Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Political Science
View: 4155Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich Politik - Sonstige Themen, Note: 2,0, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Social movements are large informal groupings of individuals or organisations with a common interest, which focus on specific political or social issues to carry out a social change. They are distinguished from other collective actors by having (the threat of) mass mobilisation as their prime source of social sanction, and hence of power (Scott, 1990: 6). Even if they vary by size, „they are all essentially collective“ (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010). In contrast to individual strategies, individual needs and problems, social movements are the - more or less spontaneous - product of a defined conditions „shared by many as a public issue necessitating joint action“ (Oberschall, 1997: 2). Beginning with a collective behaviour, the result is a social movement when „short-lived impulses give way to long-term aims“ (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010). It takes measures to „pursue a collective solution by pooling their efforts and resources and coordinating their actions“ (Oberschall, 1997: 2). Whether a social movement success or fails is depending on how many people join and how determined they are. (Oberschall, 1997: 3). When we talk about social movements we have to pose several questions, for example under what circumstances an issue becomes a public controversy and attracts supporters. Another question is the part played by leaders, and what lasting consequences result that wouldn‘t have otherwise occurred. All in all social movements play a very important role in the society. They "see themselves, and they are analyzed in contemporary political sociology, as involved in struggles over the definition of meanings and the construction of new identities and lifestyles, as well as addressing formal political institutions." (Nash, 2010: 87). According to Charles Tilly, „social movements create or activate paired and unequal categories, with an important twist: they deliberately emphasize the unjust treatment of people on the weaker side of the categorical line and/or the improper behaviour of people on the stronger side.“ (Tilly, 1998: 212). Tilly argues that there are four key-elements to every social movement: First of all, a social movement contains a campaign, related to an electoral campaign; however, the supporters in this campaign are „WUNC“ that means worthy, unified, numerous and comitted.
New Social Movements and the Socialist Tradition in India
Author: Gail Omvedt
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
View: 6706This study describes and analyses the new social movements that have arisen in India over the past two decades, in particular the anti-caste movement (of both the untouchables and the lower-middle castes), the women's liberation movement, the farmers' movement (centred on struggles arising out of their integration into a state-controlled capitalist market), and the environmental movements (opposition to destructive development, including resistance to big dam projects and the search for alternatives). Rooted in participant observation, it focuses on the ideologies and self-understanding of the movements themselves. The central themes of this book are the origin of movements in the socio-economic contradictions of post-independence India; their effect on political developments, in particular the disintegration of Congress hegemony; their relation to "traditional Marxist" theory and Communist practice; and their groping toward a synthesis of theory and practice that constitutes a new social vision distinct from traditional Marxism.
Author: Anna Christina Götting,Anonym
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
View: 3372Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2010 im Fachbereich Politik - Sonstige Themen, Note: 2,0, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Social movements are large informal groupings of individuals or organisations with a common interest, which focus on specific political or social issues to carry out a social change. They are distinguished from other collective actors by having (the threat of) mass mobilisation as their prime source of social sanction, and hence of power (Scott, 1990: 6). Even if they vary by size, they are all essentially collective" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2010). In contrast to individual strategies, individual needs and problems, social movements are the - more or less spontaneous - product of a defined conditions shared by many as a public issue necessitating joint action" (Oberschall, 1997: 2). Beginning with a collective behaviour, the result is a social movement when short-lived impulses give way to long-term aims" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2010). It takes measures to pursue a collective solution by pooling their efforts and resources and coordinating their actions" (Oberschall, 1997: 2). Whether a social movement success or fails is depending on how many people join and how determined they are. (Oberschall, 1997: 3). When we talk about social movements we have to pose several questions, for example under what circumstances an issue becomes a public controversy and attracts supporters. Another question is the part played by leaders, and what lasting consequences result that wouldn't have otherwise occurred. All in all social movements play a very important role in the society. They "see themselves, and they are analyzed in contemporary political sociology, as involved in struggles over the definition of meanings and the construction of new identities and lifestyles, as well as addressing formal political institutions." (Nash, 2010: 87). According to Charles Tilly, social movements create or activate paired and unequal cat"
Labor and the New Social Movements
Author: Dan Clawson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Business & Economics
View: 7210The U.S. labor movement may be on the verge of massive growth, according to Dan Clawson. He argues that unions don't grow slowly and incrementally, but rather in bursts. Even if the AFL-CIO could organize twice as many members per year as it now does, it would take thirty years to return to the levels of union membership that existed when Ronald Reagan was elected president. In contrast, labor membership more than quadrupled in the years from 1934 to 1945. For there to be a new upsurge, Clawson asserts, labor must fuse with social movements concerned with race, gender, and global justice.The new forms may create a labor movement that breaks down the boundaries between "union" and "community" or between work and family issues. Clawson finds that this is already happening in some parts of the labor movement: labor has endorsed global justice and opposed war in Iraq, student activists combat sweatshops, unions struggle for immigrant rights. Innovative campaigns of this sort, Clawson shows, create new strategies—determined by workers rather than union organizers—that redefine the very meaning of the labor movement. The Next Upsurge presents a range of examples from attempts to replace "macho" unions with more feminist models to campaigns linking labor and community issues and attempts to establish cross-border solidarity and a living wage.
New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence
Author: Valerie Jenness
Category: Social Science
View: 7105Violence directed at victimized groups because of their real or imagined characteristics is as old as humankind. Why, then, have "hate crimes" only recently become recog-nized as a serious social problem, especially in the United States? This book addresses a timely set of questions about the politics and dynamics of intergroup violence manifested
Popular Protest and New Social Movements
Author: Malcolm J. Todd,Gary Taylor
Publisher: Merlin Press
Category: Political Science
View: 2876This collection tackles issues, themes and debates in the study of protest, democracy and the role of new social movements in the 2000s. The contributors introduce case studies of social movements concerned with women's rights, ethnicity and 'race', mental health, peace and anti-privatisation. They also explore issues of youth and political involvement, free speech, unemployment and the role of voluntary and community groups in challenging traditional perspectives on democracy. Drawing on expertise from many disciplines, they are at the cutting edge of recent empirical and theoretical work. This accessible book will be a valuable and stimulating resource for university and college students of sociology, social policy, politics and the social sciences. It will stimulate any reader concerned with issues of democracy, protest and the role of new social movements.
New Social Movements in America
Author: Christine A. Kelly
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
View: 4498In Tangled Up in Red, White, and Blue, Christine Kelly examines the role that progressive social movements might play in the recovery and expansion of democracy and justice in the new millennium. Kelly simultaneously combines an analysis of several modernization theses with respect to the role of social movements, with a unique sense of the way that the American ideological and institutional context has shaped progressive social movements, for better and worse, in our era. Kelly candidly confronts contemporary American radicalism from the perspective of a movement participant--included is a rare treatment of the 1980s student movement--but with an eye on the future. Tangled Up in Red, White, and Blue is a bold and sophisticated study combining the frequently divorced interests of political theory, institutional analysis, and social movement studies--both European and American.
A Case Study of Greenpeace Canada
Author: John-Henry Harter
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
View: 8260New Social Movements, Class, and the Environment explores the history of Greenpeace Canada from 1971 to 2010 and its relationship to the working class. In order to understand the ideology behind Greenpeace, the author investigates its structure, personnel, and actions. The case study illustrates important contradictions between new social movement theory and practice and how those contradictions affect the working class. In particular, Greenpeace’s actions against the seal hunt, against forestry in British Columbia, and against its own workers in Toronto, demonstrate some of the historic obstacles to working out a common labour and environmental agenda. The 1970s saw an explosion of new social movement activism. From the break up of the New Left into single issue groups at the end of the 1960s came a multitude of groups representing the peace movement, environmental movement, student movement, women’s movement, and gay liberation movement. This explosion of new social movement activism has been heralded as the age of new radical politics. Many theorists and activists saw, and still see, new social movements, and the issues, or identities they represent, as replacing the working class as an agent for progressive social change. This paper examines these claims through a case study of the quintessential new social movement, Greenpeace.
New Social Movements, Global Justice Struggles, Anti-Austerity Protest
Author: Cristina Flesher Fominaya,Laurence Cox
Category: Social Science
View: 9681European social movements have been central to European history, politics, society and culture, and have had a global reach and impact. Yet they have rarely been taken on their own terms in the English-language literature, considered rather as counterpoints to the US experience. This has been exacerbated by the failure of Anglophone social movement theorists to pay attention to the substantial literatures in languages such as French, German, Spanish or Italian – and by the increasing global dominance of English in the production of news and other forms of media. This book sets out to take the European social movement experience seriously on its own terms, including: the European tradition of social movement theorising – particularly in its attempt to understand movement development from the 1960s onwards the extent to which European movements between 1968 and 1999 became precursors for the contemporary anti-globalisation movement the construction of the anti-capitalist "movement of movements" within the European setting the new anti-austerity protests in Iceland, Greece, Spain (15-M/Indignados), and elsewhere. This book offers a comprehensive, interdisciplinary perspective on the key European social movements in the past forty years. It will be of interest for students and scholars of politics and international relations, sociology, history, European studies and social theory.
Public Policy, Urban Education, and A New Social Movement
Author: Jean Anyon
View: 2325The core argument of Jean Anyon’s classic Radical Possibilities is deceptively simple: if we do not direct our attention to the ways in which federal and metropolitan policies maintain the poverty that plagues communities in American cities, urban school reform as currently conceived is doomed to fail. With every chapter thoroughly revised and updated, this edition picks up where the 2005 publication left off, including a completely new chapter detailing how three decades of political decisions leading up to the “Great Recession” produced an economic crisis of epic proportions. By tracing the root causes of the financial crisis, Anyon effectively demonstrates the concrete effects of economic decision-making on the education sector, revealing in particular the disastrous impacts of these policies on black and Latino communities. Going beyond lament, Radical Possibilities offers those interested in a better future for the millions of America’s poor families a set of practical and theoretical insights. Expanding on her paradigm for combating educational injustice, Anyon discusses the Occupy Wall Street movement as a recent example of popular resistance in this new edition, set against a larger framework of civil rights history. A ringing call to action, Radical Possibilities reminds readers that throughout U.S. history, equitable public policies have typically been created as a result of the political pressure brought to bear by social movements. Ultimately, Anyon’s revelations teach us that the current moment contains its own very real radical possibilities.
value and difference in new social movements and the Left
Author: Tim Jordan
View: 7213Reinventing Revolution offers a vision of liberation that is not compromised by the contradictions of post modernity/modernity or the competing claims of different social movements. Reinventing Revolution focuses on revolutionary, or extra-parliamentary, socialism and begins by analysing the strengths and limitations of movements based on unified identities or values as opposed to postmodern movements centred on the celebration of difference. A debate between value and difference which causes liberatory movements to fragment and dissipate is then identified. From this basis a theory of emancipation is developed which is not governed by the conflict between difference and value; both the diversity of movements and their unity, founded on differing definitions of oppression, are analysed. Definitions of emancipation and oppression, of social movements and the relations between social movements are the main components of this theory and examples are given in the Italian movement Autonomia, the dance-music movement 'Raving', feminism and postmodernity and others. Finally, a new liberatory vision for the left is outlined and explored.
New Social Movements and Global Citizenship Education
Author: Jennifer Chan
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Category: Political Science
View: 3786This book looks at the emergence of internationally linked Japanese nongovernmental advocacy networks that have grown rapidly since the 1990s in the context of three conjunctural forces: neoliberalism, militarism, and nationalism. It connects three disparate literatures—on the global justice movement, on Japanese civil society, and on global citizenship education. Through the narratives of fifty activists in eight overlapping issue areas—global governance, labor, food sovereignty, peace, HIV/AIDS, gender, minority and human rights, and youth—Another Japan is Possible examines the genesis of these new social movements; their critiques of neoliberalism, militarism, and nationalism; their local, regional, and global connections; their relationships with the Japanese government; and their role in constructing a new identity of the Japanese as global citizens. Its purpose is to highlight the interactions between the global and the local—that is, how international human rights and global governance issues resonate within Japan and how, in turn, local alternatives are articulated by Japanese advocacy groups—and to analyze citizenship from a postnational and postmodern perspective.
In Search of a New Social Movement
Author: Philip W. Sutton
Publisher: Ashgate Pub Limited
View: 5676Examining current theories surrounding the emergence and character of 'new' social movements in 'advanced' industrial societies since the 1960s, Sutton tests the relevance of these explanations to the history of the environmental movement in Britain.
The Age of Empire Building and New Social Movements
Author: James Petras
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
View: 8142A critique of current conceptions of international political economy, the role of the state and contemporary social movements, The New Development Politics challenges the dominant paradigms in the field of development studies. Raising fundamental theoretical and empirical questions, it provides a coherent response to the increasing militarization of inter-state relations, increasing protectionism and inter-state rivalries and the growing age of state intervention in political, economic and social life. The study presents a critical analysis of US empire-building, the role of dirty money and political power, as opposed to technological change. It features a discussion of neo-mercantilism as a new mode of empire and examines the role of new movements of unemployed and landless peasants in key Third World countries.
Challenging Global Apartheid
Author: L. Mullings
Category: Social Science
View: 5050In the last few decades the people of the African diaspora have intensified their struggles against racial discrimination and for equality. This account of these social movements include action in Latin America, the Indian Ocean World, Europe, Canada and the United States.