Military Innovation in the Interwar Period

Author: Williamson R. Murray,Allan R. Millett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521637602

Category: History

Page: 428

View: 8965

A study of major military innovations in the 1920s and 1930s.
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Military Effectiveness: Volume 2, The Interwar Period

Author: Allan R. Millett,Williamson Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139502115

Category: History

Page: 281

View: 4310

This three-volume study examines the questions raised by the performance of the military institutions of France, Germany, Russia, the United States, Great Britain, Japan and Italy in the period from 1914 to 1945. Leading military historians deal with the different national approaches to war and military power at the tactical, operational, strategic, and political levels. They form the basis for a fundamental re-examination of how military organizations have performed in the first half of the twentieth century. Volume 2 covers the interwar period. Volumes 1 and 3 address World War I and World War II, respectively. Now in a new edition, with a new introduction by the editors, these classic volumes will remain invaluable for military historians and social scientists in their examination of national security and military issues. They will also be essential reading for future military leaders at Staff and War Colleges.
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Military Effectiveness: Volume 3, The Second World War

Author: Allan R. Millett,Williamson Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139502122

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 7785

This three-volume study examines the questions raised by the performance of the military institutions of France, Germany, Russia, the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and Italy in the period from 1914 to 1945. Leading military historians deal with the different national approaches to war and military power at the tactical, operational, strategic, and political levels. They form the basis for a fundamental re-examination of how military organizations have performed in the first half of the twentieth century. Volume 3 covers World War II. Volumes 1 and 2 address address World War I and the interwar period, respectively. Now in a new edition, with a new introduction by the editors, these classic volumes will remain invaluable for military historians and social scientists in their examination of national security and military issues. They will also be essential reading for future military leaders at Staff and War Colleges.
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Defence Planning and Uncertainty

Preparing for the Next Asia-Pacific War

Author: Stephan Frühling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317817842

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 5975

How can countries decide what kind of military forces they need, if threats are uncertain and history is full of strategic surprises? This is a question that is more pertinent than ever, as countries across the Asia-Pacific are faced with the military and economic rise of China. Uncertainty is inherent in defence planning, but different types of uncertainty mean that countries need to approach decisions about military force structure in different ways. This book examines four different basic frameworks for defence planning, and demonstrates how states can make decisions coherently about the structure and posture of their defence forces despite strategic uncertainty. It draws on case studies from the United States, Australian and New Zealand, each of which developed key concepts for their particular circumstances and risk perception in Asia. Success as well as failure in developing coherent defence planning frameworks holds lessons for the United States and other countries as they consider how best to structure their military forces for the uncertain challenges of the future.
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Military Adaptation in War

With Fear of Change

Author: Williamson Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107006597

Category: History

Page: 342

View: 2352

Addresses how military organizations confront the problem of adapting under the trying, terrifying conditions of war.
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The Culture of Military Innovation

The Impact of Cultural Factors on the Revolution in Military Affairs in Russia, the US, and Israel.

Author: Dima Adamsky

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804773807

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 2773

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.
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Wendepunkte

Schlüsselentscheidungen im Zweiten Weltkrieg

Author: Ian Kershaw

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641128110

Category: History

Page: 736

View: 1842

Entscheidungen, die Geschichte machten Der Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs stellte die Regierungschefs der Welt vor lebenswichtige Entscheidungen. In London, Berlin, Washington, Rom, Moskau und Tokio mussten Politiker und Generäle weitreichende Beschlüsse fassen. Ian Kershaw nimmt zehn Entscheidungen, die für den Verlauf des Zweiten Weltkriegs von zentraler Bedeutung waren, in den Blick und macht deutlich, dass in diesem Kampf nichts vorherbestimmt war. Die Ereignisse, die den Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs markierten, versetzten weite Teile der Welt in eine Art Schockzustand. Plötzlich schien es keine Regeln mehr zu geben. Die Aggressoren kannten für ihr Tun keine Grenzen, für ihre Opfer aber zogen dunkle Zeiten herauf. Im Strudel dieser Ereignisse sah sich eine kleine Gruppe von Politikern mit zentralen Entscheidungen konfrontiert, die in dieser Auseinandersetzung Triumph oder Untergang bedeuten konnten. In seinem glänzend geschriebenen Buch »Wendepunkte« vermittelt der Historiker Ian Kershaw dem Leser einen einzigartigen Eindruck davon, wie groß der Entscheidungsspielraum der einzelnen Politiker tatsächlich war und welche Rolle ihre ganz individuelle Persönlichkeit spielte: Warum entschloss sich Churchill, nach der französischen Kapitulation weiterzukämpfen? Warum vertraute Stalin darauf, dass Hitler die UdSSR nicht überfallen würde? Und warum griffen die Japaner Pearl Harbor an? Diese und weitere Entscheidungen veränderten den Lauf der Welt. Die zehn wichtigsten Entscheidungen des Zweiten Weltkriegs und die Männer, die sie trafen.
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Agents of Innovation

The General Board and the Design of the Fleet that Defeated the Japanese Navy

Author: John T. Kuehn

Publisher: Naval Institute Press

ISBN: 1612514057

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7024

The author examines the influence of the General Board of the U.S. Navy as an agent of innovation in the years between the world wars. A formal body established by the secretary of the Navy, the General Board served as the organizational nexus for the interaction between fleet design and the naval limitations imposed on the Navy by treaty. Particularly important, Kuehn argues, was the Board's role in implementing the Washington Naval Treaty, which limited naval armaments after 1922. Kuehn explains that the leadership of the Navy at large and the General Board in particular felt themselves especially constrained by Article XIX of the Washington Naval Treaty, which implemented a status quo on naval fortifications in the western Pacific.
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War, Strategy, and Military Effectiveness

Author: Williamson Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139499041

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 779

This collection of articles represents Professor Williamson Murray's efforts to elucidate the role that history should play in thinking about both the present and the future. They reflect three disparate themes in Professor Murray's work: his deep fascination with history and those who have acted in the past; his fascination with the similarities in human behavior between the past and the present; and his belief that the study of military and strategic history can be of real use to those who will confront the daunting problems of war and peace in the twenty-first century. The first group of essays addresses the relevance of history to an understanding of the present and to an understanding of the possibilities of the future. The second addresses the possible direct uses of history to think through the problems involved in the creation of effective military institutions. The final group represents historical case studies that serve to illuminate the present.
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Small Powers in the Age of Total War, 1900-1940

Author: Herman Amersfoort,Wim Klinkert

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004203214

Category: History

Page: 372

View: 4882

In the period 1900-1940 the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland reacted in divergent ways to the same foreign military threats. This volume argues that their internal politics and politico-military strategic culture are vital keys to understanding those differences.
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Warfighting and Disruptive Technologies

Disguising Innovation

Author: Terry Pierce

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135769311

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7108

Occasionally, during times of peace, military forces achieve major warfighting innovations. Terry Pierce terms these developments 'disruptive innovations' and shows how senior leaders have often disguised them in order to ensure their innovations survived. He shows how more common innovations however, have been those of integrating new technologies to help perform existing missions better and not change them radically. The author calls these 'sustaining innovations'. The recent innovation history suggests two interesting questions. First, how can senior military leaders achieve a disruptive innovation when they are heavily engaged around the world and they are managing sustaining innovations? Second, what have been the external sources of disruptive (and sustaining) innovations? This book is essential reading for professionals and students interested in national security, military history and strategic issues.
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The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050

Author: MacGregor Knox,Williamson Murray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521800792

Category: History

Page: 203

View: 8990

Studies the changes that have marked war in the Western World since the thirteenth century.
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US Military Innovation since the Cold War

Creation Without Destruction

Author: Harvey Sapolsky,Benjamin Friedman,Brendan Green

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135968675

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7570

This book explains how the US military reacted to the 'Revolution in Military Affairs' (RMA), and failed to innovate its organization or doctrine to match the technological breakthroughs it brought about. Many called for the transformation of the US military in the years after the end of the Cold War, seeking the changes in organization and doctrine that would complete the RMA innovation and a commitment to counter-insurgency, peace keeping and nation building missions. This volume describes the origins, uses, and limits of the RMA technologies, examines how each of the five US armed services (categorising the Special Operations as a separate service) made their adjustments both to the technologies and the use of force, and how the role of the civilian officials and the defense industry altered in this process of change and avoidance of change. The book examines the internal politics of the services as well as civil/military relations to identify the external pressures on the services for significant change in their doctrine and weapons. Many have noted the failure of the services to innovate in what can be called the 'Second Inter-war Period' (the years after the Cold War). This book offers explanations for this failure and arguments about the possible range and desirability of military innovation in the post-Cold war era. This book will be of great interest to students of strategic studies, US defence politics, military studies, and US politics. Harvey M. Sapolsky is Professor of Public Policy and Organization in the Department of Political Science at MIT and former Director of the Security Studies Program. Benjamin H. Friedman is a Research Fellow in Defense and Homeland Security Studies at the Cato Institute and a Ph.D. Candidate in Political Science at MIT. Brendan Green is a Ph.D. Candidate in Political Science at MIT and an affiliate of the Security Studies Program.
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Navies of Europe

Author: Lawrence Sondhaus

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131786977X

Category: History

Page: 402

View: 643

Europe ruled the waves for most of the modern era and even when its navies were eclipsed in size by the US force, they continued to dominate world wars. In this unique history of Europe's naval forces, Larry Sondhaus charts the development of naval warfare from the transition to steam to recent actions in the Persian Gulf. Combining detailed technical information with an in-depth comparison of warfare and tactics across some of the key conflicts of the modern world, this is an absorbing account of European and British seapower, past and present.
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Forging China's Military Might

A New Framework for Assessing Innovation

Author: Tai Ming Cheung

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421411598

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 3629

Among the most important issues in international security today are the nature and the global implications of China’s emergence as a world-class defense technology power. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Chinese defense industry has reinvented itself by emphasizing technological innovation and technology. This reinvention and its potential effects, both positive and negative, are attracting global scrutiny. Drawing insights from a range of disciplines, including history, social science, business, and strategic studies, Tai Ming Cheung and the contributors to Forging China's Military Might develop an analytical framework to evaluate the nature, dimensions, and spectrum of Chinese innovation in the military and broader defense spheres. Forging China's Military Might provides an overview of the current state of the Chinese defense industry and then focuses on subjects critical to understanding short- and long-term developments, including the relationship among defense contractors, regulators, and end-users; civil-military integration; China’s defense innovation system; and China’s place in the global defense economy. Case studies look in detail at the Chinese space and missile industry. -- Andrew Scobell, RAND Corporation
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The Emerging Strategic Environment

Challenges of the Twenty-first Century

Author: Williamson Murray

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275965730

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 7158

An examination of three critical areas in the emerging strategic environment: major trouble spots in the world (the Balkans and the Middle East); the security policies of three of the major European powers (Britain, Germany, and Russia); and the preparations of three of the U.S. services and the joint community to address the new world order.
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What is Military History?

Author: Stephen Morillo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745665330

Category: History

Page: 176

View: 3488

This clear, readable introduction to the popular field of military history is now available in a refreshed and updated second edition. It shows that military history encompasses not just accounts of campaigns and battles but includes a wide range of perspectives on all aspects of past military organization and activity. In concise chapters it explains the fundamental features of the field, including: The history of military history, showing how it has developed from ancient times to the present; The key ideas and concepts that shape analysis of military activity; it argues that military history is as methodologically and philosophically sophisticated as any field of history; The current controversies about which military historians argue, and why they are important; A survey of who does military history, where it is taught and published, and how it is practiced; A look at where military history is headed in the future. The new edition of What is Military History? provides an up-to-date bibliography and cutting edge new case studies, including counterinsurgency, and as such continues to be ideal for classes in military history and in historiography generally, as well as for anyone interested in learning more about the dynamics of a rich and growing area of study.
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The American Military

A Narrative History

Author: Brad D. Lookingbill

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118609433

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 1868

The American Military: A Narrative History presents a comprehensive introduction to more than four centuries of American military history. Presents a chronological account of American military history from clashes between militias and Native Americans to 21st-century operations in Afghanistan and Iraq Features personal vignettes to put a human face on armed conflict Addresses patterns of national service, the evolution of civil-military relations, and the advent of all-volunteer forces Puts events in historical context, and considers cultural, social, political, economic, and technological developments
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Democracy Declassified

The Secrecy Dilemma in National Security

Author: Michael P. Colaresi

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199389799

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 2723

Recent scandals like WikiLeaks and Edward Snowden's disclosure of NSA documents have brought public debates over government accountability and secrecy bubbling to the surface. How can modern democracies balance the need for privacy in delicate foreign policy matters with the necessity of openness in gaining and maintaining the trust of citizens? Democracies keep secrets from potential enemies and their citizens. This simple fact challenges the surprisingly prevalent assumption that foreign policy successes and failures can be attributed to public transparency and accountability. In fact, the ability to keep secrets has aided democratic victories from the European and Pacific theatres in World War II to the global competition of the Cold War. At the same time, executive discretion over the capacity to classify information created the opportunity for abuse that contributed to Watergate, as well as domestic spying and repression in France, Norway and Canada over the past forty years. Therefore, democracies face a secrecy dilemma. Secrecy is useful, but once a group or person has the ability to decide what information is concealed from a rival, citizens can no longer monitor that information. How then can the public be assured that national security policies are not promoting hidden corruption or incompetence? As Democracy Declassified shows, it is indeed possible for democracies to keep secrets while also maintaining useful national security oversight institutions that can deter abuse and reassure the public. Understanding secrecy and oversight in democracies helps us explain not only why the Maginot Line rose and the French Republic fell, or how the US stumbled but eventually won the Cold War, but more generally how democracies can benefit from both public consent and necessary national security secrets. At a time when ubiquitous debates over the issue of institutional accountability and transparency have reached a fever pitch, Democracy Declassified provides a grounded and important view on the connection between the role of secrecy in democratic governance and foreign policy-making.
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