Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences

A Design-Based Approach

Author: Thad Dunning

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107017661

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 358

View: 9381

The first comprehensive guide to natural experiments, providing an ideal introduction for scholars and students.
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Observation and Experiment in the Natural and Social Sciences

Author: Maria Carla Galavotti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306481235

Category: Science

Page: 357

View: 1057

This volume is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the distinction between a ‘context of justification’ and a ‘context of discovery’. It is meant for researchers and advanced students in philosophy of science, and for natural and social scientists interested in foundational topics. Spanning a wide range of disciplines, it combines the viewpoint of philosophers and scientists and casts a new interdisciplinary perspective on the problem of observation and experimentation.
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Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences, A Design-Based Approach

Statistics, Statistics

Author: CTI Reviews

Publisher: Cram101 Textbook Reviews

ISBN: 1490259996

Category: Education

Page: 31

View: 1088

Facts101 is your complete guide to Natural Experiments in the Social Sciences, A Design-Based Approach. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
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Natural Experiments of History

Author: Jared Diamond,James A. Robinson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674076710

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 7095

In eight case studies by leading scholars in history, archaeology, business, economics, geography, and political science, the authors showcase the “natural experiment” or “comparative method”—well-known in any science concerned with the past—on the discipline of human history. That means, according to the editors, “comparing, preferably quantitatively and aided by statistical analyses, different systems that are similar in many respects, but that differ with respect to the factors whose influence one wishes to study.” The case studies in the book support two overall conclusions about the study of human history: First, historical comparisons have the potential for yielding insights that cannot be extracted from a single case study alone. Second, insofar as is possible, when one proposes a conclusion, one may be able to strengthen one’s conclusion by gathering quantitative evidence (or at least ranking one’s outcomes from big to small), and then by testing the conclusion’s validity statistically.
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The Uses of Experiment

Studies in the Natural Sciences

Author: David Gooding,Trevor Pinch,Simon Schaffer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521337687

Category: Science

Page: 481

View: 7711

Renowned scholars in history, sociology, philosophy and anthropology consider seventeenth and twentieth century weapon testing, particle physics, biology and other topics in an account of important and often famous experiments.
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Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences

Author: Murray Webster,Jane Sell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124051863

Category: Education

Page: 534

View: 9754

While there are many books available on statistical analysis of data from experiments, there is significantly less available on the design, development, and actual conduct of the experiments. Laboratory Experiments in the Social Sciences summarizes how to design and conduct scientifically sound experiments, be they from surveys, interviews, observations, or experimental methods. The book encompasses how to collect reliable data, the appropriate uses of different methods, and how to avoid or resolve common problems in experimental research. Case study examples illustrate how multiple methods can be used to answer the same research questions and what kinds of outcome would result from each methodology. Sound data begins with effective data collection. This book will assist students and professionals alike in sociology, marketing, political science, anthropology, economics, and psychology. Provides a comprehensive summary of issues in social science experimentation, from ethics to design, management, and financing Offers "how-to" explanations of the problems and challenges faced by everyone involved in social science experiments Pays attention to both practical problems and to theoretical and philosophical arguments Defines commonalities and distinctions within and among experimental situations across the social sciences
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A Midwestern Mosaic

Immigration and Political Socialization in Rural America

Author: J. Celeste Lay

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439907943

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 8052

Drawn by low-skilled work and the safety and security of rural life, increasing numbers of families from Latin America and Southeast Asia have migrated to the American heartland. In the path-breaking book A Midwestern Mosaic, J. Celeste Lay examines the effects of political socialization on native white youth growing up in small towns. Lay studies five Iowa towns to investigate how the political attitudes and inclinations of native adolescents change as a result of rapid ethnic diversification. Using surveys and interviews, she discovers that native adolescents adapt very well to foreign-born citizens, and that over time, gaps diminish between diverse populations and youth in all-white/Anglo towns in regard to tolerance, political knowledge, efficacy, and school participation. A Midwestern Mosaic looks at the next generation to show how exposure to ethnic and cultural diversity during formative years can shape political behavior and will influence politics in the future.
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Semi-Presidentialism

Sub-Types And Democratic Performance

Author: Robert Elgie

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199585989

Category: Political Science

Page: 206

View: 5541

Robert Elgie examines the relationship between semi-presidentialism and democratic performance. There are over 50 countries with a semi-presidential constitution. This book shows that the president-parliamentary sub-type is more likely to be associated with a poorer democratic performance than its premier-presidential counterpart.
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Patterns of Discovery in the Social Sciences

Author: Paul Diesing

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202367800

Category: Political Science

Page: 350

View: 6456

Social scientists are often vexed because their work does not satisfy the criteria of "scientific" methodology developed by philosophers of science and logicians who use the natural sciences as their model. In this study, Paul Diesing defines science not by reference to these arbitrary norms delineated by those outside the field but in terms of norms implicit in what social scientists actually do in their everyday work. Patterns of Discovery in the Social Sciences is a detailed and systematic report on the full range of methods and procedures as they are actually practiced. Neither a how-to-do-it handbook nor a lofty philosophical treatise, this is a truly interdisciplinary study of the basic modes of procedure in scientific inquiry, with a special emphasis on normative politics. Diesing treats scientific methods as inductive logics of discovery in continuous evolution. He emphasizes the variety of methods available, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of specific methods, and, in particular, provides an account of mathematical modeling and of participant observation. The book will be of immense interest to all working social scientists, graduate students in any of the social science disciplines, and philosophers of science. It can also be employed as a text or supplement in courses in sociological methods and philosophy of science. This book is also a noteworthy companion to Diesing's major work on Science and Ideology in the Policy Sciences. Paul Diesing is professor emeritus of political science at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He did his graduate studies in philosophy from the University of Chicago and has taught at that university, the University of Illinois, and the University of Colorado. Diesing has also been a faculty associate at the Buffalo Center for International Conflict Studies, where he participated in the Center's program of researching in bargaining theory and international crises. He is the author of Reason in Society: Five Types of Decisions and Their Social Conditions and Science and Ideology in the Policy Sciences.
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Land Use Problems and Conflicts

Causes, Consequences and Solutions

Author: John C. Bergstrom,Stephen J Goetz,James S. Shortle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135996113

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 6530

The causes, consequences and control of land use change have become topics of enormous importance in contemporary society. Not only is urban land use and sprawl a hot-button issue, but issues of rural land use have also been in the headlines. Policy makers and citizens are starting to realize that many environmental and economic issues have the question of land use at their very core. Comprising papers from a conference sponsored by the Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Land Use Problems and Conflicts draws together some of the most up-to-date research in this area. Sections are devoted to problems in the United States and Europe, the consequences of such problems, land use-related data and alternative solutions to conflict. With a lineup including some of the best scholarship on this subject to date, this volume will be of use to those studying environmental and land use issues in addition to policy makers and economists.
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Philosophy of Social Science

A New Introduction

Author: Nancy Cartwright,Eleonora Montuschi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191030082

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 7134

This is a much-needed new introduction to a field that has been transformed in recent years by exciting new subjects, ideas, and methods. It is designed both for students with central interests in philosophy and those planning to concentrate on the social sciences, and it presupposes no particular background in either domain. From the wide range of topics at the forefront of debate in philosophy of social science, the editors have chosen those which are representative of the most important and interesting contemporary work. A team of distinguished experts explore key aspects of the field such as social ontology (what are the things that social science studies?), objectivity, formal methods, measurement, and causal inference. Also included are chapters focused on notable subjects of social science research, such as well-being and climate change. Philosophy of Social Science provides a clear, accessible, and up-to-date guide to this fascinating field.
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Causality

Philosophical Theory meets Scientific Practice

Author: Phyllis Illari,Federica Russo

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191639680

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 4597

Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.
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An Introduction to Empirical Legal Research

Author: Lee Epstein,Andrew D. Martin

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191646555

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 4533

Is the death penalty a more effective deterrent than lengthy prison sentences? Does a judge's gender influence their decisions? Do independent judiciaries promote economic freedom? Answering such questions requires empirical evidence, and arguments based on empirical research have become an everyday part of legal practice, scholarship, and teaching. In litigation judges are confronted with empirical evidence in cases ranging from bankruptcy and taxation to criminal law and environmental infringement. In academia researchers are increasingly turning to sophisticated empirical methods to assess and challenge fundamental assumptions about the law. As empirical methods impact on traditional legal scholarship and practice, new forms of education are needed for today's lawyers. All lawyers asked to present or assess empirical arguments need to understand the fundamental principles of social science methodology that underpin sound empirical research. An Introduction to Empirical Legal Research introduces that methodology in a legal context, explaining how empirical analysis can inform legal arguments; how lawyers can set about framing empirical questions, conducting empirical research, analysing data, and presenting or evaluating the results. The fundamentals of understanding quantitative and qualitative data, statistical models, and the structure of empirical arguments are explained in a way accessible to lawyers with or without formal training in statistics. Written by two of the world's leading experts in empirical legal analysis, drawing on years of experience in training lawyers in empirical methods, An Introduction to Empirical Legal Research will be an invaluable primer for all students, academics, or practising lawyers coming to empirical research - whether they are embarking themselves on an empirical research project, or engaging with empirical arguments in their field of study, research, or practice.
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Causal Analysis in Population Studies

Concepts, Methods, Applications

Author: Henriette Engelhardt,Hans-Peter Kohler,Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402099673

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 1377

The central aim of many studies in population research and demography is to explain cause-effect relationships among variables or events. For decades, population scientists have concentrated their efforts on estimating the ‘causes of effects’ by applying standard cross-sectional and dynamic regression techniques, with regression coefficients routinely being understood as estimates of causal effects. The standard approach to infer the ‘effects of causes’ in natural sciences and in psychology is to conduct randomized experiments. In population studies, experimental designs are generally infeasible. In population studies, most research is based on non-experimental designs (observational or survey designs) and rarely on quasi experiments or natural experiments. Using non-experimental designs to infer causal relationships—i.e. relationships that can ultimately inform policies or interventions—is a complex undertaking. Specifically, treatment effects can be inferred from non-experimental data with a counterfactual approach. In this counterfactual perspective, causal effects are defined as the difference between the potential outcome irrespective of whether or not an individual had received a certain treatment (or experienced a certain cause). The counterfactual approach to estimate effects of causes from quasi-experimental data or from observational studies was first proposed by Rubin in 1974 and further developed by James Heckman and others. This book presents both theoretical contributions and empirical applications of the counterfactual approach to causal inference.
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Operational Research and the Social Sciences

Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 6411

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.
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Experiments in Knowing

Gender and Method in the Social Sciences

Author: Ann Oakley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781565846203

Category: Social Science

Page: 402

View: 4284

The feminist philosopher and social scientist shows how "gendering" has affected the social and natural sciences as she reconciles the long-standing dichotomy between the quantitative and qualitative methods and demonstrates the tandem use of both experimental and intuitive approaches.
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Borderline Welfare

Feeling and Fear of Feeling in Modern Welfare

Author: Andrew Cooper,Julian Lousada

Publisher: Karnac Books

ISBN: 9781855759053

Category: Psychology

Page: 237

View: 1609

Which "forms of feeling" are facilitated and which discouraged within the cultures and structures of modern state welfare? This book illuminates the social and psychic dynamics of these new public cultures of welfare, locating them in relation to our understanding of borderline states of mind in individuals, organizations, and society. Drawing upon their idea of a psychoanalytic sensibility rooted in Wilfred Bion's notion of "learning from experience", the authors aim to access the new structures of feeling now taking shape in commercialized and commodified health and social care systems. Integrating their reflections on clinical work with patients, consultancy with public sector organizations, political analysis, and the tradition of Group Relations Training, they offer a wide-ranging perspective on how contemporary social anxieties are managed within modern public welfare. Our collective struggle with fears of dependency and loss, and the demands of living and working in an inter-dependent "networked" world give rise to fresh challenges to our ability to maintain depth emotional engagements in welfare settings.
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Thought Experiments in Methodological and Historical Contexts

Author: Katerina Ierodiakonou,Sophie Roux

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004201769

Category: Philosophy

Page: 233

View: 8613

By analysing thought experiments from various periods in the history of philosophy and science, the essays in this volume seek to clarify how thought experiments work, what their limits are, and what their conceptualisation could be.
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Web Social Science

Concepts, Data and Tools for Social Scientists in the Digital Age

Author: Robert Ackland

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446283119

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 3015

"Although written simply enough to be accessible to undergraduates, accomplished scholars are likely to appreciate it too. Reading it taught me quite a lot about a subject I thought I knew rather well." - Paul Vogt, Illinois State University "This book brings the art and science of building and applying innovative online research tools to students and faculty across the social sciences." - William H. Dutton, University of Oxford A comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of web Social Science. This book demonstrates how the web is being used to collect social research data, such as online surveys and interviews, as well as digital trace data from social media environments, such as Facebook and Twitter. It also illuminates how the advent of the web has led to traditional social science concepts and approaches being combined with those from other scientific disciplines, leading to new insights into social, political and economic behaviour. Situating social sciences in the digital age, this book aids: understanding of the fundamental changes to society, politics and the economy that have resulted from the advent of the web choice of appropriate data, tools and research methods for conducting research using web data learning how web data are providing new insights into long-standing social science research questions appreciation of how social science can facilitate an understanding of life in the digital age It is ideal for students and researchers across the social sciences, as well as those from information science, computer science and engineering who want to learn about how social scientists are thinking about and researching the web.
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Interdisciplinary Relationships in the Social Sciences

Author: Carolyn W. Sherif

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202366871

Category: Psychology

Page: 360

View: 3392

Interdisciplinary collaboration in the social sciences is obviously essential to scientific progress, but discontent and practical difficulties hinder collaboration in research and training. Many of the problems arise from the failure in the separate disciplines to understand the basis on which collaboration is necessary and possible. In an effort to shed light on the situation, these original essays by eminent scholars--economists, geographers, psychologists, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, and others--demonstrate effective means of achieving interdisciplinary coordination in studying human behavior and delineating promising areas--for cooperative research. The book provides a sophisticated guide to the nature of knowledge in social science as applied to its core disciplines. Since the social sciences separately are studying and theorizing about many of the same kinds of human behavior, the contributors propose that scholars can avoid possible duplication of effort and increase the validity of their formulations by consulting the related findings and methodology from other disciplines before embarking on a research problem. The contributors maintain that this interchange, by broadening the total knowledge of each discipline, represents the best approach toward fulfilling the goals of social scientific inquiry. The individual chapters give valuable insight into the theoretical overlaps among the disciplines and outline specific research areas--such as group interaction, political attitudes, and intergroup relations--that require interdisciplinary cooperation to produce valid formulations. A major step toward creating a dialogue among disciplines, the book will enable every social scientist to understand more clearly the current state and future direction of interdisciplinary relationships and their indispensable future in social scientific thought. Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988) was professor and director of the psychosocial studies program at Pennsylvania State University. He is known as one of the founders of the field of social psychology and also helped develop social judgment theory and realistic conflict theory. Carolyn W. Sherif (1922-1982) was professor of psychology at Pennsylvania State University. She wrote numerous important articles dealing with gender in society, gender in self-reference and the need for gender to be studied in the sciences.
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