New Battlefields/Old Laws

Critical Debates on Asymmetric Warfare

Author: William C. Banks

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526563

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 5838

An internationally-recognized authority on constitutional law, national security law, and counterterrorism, William C. Banks believes changing patterns of global conflict are forcing a reexamination of the traditional laws of war. The Hague Rules, the customary laws of war, and the post-1949 law of armed conflict no longer account for nonstate groups waging prolonged campaigns of terrorism—or even more conventional insurgent attacks. Recognizing that many of today's conflicts are low-intensity, asymmetrical wars fought between disparate military forces, Banks's collection analyzes nonstate armed groups and irregular forces (such as terrorist and insurgent groups, paramilitaries, child soldiers, civilians participating in hostilities, and private military firms) and their challenge to international humanitarian law. Both he and his contributors believe gaps in the laws of war leave modern battlefields largely unregulated, and they fear state parties suffer without guidelines for responding to terrorists and their asymmetrical tactics, such as the targeting of civilians. These gaps also embolden weaker, nonstate combatants to exploit forbidden strategies and violate the laws of war. Attuned to the contested nature of post-9/11 security and policy, this collection juxtaposes diverse perspectives on existing laws and their application in contemporary conflict. It sets forth a legal definition of new wars, describes the status of new actors, charts the evolution of the twenty-first-century battlefield, and balances humanitarian priorities with military necessity. While the contributors contest each other, they ultimately reestablish the legitimacy of a long-standing legal corpus, and they rehumanize an environment in which the most vulnerable targets, civilian populations, are themselves becoming weapons against conventional power.
Release

How the Gloves Came Off

Lawyers, Policy Makers, and Norms in the Debate on Torture

Author: Elizabeth Grimm Arsenault

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231543255

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9514

The treatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib prison, Guantánamo Bay, and far-flung CIA "black sites" after the attacks of 9/11 included cruelty that defied legal and normative prohibitions in U.S. and international law. The antitorture stance of the United States was brushed aside. Since then, the guarantee of American civil liberties and due process for POWs and detainees has grown muddled, threatening the norms that sustain modern democracies. How the Gloves Came Off considers the legal and political arguments that led to this standoff between civility and chaos and their significant consequences for the strategic interests and standing of the United States. Unpacking the rhetoric surrounding the push for unitary executive action in wartime, How the Gloves Came Off traces the unmaking of the consensus against torture. It implicates U.S. military commanders, high-level government administrators, lawyers, and policy makers from both parties, exposing the ease with which powerful actors manipulated ambiguities to strip detainees of their humanity. By targeting the language and logic that made torture thinkable, this book shows how future decision makers can craft an effective counternarrative and set a new course for U.S. policy toward POWs and detainees. Whether leaders use their influence to reinforce a prohibition of cruelty to prisoners or continue to undermine long-standing international law will determine whether the United States retains a core component of its founding identity.
Release

Targeting Top Terrorists

Understanding Leadership Removal in Counterterrorism Strategy

Author: Bryan C. Price

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231547722

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2539

When President Barack Obama announced the assassination of Osama bin Laden, many Americans hoped the killing of al-Qaida’s leader would sound the death knell for the organization. Since 9/11, killing and capturing terrorist leaders has been a central element in U.S. counterterrorism strategy. This practice, known as leadership decapitation, is based on the logic that removing key figures will disrupt the organization and contribute to its ultimate failure. Yet many scholars have argued that targeted killings are ineffective or counterproductive, questioning whether taking out a terror network’s leaders causes more problems than it solves. In Targeting Top Terrorists, Bryan C. Price offers a rich, data-driven examination of leadership decapitation tactics, providing theoretical and empirical explanations of the conditions under which they can be successful. Analyzing hundreds of cases of leadership turnover from over two hundred terrorist groups, Price demonstrates that although the tactic may result in short-term negative side effects, the loss of top leaders significantly reduces terror groups’ life spans. He explains vital questions such as: What factors make some terrorist groups more vulnerable than others? Is it better to kill or capture terrorist leaders? How does leadership decapitation compare to other counterterrorism options? With compelling evidence based on an original dataset along with an in-depth case study of Hamas, Targeting Top Terrorists contributes to scholarship on terrorism and organizational theory and provides insights for policy makers and practitioners on some of the most pressing debates in the field.
Release

Nexus of Global Jihad

Understanding Cooperation Among Terrorist Actors

Author: Assaf Moghadam

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231538154

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 534

Leading jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State dominate through cooperation in the form of knowledge sharing, resource sharing, joint training exercises, and operational collaboration. They build alliances and lesser partnerships with other formal and informal terrorist actors to recruit foreign fighters and spread their message worldwide, raising the aggregate threat level for their declared enemies. Whether they consist of friends or foes, whether they are connected locally or online, these networks create a wellspring of support for jihadist organizations that may fluctuate in strength or change in character but never runs dry. Nexus of Global Jihad identifies types of terrorist actors, the nature of their partnerships, and the environments in which they prosper to explain global jihadist terrorism's ongoing success and resilience. Nexus of Global Jihad brings to light an emerging style of "networked cooperation" that works alongside interorganizational terrorist cooperation to establish bonds of varying depth and endurance. Case studies use recently declassified materials to illuminate al-Qaeda's dealings from Iran to the Arabian Peninsula and the informal actors that power the Sharia4 movement. The book proposes policies that increase intelligence gathering on informal terrorist actors, constrain enabling environments, and disrupt terrorist networks according to different types of cooperation. It is a vital text for strategists and scholars struggling to understand a growing spectrum of terrorist groups working together more effectively than ever before.
Release

Triadic Coercion

Israel’s Targeting of States That Host Nonstate Actors

Author: Wendy Pearlman,Boaz Atzili

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231548540

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 2520

In the post–Cold War era, states increasingly find themselves in conflicts with nonstate actors. Finding it difficult to fight these opponents directly, many governments instead target states that harbor or aid nonstate actors, using threats and punishment to coerce host states into stopping those groups. Wendy Pearlman and Boaz Atzili investigate this strategy, which they term triadic coercion. They explain why states pursue triadic coercion, evaluate the conditions under which it succeeds, and demonstrate their arguments across seventy years of Israeli history. This rich analysis of the Arab-Israeli conflict, supplemented with insights from India and Turkey, yields surprising findings. Traditional discussions of interstate conflict assume that the greater a state’s power compared to its opponent, the more successful its coercion. Turning that logic on its head, Pearlman and Atzili show that this strategy can be more effective against a strong host state than a weak one because host regimes need internal cohesion and institutional capacity to move against nonstate actors. If triadic coercion is thus likely to fail against weak regimes, why do states nevertheless employ it against them? Pearlman and Atzili’s investigation of Israeli decision-making points to the role of strategic culture. A state’s system of beliefs, values, and institutionalized practices can encourage coercion as a necessary response, even when that policy is prone to backfire. A significant contribution to scholarship on deterrence, asymmetric conflict, and strategic culture, Triadic Coercion illuminates an evolving feature of the international security landscape and interrogates assumptions that distort strategic thinking.
Release

Global Alert

The Rationality of Modern Islamist Terrorism and the Challenge to the Liberal Democratic World

Author: Boaz Ganor

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023153891X

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 7136

Many associate terrorism with irrational behavior and believe only lunatics could perpetuate such horrific acts. Global Alert debunks this myth by anatomizing the rationale behind modern terrorism. It draws a distinct picture of its root and instrumental causes and plots the different stages of a terrorist attack, from indoctrination and recruitment to planning, preparation, and launch. Global Alert also exposes the measured exploitation of democratic institutions by terrorists to further their goals. Despite its strong capabilities and extensive resources, the modern liberal-democratic state is nevertheless subject to the rules of war, which partially restrict the state's ability to operate and maneuver. Boaz Ganor shows how terrorist organizations exploit these values to paralyze or neutralize the states they oppose. In outlining this new "hybrid" terrorist organization and its activity in both the military–terrorist arena and the political–welfare arena, Ganor advances an international doctrine for governing military operations between state and nonstate actors as part of a new type of armed conflict termed "multidimensional warfare."
Release

Counterinsurgency in Crisis

Britain and the Challenges of Modern Warfare

Author: David H. Ucko,Robert Egnell

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535414

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 6311

Long considered the masters of counterinsurgency, the British military encountered significant problems in Iraq and Afghanistan when confronted with insurgent violence. In their effort to apply the principles and doctrines of past campaigns, they failed to prevent Basra and Helmand from descending into lawlessness, criminality, and violence. By juxtaposing the deterioration of these situations against Britain's celebrated legacy of counterinsurgency, this investigation identifies both the contributions and limitations of traditional tactics in such settings, exposing a disconcerting gap between ambitions and resources, intent and commitment. Building upon this detailed account of the Basra and Helmand campaigns, this volume conducts an unprecedented assessment of British military institutional adaptation in response to operations gone awry. In calling attention to the enduring effectiveness of insurgent methods and the threat posed by undergoverned spaces, David H. Ucko and Robert Egnell underscore the need for military organizations to meet the irregular challenges of future wars in new ways.
Release

Mission Revolution

The U.S. Military and Stability Operations

Author: Jennifer Morrison Taw

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526822

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9098

Defined as operations other than war, stability operations can include peacekeeping activities, population control, and counternarcotics efforts, and for the entire history of the United States military, they have been considered a dangerous distraction if not an outright drain on combat resources. Yet in 2005, the U.S. Department of Defense reversed its stance on these practices, a dramatic shift in the mission of the armed forces and their role in foreign and domestic affairs. With the elevation of stability operations, the job of the American armed forces is no longer just to win battles but to create a controlled, nonviolent space for political negotiations and accord. Yet rather than produce revolutionary outcomes, stability operations have resulted in a large-scale mission creep with harmful practical and strategic consequences. Jennifer Morrison Taw examines the military's sudden embrace of stability operations and its implications for American foreign policy and war. Through a detailed examination of deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan, changes in U.S. military doctrine, adaptations in force preparation, and the political dynamics behind this new stance, Taw connects the preference for stability operations to the far-reaching, overly ambitious American preoccupation with managing international stability. She also shows how domestic politics have reduced civilian agencies' capabilities while fostering an unhealthy overreliance on the military. Introducing new concepts such as securitized instability and institutional privileging, Taw builds a framework for understanding and analyzing the expansion of the American armed forces' responsibilities in an ever-changing security landscape.
Release

Die neuen Kriege

Author: Herfried Münkler

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644011214

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 2398

Das Zeitalter der zwischenstaatlichen Kriege geht offenbar zu Ende. Aber der Krieg ist keineswegs verschwunden, er hat nur seine Erscheinungsform verändert. In den neuen Kriegen spielen nicht mehr die Staaten die Hauptrolle, sondern Warlords, Söldner und Terroristen. Die Gewalt richtet sich vor allem gegen die Zivilbevölkerung; Hochhäuser werden zu Schlachtfeldern, Fernsehbilder zu Waffen. Herfried Münkler macht die Folgen dieser Entwicklung deutlich. Er zeigt, wie mit dem Verschwinden von klassischen Schlachten und Frontlinien auch die Unterscheidung von Krieg und Frieden brüchig geworden ist, und erörtert, wie man den besonderen Gefahren begegnen kann, die von den neuen Kriegen ausgehen.
Release

Terrorismusstrafrecht

ein Handbuch

Author: Mark Alexander Zöller

Publisher: C.F. Müller GmbH

ISBN: 9783811439214

Category: Criminal law

Page: 758

View: 1483

Release

Der neue Terrorismus

Neue Akteure, neue Strategien, neue Taktiken und neue Mittel

Author: Stefan Goertz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658188146

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 763

Dieses Buch behandelt die Interaktion, Kooperation und Fusion von neuen Akteuren, Strategien, Taktiken und Mitteln des islamistischen Terrorismus und der transnationalen organisierten Kriminalität. Diese müssen als vitale Bedrohungen sowohl für die demokratische, westliche Welt als auch für die human security in Konfliktregionen analysiert werden. Die asymmetrische Bedrohung durch den neuen Terrorismus, den internationalen Jihadismus des 21. Jahrhunderts, kennt weder nationale noch internationale rechtlicheGrenzen und stellt die Gesellschaft, die politischen Akteure sowie die Sicherheitsbehörden vor bisher ungekannte Herausforderungen. In der Konsequenz ist die Sicherheitsarchitektur westlicher, demokratischer Staaten – aufgrund ihrer Trennung von äußerer und innerer Sicherheit – durch die neuen Hybridakteure besonders herausgefordert und die Gewährleistung ihrer Aufgaben gefährdet.
Release

Terrorismusabwehr

Zur aktuellen Bedrohung durch den islamistischen Terrorismus in Deutschland und Europa

Author: Stefan Goertz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658208996

Category: Political Science

Page: 195

View: 341

Dieses Buch analysiert mögliche Mittel und Maßnahmen zur Terrorismusabwehr in Deutschland und Europa. So werden u.a. die Akteure der Terrorismusabwehr behandelt. Es erfolgt eine dezidierte Analyse der möglichen Mittel der Terrorismusabwehr wie z.B. Videoüberwachung des öffentlichen Raumes. Außerdem behandelt dieses Buch die Thematik islamistischer Gefährder, in dem die Kategorisierung, Abschiebung, Überwachung und Präventionsprogramme analysiert werden. Ebenfalls wird die Bekämpfung der Terrorismusfinanzierung untersucht. Der Inhalt Analyse der aktuellen Bedrohung durch den islamistischen Terrorismus in Deutschland und Europa • Ausgewählte besondere Bedrohungen durch den islamistischen Terrorismus und institutionelle Antworten • Technische Mittel zur Terrorismusabwehr • Institutionelle Bekämpfung des islamistischen Terrorismus in Deutschland und Europa • Radikalisierung im Phänomenbereich Islamismus und islamistischer Terrorismus sowie Prävention Die Zielgruppen Politikwissenschaft, Terrorismusforschung, Politische Bildung, Polizei, Nachrichtendienste, Bundeswehr Der Autor Dr. Stefan Goertz ist Beamter der Bundespolizei und augenblicklich Dozent für Politikwissenschaft an der Hochschule des Bundes, Fachbereich Bundespolizei, in Lübeck.
Release

Krieg dem Westen

Terrorismus im 21. Jahrhundert

Author: Walter Laqueur

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783548366784

Category: Terrorism

Page: 422

View: 3951

Release

Stalingrad

Author: Antony Beevor

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783570551349

Category:

Page: 543

View: 361

Release

Der Afghane

Roman

Author: Frederick Forsyth

Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641128153

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 7480

SPIEGEL-Jahresbestseller 2006 Al Isra heißt der Plan eines Terroranschlags der al Qaida von unvorstellbarem Ausmaß. Als der englische und amerikanische Geheimdienst davon erfahren, bleibt nur noch eine Chance: Ein Agent muss in die Schaltzentrale des Terrornetzwerks eingeschleust werden, der die Zielkoordinaten des Attentats herausfindet. Und nur einer erweist sich hierfür als geeignet: Mike Martin, ein erfahrener SIS-Offizier, der mit der Sprache und der Kultur des Nahen Ostens aufgewachsen ist. Ein atemloser Wettlauf gegen die Zeit beginnt ...
Release

Die gegenwärtige salafistische Szene in Deutschland

Prediger und Anhänger

Author: Nina Käsehage

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643140002

Category:

Page: 544

View: 9201

Was bedeutet Salafismus in Deutschland und für Deutschland? Handelt es sich bei dieser Szene um eine homogene Bewegung oder weist sie tatsächlich mehr Facetten auf, als man häufig mit ihr verbindet? Die Religionswissenschaftlerin Nina Käsehage hat während der Jahre 2012 bis 2016 intensive Feldforschung mit salafistischen ProtagonistInnen in Deutschland und Europa betrieben und dabei 105 Interviews mit AnhängerInnen sowie namhaften Predigern dieser Szene in Deutschland führen können. Käsehages große Praxisaffinität mit dem salafistischen Forschungsfeld bietet zudem die Gelegenheit, ihre Handlungsempfehlungen nicht nur im Wissenschaftsdiskurs, sondern auch in zahlreichen anderen Tätigkeitsbereichen nutzbar zu machen.
Release

Agent Storm

Mein Doppelleben bei Al-Qaida und der CIA

Author: Morten Storm,Paul Cruickshank,Tim Lister

Publisher: Riva Verlag

ISBN: 3864137209

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 416

View: 4077

Der junge Däne Morten Storm ist Kleinkrimineller, Mitglied einer Motorrad-Gang und rutscht immer weiter in die Illegalität ab, bis er schließlich neuen Halt in den Schriften des Propheten Mohammed findet. Nach einem Gefängnisaufenthalt konvertiert er zum Islam und identifiziert sich zunehmend mit den radikalen Forderungen und Zielen extremistischer Islamisten. Ein längerer Aufenthalt im Jemen bringt ihn schließlich mit dem Hassprediger Anwar al-Awlaki zusammen. Doch noch während Storm mit diesem in direktem Kontakt steht, zweifelt er zunehmend an seinen Überzeugungen und arbeitet bald gleichzeitig für nicht weniger als drei westliche Geheimorganisationen. Von nun an führt Storm ein fast schizophrenes Leben: Er konzipiert und plant Anschläge mit führenden Köpfen der al-Qaida und lässt sich kurz darauf in luxuriöse Unterkünfte einfliegen, um seine Informationen mit westlichen Agenten zu teilen und die Nächte durchzufeiern. Seine Mission bleibt dabei jedoch ernst: einen der meistgesuchten Verbrecher Amerikas aufzuspüren und zu vernichten. Agent Storm ist ein leidenschaftliches und faszinierendes Buch voller Geschichten über codierte Nachrichten, verdeckte Treffen und die zweifelhaften Motive eines Doppelagenten – und gibt einen einzigartigen Einblick in das mächtigste und am meisten gefürchtete Terror-Netzwerk der Welt.
Release