's Manifesto

Author: Tom Hodgkinson

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 006231341X

Category: Self-Help

Page: 304

View: 5448

From the founding editor of The Idler, the celebrated magazine about the freedom and fine art of doing nothing, comes not simply a book, but an antidote to our work-obsessed culture. In How to Be Idle, Tom Hodgkinson presents his learned yet whimsical argument for a new universal standard of living: being happy doing nothing. He covers a whole spectrum of issues affecting the modern idler—sleep, work, pleasure, relationships—while reflecting on the writing of such famous apologists for it as Oscar Wilde, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Nietzsche—all of whom have admitted to doing their very best work in bed.

Pain, Pleasure, and the Greater Good

From the Panopticon to the Skinner Box and Beyond

Author: Cathy Gere

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022650185X

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 3576

"Contents " -- "Introduction: Diving into the Wreck" -- "1. Trial of the Archangels" -- "2. Epicurus at the Scaffold" -- "3. Nasty, British, and Short" -- "4. The Monkey in the Panopticon" -- "5. In Which We Wonder Who Is Crazy" -- "6. Epicurus Unchained" -- "Afterword: The Restoration of the Monarchy" -- "Notes" -- "Bibliography

A Very Capitalist Condition

A History and Politics of Disability

Author: Roddy Slorach

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781910885017


Page: 320

View: 9739

Slorach shows how capitalism created disability by turning our minds and bodies into commodities to be priced and traded. Those who don't fit are excluded and identified as a problem. This book examines the origins and development of disability, looking at disability movements in different parts of the world and the hidden history of groups such as disabled war veterans, deaf people and those in mental distress. It argues that Marxism helps provide an understanding of the politics and nature of disability and offers a vision of a better world for all.

Disability and Passing

Blurring the Lines of Identity

Author: Jeffrey A Brune,Daniel J Wilson

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781439909799

Category: Social Science

Page: 218

View: 4211

Passing—an act usually associated with disguising race—also relates to disability. Whether a person classified as mentally ill struggles to suppress aberrant behavior to appear "normal" or a person falsely claims a disability to gain some advantage, passing is a pervasive and much discussed phenomenon. Nevertheless, Disability and Passing is the first anthology to examine this issue. The editors and contributors to this volume explore the intersections of disability, race, gender, and sexuality as these various aspects of identity influence each other and make identity fluid. They argue that the line between disability and normality is blurred, discussing disability as an individual identity and as a social category. And they discuss the role of stigma in decisions about whether or not to pass. Focusing on the United States from the nineteenth century to the present, the essays in Disability and Passing speak to the complexity of individual decisions about passing and open the conversation for broader discussion. Contributors include: Dea Boster, Allison Carey, Peta Cox, Kristen Harmon, David Linton, Michael Rembis, and the editors.

The Ugly Laws

Disability in Public

Author: Susan M. Schweik

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 081474057X

Category: History

Page: 431

View: 1358

In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, municipallaws targeting "unsightly beggars" sprang up in cities across America. Seeming to criminalize disability and thus offering a visceral example of discrimination, these “ugly laws” have become a sort of shorthand for oppression in disability studies, law, and the arts. In this watershed study of the ugly laws, Susan M. Schweik uncovers the murky history behind the laws, situating the varied legislation in its historical context and exploring in detail what the laws meant. Illustrating how the laws join the history of the disabled and the poor, Schweik not only gives the reader a deeper understanding of the ugly laws and the cities where they were generated, she locates the laws at a crucial intersection of evolving and unstable concepts of race, nation, sex, class, and gender. Moreover, she explores the history of resistance to the ordinances, using the often harrowing life stories of those most affected by their passage. Moving to the laws’ more recent history, Schweik analyzes the shifting cultural memory of the ugly laws, examining how they have been used—and misused—by academics, activists, artists, lawyers, and legislators.

Fixing the Poor

Eugenic Sterilization and Child Welfare in the Twentieth Century

Author: Molly Ladd-Taylor

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421423723

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 6563

Combining innovative political analysis with a compelling social history of those caught up in Minnesota’s welfare system, Fixing the Poor is a powerful reinterpretation of eugenic sterilization.

Charity, Philanthropy, and Civility in American History

Author: Lawrence J. Friedman,Mark D. McGarvie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521819893

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 467

View: 9260

A discussion of the issues involved in discussions of the history of American philanthropy.

Jim Crow Wisdom

Author: Jonathan Scott Holloway

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469610701

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 5623

Jim Crow Wisdom: Memory and Identity in Black America since 1940