Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences

A Design-Based Approach

Author: Thad Dunning

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107017661

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 358

View: 5725

The first comprehensive guide to natural experiments, providing an ideal introduction for scholars and students.
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Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences

A Design-Based Approach

Author: Thad Dunning

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560794

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8197

This unique book is the first comprehensive guide to the discovery, analysis, and evaluation of natural experiments - an increasingly popular methodology in the social sciences. Thad Dunning provides an introduction to key issues in causal inference, including model specification, and emphasizes the importance of strong research design over complex statistical analysis. Surveying many examples of standard natural experiments, regression-discontinuity designs, and instrumental-variables designs, Dunning highlights both the strengths and potential weaknesses of these methods, aiding researchers in better harnessing the promise of natural experiments while avoiding the pitfalls. Dunning also demonstrates the contribution of qualitative methods to natural experiments and proposes new ways to integrate qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chapters complete with exercises and appendices covering specialized topics such as cluster-randomized natural experiments, make this an ideal teaching tool as well as a valuable book for professional researchers.
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Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences

A Design-Based Approach

Author: Thad Dunning

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107698000

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 3875

This unique book is the first comprehensive guide to the discovery, analysis, and evaluation of natural experiments - an increasingly popular methodology in the social sciences. Thad Dunning provides an introduction to key issues in causal inference, including model specification, and emphasizes the importance of strong research design over complex statistical analysis. Surveying many examples of standard natural experiments, regression-discontinuity designs, and instrumental-variables designs, Dunning highlights both the strengths and potential weaknesses of these methods, aiding researchers in better harnessing the promise of natural experiments while avoiding the pitfalls. Dunning also demonstrates the contribution of qualitative methods to natural experiments and proposes new ways to integrate qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chapters complete with exercises, and appendices covering specialized topics such as cluster-randomized natural experiments, make this an ideal teaching tool as well as a valuable book for professional researchers.
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Natural Experiments of History

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674076729

Category: History

Page: 286

View: 4912

In eight case studies by leading scholars in history, archaeology, business, economics, geography, and political science, the authors showcase the “natural experiment” or “comparative method”—well-known in any science concerned with the past—on the discipline of human history. That means, according to the editors, “comparing, preferably quantitatively and aided by statistical analyses, different systems that are similar in many respects, but that differ with respect to the factors whose influence one wishes to study.” The case studies in the book support two overall conclusions about the study of human history: First, historical comparisons have the potential for yielding insights that cannot be extracted from a single case study alone. Second, insofar as is possible, when one proposes a conclusion, one may be able to strengthen one’s conclusion by gathering quantitative evidence (or at least ranking one’s outcomes from big to small), and then by testing the conclusion’s validity statistically.
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Field Experiments and Their Critics

Essays on the Uses and Abuses of Experimentation in the Social Sciences

Author: Dawn Langan Teele

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300199309

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 389

In recent years, social scientists have engaged in a deep debate over the methods appropriate to their research. Their long reliance on passive observational collection of information has been challenged by proponents of experimental methods designed to precisely infer causal effects through active intervention in the social world. Some scholars claim that field experiments represent a new gold standard and the best way forward, while others insist that these methods carry inherent inconsistencies, limitations, or ethical dilemmas that observational approaches do not. This unique collection of essays by the most influential figures on every side of this debate reveals its most important stakes and will provide useful guidance to students and scholars in many disciplines.
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Experiments in Knowing

Gender and Method in the Social Sciences

Author: Ann Oakley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781565846203

Category: Social Science

Page: 402

View: 6733

The feminist philosopher and social scientist shows how "gendering" has affected the social and natural sciences as she reconciles the long-standing dichotomy between the quantitative and qualitative methods and demonstrates the tandem use of both experimental and intuitive approaches.
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Experimental Political Science and the Study of Causality

From Nature to the Lab

Author: Rebecca B. Morton,Kenneth C. Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490532

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5949

Increasingly, political scientists use the term 'experiment' or 'experimental' to describe their empirical research. One of the primary reasons for doing so is the advantage of experiments in establishing causal inferences. In this book, Rebecca B. Morton and Kenneth C. Williams discuss in detail how experiments and experimental reasoning with observational data can help researchers determine causality. They explore how control and random assignment mechanisms work, examining both the Rubin causal model and the formal theory approaches to causality. They also cover general topics in experimentation such as the history of experimentation in political science; internal and external validity of experimental research; types of experiments - field, laboratory, virtual, and survey - and how to choose, recruit, and motivate subjects in experiments. They investigate ethical issues in experimentation, the process of securing approval from institutional review boards for human subject research, and the use of deception in experimentation.
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Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences

Author: Murray Webster,Jane Sell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124051863

Category: Education

Page: 534

View: 6394

While there are many books available on statistical analysis of data from experiments, there is significantly less available on the design, development, and actual conduct of the experiments. Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences summarizes how to design and conduct scientifically sound experiments, be they from surveys, interviews, observations, or experimental methods. The book encompasses how to collect reliable data, the appropriate uses of different methods, and how to avoid or resolve common problems in experimental research. Case study examples illustrate how multiple methods can be used to answer the same research questions and what kinds of outcome would result from each methodology. Sound data begins with effective data collection. This book will assist students and professionals alike in sociology, marketing, political science, anthropology, economics, and psychology. Provides a comprehensive summary of issues in social science experimentation, from ethics to design, management, and financing Offers "how-to" explanations of the problems and challenges faced by everyone involved in social science experiments Pays attention to both practical problems and to theoretical and philosophical arguments Defines commonalities and distinctions within and among experimental situations across the social sciences
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Population-Based Survey Experiments

Author: Diana C. Mutz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400840489

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 1327

Population-based survey experiments have become an invaluable tool for social scientists struggling to generalize laboratory-based results, and for survey researchers besieged by uncertainties about causality. Thanks to technological advances in recent years, experiments can now be administered to random samples of the population to which a theory applies. Yet until now, there was no self-contained resource for social scientists seeking a concise and accessible overview of this methodology, its strengths and weaknesses, and the unique challenges it poses for implementation and analysis. Drawing on examples from across the social sciences, this book covers everything you need to know to plan, implement, and analyze the results of population-based survey experiments. But it is more than just a "how to" manual. This lively book challenges conventional wisdom about internal and external validity, showing why strong causal claims need not come at the expense of external validity, and how it is now possible to execute experiments remotely using large-scale population samples. Designed for social scientists across the disciplines, Population-Based Survey Experiments provides the first complete introduction to this methodology. Offers the most comprehensive treatment of the subject Features a wealth of examples and practical advice Reexamines issues of internal and external validity Can be used in conjunction with downloadable data from ExperimentCentral.org for design and analysis exercises in the classroom
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Social Experiments

Evaluating Public Programs With Experimental Methods

Author: Larry L. Orr

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761912958

Category: Social Science

Page: 263

View: 4747

Written in a friendly, how-to manner, Social Experiments provides a basic understanding of how to design and implement social experiments and how to interpret their results. Through illustrative examples, the author provides a grounding in the experimental method and gives advice on: designs that best address alternative policy questions; maximizing the precision of the estimates; implementing the experiment in the field; data collection; estimating and interpreting program impacts, costs, and benefits; dealing with biases; and the use and misuse of experimental results in the policy process.
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Multi-Method Social Science

Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Tools

Author: Jason Seawright

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107097711

Category: Political Science

Page: 242

View: 9259

This book provides the first systematic guide to designing multi-method research, considering a wide range of statistical and qualitative tools.
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Bit by Bit

Social Research in the Digital Age

Author: Matthew J. Salganik

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400888182

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 2119

An innovative and accessible guide to doing social research in the digital age In just the past several years, we have witnessed the birth and rapid spread of social media, mobile phones, and numerous other digital marvels. In addition to changing how we live, these tools enable us to collect and process data about human behavior on a scale never before imaginable, offering entirely new approaches to core questions about social behavior. Bit by Bit is the key to unlocking these powerful methods—a landmark book that will fundamentally change how the next generation of social scientists and data scientists explores the world around us. Bit by Bit is the essential guide to mastering the key principles of doing social research in this fast-evolving digital age. In this comprehensive yet accessible book, Matthew Salganik explains how the digital revolution is transforming how social scientists observe behavior, ask questions, run experiments, and engage in mass collaborations. He provides a wealth of real-world examples throughout and also lays out a principles-based approach to handling ethical challenges. Bit by Bit is an invaluable resource for social scientists who want to harness the research potential of big data and a must-read for data scientists interested in applying the lessons of social science to tomorrow’s technologies. Illustrates important ideas with examples of outstanding research Combines ideas from social science and data science in an accessible style and without jargon Goes beyond the analysis of “found” data to discuss the collection of “designed” data such as surveys, experiments, and mass collaboration Features an entire chapter on ethics Includes extensive suggestions for further reading and activities for the classroom or self-study
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Ethics and Experiments

Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals

Author: Scott Desposato

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317438663

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 7196

For most of political science's history, discussions about professional ethics had nothing to do with human subjects. Professional ethics involved integrity in the classroom, fair tenure and promotion rule, and the careful avoidance of plagiarism. As most research was observational, there was little need for attention to how scholarly activities might directly affect the subjects of our work. Times have changed. The dramatic growth in the use of experiments in social science, especially overseas, is generating unexpected ethical controversies. The purpose of this volume is to identify, debate, and propose practical solutions to the most critical of these new ethical issues. A leading team of internationally distinguished political science scholars presents the first examination of the practical and ethical challenges of research with human subjects in social science and policy studies. Part 1 examines contextual challenges provided by experiments conducted overseas - questions of culture, religion, security, and poverty. Part 2 examines questions of legal constraints on research, focusing on questions of foreign review of international experiments. Part 3 tackles the critical issues in field experiments, including deception and consent, impact on elections and careers, the boundaries of the public officials' exemption, and the use of partner organizations to avoid Institutional Review Body (IRB) review. Part 4 considers strategies for the future, including training and education, IRB reform, institutional changes, and norm development.
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Situated Intervention

Sociological Experiments in Health Care

Author: Teun Zuiderent-Jerak

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262029383

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 1952

An exploration of sociological research that is neither "detached" nor "engaged"; a new approach to sociological knowledge production, with examples from health care.
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The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology

Author: Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Henry E. Brady,David Collier

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199286546

Category: Political Science

Page: 880

View: 4555

The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from major international scholars The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology provides the key point of reference for anyone working throughout the discipline.
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Field Experiments in Political Science and Public Policy

Practical Lessons in Design and Delivery

Author: Peter John

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317680189

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 2828

Field experiments -- randomized controlled trials -- have become ever more popular in political science, as well as in other disciplines, such as economics, social policy and development. Policy-makers have also increasingly used randomization to evaluate public policies, designing trials of tax reminders, welfare policies and international aid programs to name just a few of the interventions tested in this way. Field experiments have become successful because they assess causal claims in ways that other methods of evaluation find hard to emulate. Social scientists and evaluators have rediscovered how to design and analyze field experiments, but they have paid much less attention to the challenges of organizing and managing them. Field experiments pose unique challenges and opportunities for the researcher and evaluator which come from working in the field. The research experience can be challenging and at times hard to predict. This book aims to help researchers and evaluators plan and manage their field experiments so they can avoid common pitfalls. It is also intended to open up discussion about the context and backdrop to trials so that these practical aspects of field experiments are better understood. The book sets out ten steps researchers can use to plan their field experiments, then nine threats to watch out for when they implement them. There are cases studies of voting and political participation, elites, welfare and employment, nudging citizens, and developing countries.
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Uncontrolled

The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society

Author: Jim Manzi

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465029310

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 4290

Entrepreneur and political commentator Jim Manzi argues for a radical new approach to our most pressing economic and social problems, using the scientific method--and its controlled experiments and skeptical mindset--to test what works in business and gover
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Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 9780335216000

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 953

Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)
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Statistical Models and Causal Inference

A Dialogue with the Social Sciences

Author: David A. Freedman,David Collier,Jasjeet S. Sekhon

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521195004

Category: Mathematics

Page: 399

View: 1971

David A. Freedman presents a definitive synthesis of his approach to statistical modeling and causal inference in the social sciences.
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Generalized Linear Models for Categorical and Continuous Limited Dependent Variables

Author: Michael Smithson,Edgar C. Merkle

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466551739

Category: Mathematics

Page: 308

View: 8611

Generalized Linear Models for Categorical and Continuous Limited Dependent Variables is designed for graduate students and researchers in the behavioral, social, health, and medical sciences. It incorporates examples of truncated counts, censored continuous variables, and doubly bounded continuous variables, such as percentages. The book provides broad, but unified, coverage, and the authors integrate the concepts and ideas shared across models and types of data, especially regarding conceptual links between discrete and continuous limited dependent variables. The authors argue that these dependent variables are, if anything, more common throughout the human sciences than the kind that suit linear regression. They cover special cases or extensions of models, estimation methods, model diagnostics, and, of course, software. They also discuss bounded continuous variables, boundary-inflated models, and methods for modeling heteroscedasticity. Wherever possible, the authors have illustrated concepts, models, and techniques with real or realistic datasets and demonstrations in R and Stata, and each chapter includes several exercises at the end. The illustrations and exercises help readers build conceptual understanding and fluency in using these techniques. At several points the authors bring together material that has been previously scattered across the literature in journal articles, software package documentation files, and blogs. These features help students learn to choose the appropriate models for their purpose.
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