Morals, Reason, and Animals

Author: S. F. Sapontzis

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780877229612

Category: Nature

Page: 328

View: 8904

This book criticizes the common belief that we are entitled to exploit animals for our benefit because they are not as rational as people. After discussing the moral (in)significance of reason in general, the author proceeds to develop a clear, commonsensical conception of what "animal rights" is about and why everyday morality points toward the liberation of animals as the next logical step in Western moral progress. The book evaluates criticisms of animal rights that have appeared in recent philosophical literature and explains the consequences of animal liberation for our diet, science, and treatment of the environment. The issue of animal rights has become of increasing philosophical and popular importance over the past decade. Morals. Reason, and Animals is the first extensive, second-generation contribution to this debate. Focusing exclusively on the fundamental philosophical issues, Sapontzis both undermines the arguments that have been raised against animal rights and constructs a rebuttal that avoids the pitfalls encountered by earlier defenses. Author note: S. F. Sapontzis is Professor of Philosophy at California State University, Hayward.
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Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy

Author: Julian H. Franklin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231508719

Category: Nature

Page: 176

View: 1631

Animals obviously cannot have a right of free speech or a right to vote because they lack the relevant capacities. But their right to life and to be free of exploitation is no less fundamental than the corresponding right of humans, writes Julian H. Franklin. This theoretically rigorous book will reassure the committed, help the uncertain to decide, and arm the polemicist. Franklin examines all the major arguments for animal rights proposed to date and extends the philosophy in new directions. Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy begins by considering the utilitarian argument of equal respect for animals advocated by Peter Singer and, even more favorably, the rights approach that has been advanced by Tom Regan. Despite their merits, both are found wanting as theoretical foundations for animal rights. Franklin also examines the ecofeminist argument for an ethics of care and several rationalist arguments before concluding that Kant's categorical imperative can be expanded to form a basis for an ethical system that includes all sentient beings. Franklin also discusses compassion as applied to animals, encompassing Albert Schweitzer's ethics of reverence for life. He concludes his analysis by considering conflicts of rights between animals and humans.
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Animal Minds and Human Morals

The Origins of the Western Debate

Author: Richard Sorabji

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 150171788X

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 7857

Sorabji surveys a vast range of Greek philosophical texts and considers how classical discussions of animals' capacities intersect with central questions, not only in ethics but in the definition of human rationality as well.
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Animal Rights Without Liberation

Applied Ethics and Human Obligations

Author: Alasdair Cochrane

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504438

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 723

Alasdair Cochrane introduces an entirely new theory of animal rights grounded in their interests as sentient beings. He then applies this theory to different and underexplored policy areas, such as genetic engineering, pet-keeping, indigenous hunting, and religious slaughter. In contrast to other proponents of animal rights, Cochrane claims that because most sentient animals are not autonomous agents, they have no intrinsic interest in liberty. As such, he argues that our obligations to animals lie in ending practices that cause their suffering and death and do not require the liberation of animals. Cochrane's "interest-based rights approach" weighs the interests of animals to determine which is sufficient to impose strict duties on humans. In so doing, Cochrane acknowledges that sentient animals have a clear and discernable right not to be made to suffer and not to be killed, but he argues that they do not have a prima facie right to liberty. Because most animals possess no interest in leading freely chosen lives, humans have no moral obligation to liberate them. Moving beyond theory to the practical aspects of applied ethics, this pragmatic volume provides much-needed perspective on the realities and responsibilities of the human-animal relationship.
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Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare

Author: Marc Bekoff,Carron A. Meaney

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135930090

Category: Social Science

Page: 470

View: 5479

Human beings' responsibility to and for their fellow animals has become an increasingly controversial subject. This book provides a provocative overview of the many different perspectives on the issues of animal rights and animal welfare in an easy-to-use encyclopedic format. Original contributions, from over 125 well-known philosophers, biologists, and psychologists in this field, create a well-balanced and multi-disciplinary work. Users will be able to examine critically the varied angles and arguments and gain a better understanding of the history and development of animal rights and animal protectionist movements around the world. Outstanding Reference Source Best Reference Source
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Animals and Society

An Introduction to Human-Animal Studies

Author: Margo DeMello

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526768

Category: Nature

Page: 488

View: 882

Considering that much of human society is structured through its interaction with non-human animals, and since human society relies heavily on the exploitation of animals to serve human needs, human–animal studies has become a rapidly expanding field of research, featuring a number of distinct positions, perspectives, and theories that require nuanced explanation and contextualization. The first book to provide a full overview of human–animal studies, this volume focuses on the conceptual construction of animals in American culture and the way in which it reinforces and perpetuates hierarchical human relationships rooted in racism, sexism, and class privilege. Margo DeMello considers interactions between humans and animals within the family, the law, the religious and political system, and other major social institutions, and she unpacks the different identities humans fashion for themselves and for others through animals. Essays also cover speciesism and evolutionary continuities; the role and preservation of animals in the wild; the debate over zoos and the use of animals in sports; domestication; agricultural practices such as factory farming; vivisection; animal cruelty; animal activism; the representation of animals in literature and film; and animal ethics. Sidebars highlight contemporary controversies and issues, with recommendations for additional reading, educational films, and related websites. DeMello concludes with an analysis of major philosophical positions on human social policy and the future of human–animal relations.
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Handbuch Tierethik

Grundlagen – Kontexte – Perspektiven

Author: Johann S. Ach,Dagmar Borchers

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3476054020

Category: Philosophy

Page: 363

View: 6316

Das Handbuch führt ein in zentrale Begriffe, Konzeptionen, Themen- und Problemfelder der Tierethik. Neben der Geschichte der Tierethik, relevanten Konzepten und Theorien sowie einer Bandbreite unterschiedlicher Anwendungskontexte findet sich auch eine Darstellung der Tierphilosophie und ihrer wichtigsten Fragestellungen. Das Handbuch will darüber hinaus auch die sich in aktuellen Diskussionen und Kontroversen abzeichnenden Perspektiven der Tierethik umfassend vorstellen. Ziel des Handbuchs ist es, das breite Spektrum inhaltlicher und begrifflicher Aspekte der historischen und gegenwärtigen Tierethik zu reflektieren und einen Einblick in den aktuellen Diskussionsstand zu geben.
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Subjective Morals

Author: Steve F. Sapontzis

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761856862

Category: Philosophy

Page: 218

View: 7272

Subjective Morals breaks with tradition to provide a careful analysis of moral values and the goods and evils they produce. Sapontzis explores the subjective and objective bases of moral values and analyzes the concepts and categories that structure our moral practice.
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Animals as Persons

Essays on the Abolition of Animal Exploitation

Author: Gary Lawrence Francione

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231139500

Category: Nature

Page: 235

View: 9457

Gary L. Francione explains our historical and contemporary attitudes about animals by distinguishing the issue of animal use from that of animal treatment. He then presents a theory of animal rights that focuses on the need to accord all sentient nonhumans the right not to be treated as property.
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Putting the Horse Before Descartes

My Life's Work on Behalf of Animals

Author: Bernard Rollin

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1592138276

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 285

View: 2171

Putting the Horse before Descartes showcases this passionate animal advocate at his best. In witty, often disarming detail, Rollin describes how he became an outspoken critic of how animals were treated in veterinary and medical schools and research laboratories. He recalls teaching veterinary students about ethical issues and engaging in face-offs with ranchers and cowboys about branding methods and rodeo roping competitions. Rollin also describes his efforts to legally mandate more humane conditions for agricultural and laboratory animals. As public concern about animal welfare and the safety of the food supply heighten, Rollin carries on his work on a global scaleùin classrooms, in lecture halls, in legislatures, in meetings of agricultural associations, in industrial settings, and in print. --Book Jacket.
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Eating and Believing

Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Vegetarianism and Theology

Author: David Grumett,Rachel Muers

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0567577368

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 9126

What are the links between people's beliefs and the foods they choose to eat? In the modern Western world, dietary choices are a topic of ethical and political debate, but how can centuries of Christian thought and practice also inform them? And how do reasons for abstaining from particular foods in the modern world compare with earlier ones? This book will shed new light on modern vegetarianism and related forms of dietary choice by situating them in the context of historic Christian practice. It will show how the theological significance of embodied practice may be retrieved and reconceived in the present day. Food and diet is a neglected area of Christian theology, and Christianity is conspicuous among the modern world's religions in having few dietary rules or customs. Yet historically, food and the practices surrounding it have significantly shaped Christian lives and identities. This collection, prepared collaboratively, includes contributions on the relationship between Christian beliefs and food practices in specific historical contexts. It considers the relationship between eating and believing from non-Christian perspectives that have in turn shaped Christian attitudes and practices. It also examines ethical arguments about vegetarianism and their significance for emerging Christian theologies of food.
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Personhood and Health Care

Author: David C. Thomasma,David N. Weisstub,Christian Hervé

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401725721

Category: Philosophy

Page: 451

View: 7700

PERSONHOOD AND HEALTH CARE This book arose as a result of a pre-conference devoted to the topic held June 28, 1999 in Paris, France. The pre-conference preceded the Annual Congress of the International Academy ofLaw and Mental Health. Other chapters were solicited after the conference in order to more completely explore the relation of personhood to health care. The pre conference was held in honor of Yves Pelicier who led so many of our French colleagues in medicine, philosophy, and ethics as Christian Herve notes in his Tribute. As health care is aimed at healing persons, it is important to realize how difficult it is to construct a theory of personhood for health care, and thus, a theory of how healing in health care comes about or ought to occur. The book is divided into four parts, Concepts of the Person, Theories of Personhood in Relation to Health Care and Bioethics, Person and Identity, and Personhood and Hs Relations. Each section explores a critical arena in constructing the relation of personhood to health care. Although no exploration ofthis nature can be exhaustive, every effort was made to present both conflicting and complementary views of personhood from within similar and different philosophical and religious traditions. PART ONE: CONCEPTS OF THE PERSON Tracing the origins of the concept of person from antiquity through present day, Jean Delemeau provides an historical sketch of the development of a wide range of meanings.
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What Animals Want

Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy

Author: Larry Carbone

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199882991

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 8320

Larry Carbone, a veterinarian who is in charge of the lab animal welfare assurance program at a major research university, presents this scholarly history of animal rights. Biomedical researchers, and the less fanatical among the animal rights activists will find this book reasonable, humane, and novel in its perspective. It brings a novel, sociological perspective to an area that has been addressed largely from a philosophical perspective, or from the entrenched positions of highly committed advocates of a particular position in the debate.
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Der Mensch, der Bonobo und die Zehn Gebote

Moral ist älter als Religion

Author: Frans de Waal

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 360810822X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 365

View: 6437

Woher kommt die Moral? Wie hilft sie uns dabei, richtig zu handeln? De Waal beantwortet Fragen rund um Moral und Humanismus mit Blick auf Primaten und andere Tiere, die uns erstaunlich nahestehen: Im gottlosen Universum beobachtet er, wie Menschenaffen gerecht, kooperativ und empathisch handeln. Der weltbekannte Primatenforscher Frans de Waal nimmt uns mit auf eine erfrischende, philosophische Reise, bei der die lange Tradition des Humanismus ebenso zu Wort kommt wie das Sozialverhalten im Tierreich. Er untersucht, welche Konsequenzen seine Forschungen für unser Verständnis von moderner Religion haben. Ganz gleich, welchen Einfluss die Religion auf den Moralkodex des Menschen genommen hat, sie ist nicht die Urheberin unserer Moralität. Der Autor fordert die Leser auf, sich konstruktiv mit Fragen wie diesen auseinanderzusetzen: Welche Rolle spielt die Religion heutzutage in einer gut funktionierenden Gesellschaft? Wo können Gläubige und Nichtgläubige Inspiration für eine gute Lebensführung finden?
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Animal Bioethics

Principles and Teaching Methods

Author: Michel Marie

Publisher: Wageningen Academic Pub

ISBN: 9076998582

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 6792

Nowadays there are widespread ethical concerns about animal production and our treatment of animals. This book is the first to specifically examine these issues from an educational perspective. With 19 chapters written by 31 authors experienced in this field and coming from 11 European countries, this book will be of great value to veterinary, agronomy and science students and teachers. It will also be of use for everyone interested in developing moral reasoning and communication skills relative to ethics, whether animal centred or in a broader sense.The first part of the book is devoted to in-depth analyses of historical, philosophical, religious and cultural perspectives as well as of the driving forces in action. This enables readers to develop a good understanding of the ethical principles related to human-animal relationships, and their dynamics.In the second part, teaching objectives, strategies and methods are analysed, resulting in a conceptual framework for education in this area. Concrete suggestions are given to be applied in teaching, training and communication. This provides a basis for curricula development, including appropriate principles, content and examples. A detailed syllabus is proposed in the case of animal welfare, including its rationale and extensive sources of information. The methods proposed, in their varying degrees of complexity involve active processes, mainly founded on case studies and problem-based learning. This will contribute to a necessary sharing of experience and the spreading of good practice.
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Über die Grundlage der Moral

Author: Arthur Schopenhauer

Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787327835

Category: Philosophy

Page: 189

View: 5669

In seiner 1839 bei der Dänischen Societät der Wissenschaften eingereichten und 1841 erst mals in dem Band "Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik" veröffentlichten Preisschrift über die Grundlage der Moral legt Schopenhauer eine Reihe bemerkenswerter Ergänzungen zu seiner Ethik bzw. Metaphysik der Sitten vor. In keinem anderen seiner Werke setzt er sich so ausführlich mit Kants Ethik auseinander, die er einerseits als bedeutende Leistung würdigt, an derseits aber auch einer gründlichen und - in vielen Punkten - überzeugenden Kritik unter wirft. Ein zentraler Einwand lautet, daß der kategorische Imperativ letzten Endes einem kalkulierten Egoismus entspringe. Damit wäre er kein formales, sondern ein materiales Prinzip, und er würde nicht kategorisch, sondern allenfalls hypothetisch gelten. Darüber hinaus weist Schopenhauer die "imperative Form" der Kantischen Ethik als unangemessen zurück. Nach seiner Auffassung besteht die Aufgabe der Ethik keineswegs darin, Vorschriften aufzustellen, nach denen sich die Menschen zu richten hätten, sondern lediglich darin, deren Verhalten zu beschreiben und verständlich zu machen. Was seine eigene Konzeption der Ethik anbelangt, so läuft sie darauf hinaus, daß das Mitleid die Grundlage der Moral bildet. Schopenhauer charakterisiert es als ein Gefühl, in dem einem Menschen das Leiden des Anderen ebenso unmittelbar zugänglich ist wie das eigene und das ihn dazu motiviert, den Anderen zum letzten Zweck des Handelns zu machen. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelt Schopenhauer seine eigene Tugendlehre, in deren Mittelpunkt die Gerechtigkeit und die Menschenliebe stehen.
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Artgerecht ist nur die Freiheit

Eine Ethik für Tiere oder Warum wir umdenken müssen

Author: Hilal Sezgin

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406659055

Category: Social Science

Page: 301

View: 2314

Tierquälerei ist schwer erträglich. Trotzdem lassen wir es stillschweigend zu, dass unzählige Tiere in Versuchslaboren gequält und in Mastställen und Schlachthöfen angeblich „artgerecht“ misshandelt werden, weil wir uns ein Leben ohne „tierische Produkte“ nicht vorstellen können. Wem dieser Widerspruch keine Ruhe lässt, der sollte Hilal Sezgins Augen öffnendes Buch lesen. Sie geht der Frage nach, ob wir Tiere im medizinischen Interesse malträtieren und ob wir sie einsperren, töten und essen dürfen. In einer lebhaften Auseinandersetzung mit anderen (tier-)ethischen Positionen plädiert sie dafür, Tiere als Individuen mit eigenen Rechten anzuerkennen – auch in unserem eigenen Interesse. Am Ende dieser engagierten Tierethik steht die Vision einer Menschheit, die sich die Erde gerecht mit anderen Tieren teilen kann. Eine fulminant geschriebene Einladung zum Umdenken, der man sich nur schwer entziehen kann. „Hilal Sezgin stellt die Fragen, vor denen sich unsere Gesellschaft schon viel zu lange gedrückt hat.“ (Karen Duve, Autorin von „Anständig essen“) „Beeindruckend, irritierend, super geschrieben. Nicht immer wird man zustimmen können – aber in der Radikalität dieses Buches liegt gerade seine Qualität.“ (Harald Welzer, Direktor der Stiftung „Futurzwei“) „Hilal Sezgin definiert Humanismus neu, nämlich als Animalismus. Nicht gepredigt, sondern gelebt. Hut ab.“ (Christoph Maria Herbst, Schauspieler) „Jeder, der Tiere liebt, sollte dieses Buch lesen; und wer sie nicht liebt, auch.“ (Karin Mück, Gründerin der Tierschutz Stiftung Hof Butenland)
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Animals, Rights and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics

Author: Stephen Newmyer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135130582

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 4097

This groundbreaking volume explores Plutarch's unique survival in the argument that animals are rational and sentient, and that we, as humans, must take notice of their interests. Exploring Plutarch's three animal-related treatises, as well as passages from his ethical treatises, Stephen Newmyer examines arguments that, strikingly, foreshadow those found in the works of such prominent animal rights philosophers as Peter Singer and Tom Regan. Unique in viewing Plutarch’s opinions not only in the context of ancient philosophical and ethical through, but also in its place in the history of animal rights speculation, Animals Rights and Reasons points out how remarkably Plutarch differs from such anti-animal thinkers as the Stoics. Classicists, philosophers, animal-welfare students and interested readers will all find this book an invaluable and informative addition to their reading.
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Reason and Emotion

Essays on Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory

Author: John Madison Cooper

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691058757

Category: Philosophy

Page: 588

View: 7287

This book brings together twenty-three distinctive and influential essays on ancient moral philosophy--including several published here for the first time--by the distinguished philosopher and classical scholar John Cooper. The volume gives a systematic account of many of the most important issues and texts in ancient moral psychology and ethical theory, providing a unified and illuminating way of reflecting on the fields as they developed from Socrates and Plato through Aristotle to Epicurus and the Stoic philosophers Chrysippus and Posidonius, and beyond. For the ancient philosophers, Cooper shows here, morality was "good character" and what that entailed: good judgment, sensitivity, openness, reflectiveness, and a secure and correct sense of who one was and how one stood in relation to others and the surrounding world. Ethical theory was about the best way to be rather than any principles for what to do in particular circumstances or in relation to recurrent temptations. Moral psychology was the study of the psychological conditions required for good character--the sorts of desires, the attitudes to self and others, the states of mind and feeling, the kinds of knowledge and insight. Together these papers illustrate brilliantly how, by studying the arguments of the Greek philosophers in their diverse theories about the best human life and its psychological underpinnings, we can expand our own moral understanding and imagination and enrich our own moral thought. The collection will be crucial reading for anyone interested in classical philosophy and what it can contribute to reflection on contemporary questions about ethics and human life.
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