The anatomy of a volcano
Author: D.K. Chester,A.M. Duncan,J.E. Guest,C. Kilburn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 6390Since the Second World War interest in the active by Italian geophysicists; studies of ground deform volcano Mount Etna, in Sicily, has been steadily ation by British and Italian groups; measurements increasing. This interest has not been restricted of microgravity changes particularly by a British to Italy, and scientists from Belgium, France, group; endeavours to improve analytical tech Germany, the United States and the United King niques for gases and sublimates by French and also dom have played a part in volcanological studies. Italian and British workers; pioneering work on In 1972 much of this work was drawn together at a rheology of lavas and growth of lava fields by discussion meeting convened by the Royal Society British scientists; and greatly improved surveil of London and attended by representatives of most lance of activity, notably that occurring in the summit region. of the projects that were being conducted on Etna. The meeting served to draw together current It is a principal aim of this book to synthesize the knowledge of Etna, especially information derived results of these many different studies into a more during the 1971 flank eruption, and also to point complete understanding of the volcano. Inevitably out deficiencies in knowledge and methods of the coverage is somewhat uneven; some fields of approach to investigating the volcano. In his study have been researched more thoroughly than opening statement to the meeting Professor A. others.
The Physics and Mathematics of Volcanism
Author: Sarah A. Fagents,Tracy K. P. Gregg,Rosaly M. C. Lopes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
View: 8328Understanding the physical behavior of volcanoes is key to mitigating the hazards active volcanoes pose to the ever-increasing populations living nearby. The processes involved in volcanic eruptions are driven by a series of interlinked physical phenomena, and to fully understand these, volcanologists must employ various physics subdisciplines. This book provides the first advanced-level, one-stop resource examining the physics of volcanic behavior and reviewing the state-of-the-art in modeling volcanic processes. Each chapter begins by explaining simple modeling formulations and progresses to present cutting-edge research illustrated by case studies. Individual chapters cover subsurface magmatic processes through to eruption in various environments and conclude with the application of modeling to understanding the other volcanic planets of our Solar System. Providing an accessible and practical text for graduate students of physical volcanology, this book is also an important resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of volcanology, geophysics, geochemistry, petrology and natural hazards.
Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 9267This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com
A Survey of Magma/Igneous Rock Systems
Author: Eric A. K. Middlemost
View: 4602The variety of volcanic activity in the Solar System is widely recognised, yet the majestic sequences of magmatic processes that operate within an active planet are much less well known. Providing an exposition of igneous rocks, magmas and volcanic erupsions, this book brings together magnetic and volcanic data from different tectonic settings, and planets, with explanations of how they fit together. It systematically examines composition, origin and evolution of common igneous rocks, yet also examines a variety of rare magnetic rocks that play a crucial role in the global magma/igneous rock system.
Author: Alessandro Bonaccorso,Sonia Calvari,Mauro Coltelli,Ciro Del Negro,Susanna Falsaperla
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
View: 6282This volume presents new multidisciplinary perspectives on Europe's largest active volcano. Studies in; geology and eruptive history, petrology and gas geochemistry, seismology, gravity and electromagnetism, ground deformation, and lava flow simulation and mitigation.
the Mediterranean and beyond
Author: Miriam S. Balmuth,David K. Chester,Patricia A. Johnston
Publisher: Archaeological Inst of Amer
View: 4959This book is the result of two interdisciplinary symposia held by a group of volcanologists, engineers, Near Eastern and classical philologists, and Old and New World archaeologists in Naples, Italy and Medford, Massachusetts. Contributors to the 19 chapters in this volume examine the complex problems that arise in volcanic environments and the various ways in which societies respond. These studies cross barriers among the volcanological, geological, antiquarian, and archaeological perspectives in studying such topics as risk assessment, responses in prehistoric and historic times, and representations in ancient literature.
Emplacement Mechanisms and Hazard Implications
Author: Jonathan H. Fink
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 8883This collection of papers is based on a symposium held in 1987 at the Interna tional Union of Geology and Geodesy Congress in Vancouver, British Colum bia. The Symposium was planned as a follow-up to a session at the 1984 Geo logical Society of America Annual Meeting in Reno, Nevada, which dealt with the emplacement of silicic lava domes. In both cases, emphasis was placed on the physical and mechanical rather than chemical aspects of lava flow. The IUGG Symposium consisted of two lecture sessions, a poster session, and two discussion periods, and had 22 participants. The contributions to this volume are all based on papers presented in the various parts of the Sym posium. The motivation for studying lava flow mechanics is both practical and scientific. Scientists and government agencies seek to more effectively predict the hazards associated with active lavas. Recovering mineral resources found in lava flows and domes also requires an understanding of their emplacement. From a more theoretical standpoint, petrologists view lava studies as a way to directly observe the rheologic consequences of mixing crystals, bubbles, and solid blocks of country rock with silicate liquids. This information can then be used to constrain processes occurring in the concealed conduits, dikes, and chambers that feed flows and domes on the surface.
Author: Alexander Homboldt
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
View: 3635Diese Veroffentlichung von Alexander von Humboldt ist die Synopse der bis dahin (1805) durchgefuhrten Forschungsreisen. Er versuchte sich hier erstmals an einer Systematik der weltweiten Geographie der Pflanzen und schuf damit ein revolutioares und weithin beachtetes Werk.
Author: Vyacheslav M Zobin
View: 4966Volcanic seismology represents the main, and often the only, tool to forecast volcanic eruptions and to monitor the eruption process. This book describes the main types of seismic signals at volcanoes, their nature and spatial and temporal distributions at different stages of eruptive activity. Following from the success of the first edition, published in 2003, the second edition consists of 19 chapters including significant revision and five new chapters. Organized into four sections, the book begins with an introduction to the history and topic of volcanic seismology, discussing the theoretical and experimental models that were developed for the study of the origin of volcanic earthquakes. The second section is devoted to the study of volcano-tectonic earthquakes, giving the theoretical basis for their occurrence and swarms as well as case stories of volcano-tectonic activity associated with the eruptions at basaltic, andesitic, and dacitic volcanoes. There were 40 cases of volcanic eruptions at 20 volcanoes that occurred all over the world from 1910 to 2005, which are discussed. General regularities of volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms, their participation in the eruptive process, their source properties, and the hazard of strong volcano-tectonic earthquakes are also described. The third section describes the theoretical basis for the occurrence of eruption earthquakes together with the description of volcanic tremor, the seismic signals associated with pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and lahars, and volcanic explosions, long-period and very-long-period seismic signals at volcanoes, micro-earthquake swarms, and acoustic events. The final section discuss the mitigation of volcanic hazard and include the methodology of seismic monitoring of volcanic activity, the examples of forecasting of volcanic eruptions by seismic methods, and the description of seismic activity in the regions of dormant volcanoes. This book will be essential for students and practitioners of volcanic seismology to understand the essential elements of volcanic eruptions. Provides a comprehensive overview of seismic signals at different stages of volcano eruption. Discusses dozens of case histories from around the world to provide real-world applications. Illustrations accompany detailed descriptions of volcano eruptions alongside the theories involved.
Author: Salem Press
Publisher: Magill's Choice
View: 3739Geology provides essential reference information structured as an overview of the basics of earth science. Covering 83 core topics in geochemistry, geomorphology, geophysics, glacial geology, mineralogy, and crystallography, paleontology and earth history, petroleum geology and engineering, petrology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, structural geology and tectonics.