Migrants, Refugees, and Foreign Policy

U. S. and German Policies Toward Countries of Origin

Author: Rainer Munz,Myron Weiner

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571810885

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 3316

Foreign policies have always played an important role in the movements of migrants. A number of essays in this volume show how the foreign policies of the United States and Germany have directly or inadvertently contributed to the influx from the former Yugoslavia, Mexico, the Caribbean, and the former Soviet Union. Now being faced with growing resistance to admit foreigners into their countries, both governments have once again been using foreign-policy instruments in an effort to change the conditions in the refugees' countries of origin which forced people to leave. This volume addresses questions such as which policies can influence governments to improve their human rights, protect minorities, end internal strife, reduce the level of violence, or improve economic conditions so that large numbers of people need not leave their homes.
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Migrants, refugees and foreign policy

prevention and intervention strategies in the global community

Author: M. ʻBimbo Ogunbanjo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 38

View: 8825

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Weapons of Mass Migration

Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy

Author: Kelly M. Greenhill

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801457424

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 4959

At first glance, the U.S. decision to escalate the war in Vietnam in the mid-1960s, China's position on North Korea's nuclear program in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and the EU resolution to lift what remained of the arms embargo against Libya in the mid-2000s would appear to share little in common. Yet each of these seemingly unconnected and far-reaching foreign policy decisions resulted at least in part from the exercise of a unique kind of coercion, one predicated on the intentional creation, manipulation, and exploitation of real or threatened mass population movements. In Weapons of Mass Migration, Kelly M. Greenhill offers the first systematic examination of this widely deployed but largely unrecognized instrument of state influence. She shows both how often this unorthodox brand of coercion has been attempted (more than fifty times in the last half century) and how successful it has been (well over half the time). She also tackles the questions of who employs this policy tool, to what ends, and how and why it ever works. Coercers aim to affect target states' behavior by exploiting the existence of competing political interests and groups, Greenhill argues, and by manipulating the costs or risks imposed on target state populations. This "coercion by punishment" strategy can be effected in two ways: the first relies on straightforward threats to overwhelm a target's capacity to accommodate a refugee or migrant influx; the second, on a kind of norms-enhanced political blackmail that exploits the existence of legal and normative commitments to those fleeing violence, persecution, or privation. The theory is further illustrated and tested in a variety of case studies from Europe, East Asia, and North America. To help potential targets better respond to-and protect themselves against-this kind of unconventional predation, Weapons of Mass Migration also offers practicable policy recommendations for scholars, government officials, and anyone concerned about the true victims of this kind of coercion-the displaced themselves.
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Migrants, Refugees and the Stateless in South Asia

Author: Partha S. Ghosh

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 9351508552

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 7993

A comprehensive assessment of the economic, social and cultural impacts of migration within South Asia This book addresses the concept of migration with the aim of building theory as well as drawing from existing theories to understand South Asian realities. It highlights the less-explored cultural dimensions of migration—music, literature, cinema and art—thereby extending migration research into the realms of security discourse. The author explores how ideas migrate along with people, and the extent to which the process of transformation and adaptation of these ideas is necessitated by social interactions in the adopted society. Since South Asia is culturally diverse, most migrants need to adapt themselves to unfamiliar social milieus, and this juxtaposition finds expression in rich and diverse cultural forms. The book will be indispensable to researchers and scholars of migration studies, South Asia studies, social anthropology and international relations.
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Foreign Relations

American Immigration in Global Perspective

Author: Donna R. Gabaccia

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400842220

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 3868

Histories investigating U.S. immigration have often portrayed America as a domestic melting pot, merging together those who arrive on its shores. Yet this is not a truly accurate depiction of the nation's complex connections to immigration. Offering a brand-new global history of the subject, Foreign Relations takes a comprehensive look at the links between American immigration and U.S. foreign relations. Donna Gabaccia examines America’s relationship to immigration and its debates through the prism of the nation’s changing foreign policy over the past two centuries. She shows that immigrants were not isolationists who cut ties to their countries of origin or their families. Instead, their relations to America were often in flux and dependent on government policies of the time. An innovative history of U.S. immigration, Foreign Relations casts a fresh eye on a compelling and controversial topic.
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The Diplomacy of Migration

Transnational Lives and the Making of U.S.-Chinese Relations in the Cold War

Author: Meredith Oyen

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501701460

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 5297

During the Cold War, both Chinese and American officials employed a wide range of migration policies and practices to pursue legitimacy, security, and prestige. They focused on allowing or restricting immigration, assigning refugee status, facilitating student exchanges, and enforcing deportations. The Diplomacy of Migration focuses on the role these practices played in the relationship between the United States and the Republic of China both before and after the move to Taiwan. Meredith Oyen identifies three patterns of migration diplomacy: migration legislation as a tool to achieve foreign policy goals, migrants as subjects of diplomacy and propaganda, and migration controls that shaped the Chinese American community. Using sources from diplomatic and governmental archives in the United States, the Republic of China on Taiwan, the People's Republic of China, and the United Kingdom, Oyen applies a truly transnational perspective. The Diplomacy of Migration combines important innovations in the field of diplomatic history with new international trends in migration history to show that even though migration issues were often considered "low stakes" or "low risk" by foreign policy professionals concerned with Cold War politics and the nuclear age, they were neither "no risk" nor unimportant to larger goals. Instead, migration diplomacy became a means of facilitating other foreign policy priorities, even when doing so came at great cost for migrants themselves.
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Threatened Peoples, Threatened Borders

World Migration and U.S. Policy

Author: Michael S. Teitelbaum,Myron Weiner

Publisher: The American Assembly

ISBN: N.A

Category: Emigration

Page: 336

View: 9799

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Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Savior

Author: Peter Tinti,Tuesday Reitano

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190668598

Category: Human smuggling

Page: 352

View: 6795

When states, charities, and NGOs either ignore or are overwhelmed by movement of people on a vast scale, criminal networks step into the breach. This book explains what happens next.
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Refugees and Migrants in Law and Policy

Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civic Education

Author: Helmut Kury,Sławomir Redo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319721583

Category: Law

Page: 840

View: 2847

Refugees and migration are not a new story in the history of humankind, but in the last few years, against a backdrop of huge numbers of migrants, especially from war-torn countries, they have again been a topic of intensive and contentious discussion in politics, the media and scientific publications. Two United Nations framework declarations on the sustainable development goals and on refugees and migrants adopted in 2016 have prompted the editors – who have a background in international criminology – to invite 60 contributors from different countries to contribute their expertise on civic education aspects of the refugee and migrant crisis in the Global North and South. Comprising 35 articles, this book presents an overview of the interdisciplinary issues involved in irregular migration around the world. It is intended for educationists, educators, diplomats, those working in mass media, decision-makers, criminologists and other specialists faced with questions involving refugees and migrants as well as those interested in improving the prospects of orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration in the context of promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development. Rather than a timeline for migration policies based on “now”, with states focusing on “stopping migration now”, “sending back migrants now” or “bringing in technicians or low-skilled migrant workers now”, there should be a long-term strategy for multicultural integration and economic assimilation. This book, prefaced by François Crépeau, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, and William Lacy Swing, Director-General of the International Organization for Migration, addresses the question of the rights and responsibilities involved in migration from the academic and practical perspectives of experts in the field of social sciences and welfare, and charts the way forward to 2030 and beyond, and also beyond the paradigm of political correctness.
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Paths to Inclusion

The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany

Author: Peter H. Schuck,Rainer Münz

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571810922

Category: Social Science

Page: 306

View: 7121

When discussing wages, historians have traditionally concentrated on the level of wages, much less on how people were paid for their work. Important aspects were thus ignored such as how frequently were wages actually paid, how much of the wage was paid in non-monetary form - whether as traditional perquisites or community relief - especially when there was often insufficient coinage available to pay wages. Covering a wide geographical area, ranging from Spain to Finland, and time span, ranging from the sixteenth century to the 1930s, this volume offers fresh perspectives on key areas in social and economic history such as the relationship between customs, moral economy, wages and the market, changing pay and wage forms and the relationship between age, gender and wages.
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Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis

A Twentieth Century Fund Book

Author: Gil Loescher

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195356076

Category: Political Science

Page: 273

View: 8399

With more than 18 million refugees worldwide, the refugee problem has fostered an intense debate regarding what political changes are necessary in the international system to provide effective solutions in the 1990s and beyond. In the past, refugees have been perceived largely as a problem of international charity, but as the end of the Cold War triggers new refugee movements across the globe, governments are being forced to develop a more systematic approach to the refugee problem. Beyond Charity provides the first extensive overview of the world refugee crisis today, asserting that refugees raise not only humanitarian concerns but also issues of international peace and security. Gil Loescher argues persuasively that a central challenge in the post Cold-War era is to develop a comprehensive refugee policy that preserves the right of asylum while promoting greater political and diplomatic efforts to address the causes of flight. He presents the contemporary crisis in a historical framework and explores the changing role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Loescher suggests short-term and long-term reforms that address both the current refugee crisis and its underlying causes. The book also details the ways governmental structures and international organizations could be strengthened to assume more effective assistance, protection, and political mediation functions. Beyond Charity helps frame the debate on the global refugee crisis and offers directions for more effective approaches to refugee problems at present and in the future.
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The Migration-Displacement Nexus

Patterns, Processes, and Policies

Author: Khalid Koser,Susan Martin

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857451928

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 5284

The "migration-displacement nexus" is a new concept intended to capture the complex and dynamic interactions between voluntary and forced migration, both internally and internationally. Besides elaborating a new concept, this volume has three main purposes: the first is to focus empirical attention on previously understudied topics, such as internal trafficking and the displacement of foreign nationals, using case studies including Afghanistan and Iraq; the second is to highlight new challenges, including urban displacement and the effects of climate change; and the third is to explore gaps in current policy responses and elaborate alternatives for the future.
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International Immigration Policy

A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

Author: E. Meyers

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1403978379

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 1050

Numerous studies explore immigration policies of individual receiving countries. But these studies share several weaknesses. First and foremost, they are empirically orientated and lack a general theory. Second, most examine the policy of single country during a limited period, or, in a few cases, are contributed volumes analyzing each country separately. In general, immigration policy literature tends to be a-theoretic, to focus on specific periods and particular countries, and constitutes an array of discrete bits. This book is a response to this trend, offering a theoretical approach to immigration policy. It explains how governments decide on the number of immigrants they will accept; whether to differentiate between various ethnic groups; whether to accept refugees and on what basis; and whether to favour permanent immigration over migrant workers. The book also answers such questions as: How much influence do extreme-right parties have on the determination of immigration policy? Why do anti-immigration parties and initiatives enjoy greater success in local-state elections, and in the elections for the European Parliament, than in national elections? And under what circumstances does immigration policy become an electoral issue? Meyers draws on a wide array of sources on migration policy-making and using them derives proposed models in a way that few others have done before him. In addition, the book interrelates global and domestic factors that jointly influence government policy-making on international migration in a way that helps to clarify both spheres. Lastly, the work combines historical data with contemporary processes, in a way that draws lessons from the past while recognizing that changing circumstances usually revise governmental responses.
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Seeking Refuge

Central American Migration to Mexico, the United States, and Canada

Author: María Cristina García

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520247019

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 6370

Tells the story of the 20th-century Central American migration, and how domestic and foreign policy interests shaped the asylum policies of Mexico, the United States, and Canada.
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Migration and Integration in Europe, Southeast Asia and Australia

A Comparative Perspective

Author: Juliet Pietsch,Marshall Clark

Publisher: Aup - Iias Publications

ISBN: 9789089645388

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 8590

This important study brings together an interdisciplinary group of essays by international scholars of European and Southeast Asian regional integration. The contributors examine whether there are useful lessons to be learned from the European experience. It offers an important contribution to the development of the field of regionalism studies.
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Security and Migration in the 21st Century

Author: Elspeth Guild

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745658776

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 7915

The 21st century has brought new and challenging dimensions to our understanding of security and migration. The old Cold War framework of security as related to war and peace, international relations and foreign affairs has given way to a multiplicity of competing notions, including internal security, human security and even social security. At the same time, migration has become a hotly contested issue, characterised by an enormous difference of views and objectives. So what do we mean by security and migration in the contemporary world? How do these two important fields intersect? And what does this collision of policy concerns and public interests mean for states and individuals alike? In this cutting-edge book, Elspeth Guild seeks to answer these pressing questions, drawing on a wide range of recent examples from the impact of asylum seekers on state border security to identity security in citizenship rules to illustrate her arguments. By approaching the topic from the perspective of the individual - citizen of one state, migrant in another - the book examines key aspects of the security-migration nexus, such as the relationship with refugees; torture; extraordinary rendition; privacy and the retention of personal data; and human rights' protection. The first volume in Polity's new ‘Dimensions of Security' series, this book is a must-read for all students of international politics, development studies and related fields.
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Refugees and international relations

Author: Gil Loescher,Laila Monahan

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 430

View: 3684

Cuny and Barry Stein.
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South–South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development

Views from the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East

Author: Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135076669

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 168

View: 7090

This ground-breaking book is one of the first to analyse the important phenomenon of South-South educational migration for refugees. It focuses particularly on South-South scholarship programmes in Cuba and Libya, which have granted free education to children, adolescents and young adults from two of the world’s most protracted refugee situations: Sahrawis and Palestinians. Through in-depth multi-sited fieldwork conducted with and about Sahrawi and Palestinian refugee students in Cuba and Libya, and following their return to the desert-based Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria and the urban Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, this highly pertinent study brings refugees’ views and voices to the forefront and sheds a unique light on their understandings of self-sufficiency, humanitarianism and hospitality. It critically assesses the impact of diverse policies designed to maximise self-sufficiency and to reduce both brain drain and ongoing dependency upon Northern aid providers, exploring the extent to which South-South scholarship systems have challenged the power imbalances that typically characterise North to South development models. Finally, this very timely study discusses the impact of the Arab Spring on Libya’s support mechanisms for Sahrawi and Palestinian refugees, and considers the changing nature of Cuba’s educational model in light of major ongoing political, ideological and economic shifts in the island state, asking whether there is a future for such alternative programmes and initiatives. This book will be a valuable resource for students, researchers and practitioners in the areas of migration studies, refugee studies, comparative education, development and humanitarian studies, international relations, and regional studies (Latin America, Middle East, and North Africa).
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The Consequences of Chaos

Syria s Humanitarian Crisis and the Failure to Protect

Author: Elizabeth G. Ferris,Kemal Kirisci

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815729529

Category: Political Science

Page: 203

View: 7214

The massive dimensions of Syria's refugee crisis—and the search for solutions The civil war in Syria has forced some 10 million people—more than half the country's population—from their homes and communities, creating one of the largest human displacements since the end of World War II. Daily headlines testify to their plight, both within Syria and in the countries to which they have fled. The Consequences of Chaos looks beyond the ever-increasing numbers of Syria's uprooted to consider the long-term economic, political, and social implications of this massive movement of people. Neighboring countries hosting thousands or even millions of refugees, Western governments called upon to provide financial assistance and even new homes for the refugees, regional and international organizations struggling to cope with the demands for food and shelter—all have found the Syria crisis to be overwhelming in its challenges. And the challenges of finding solutions for those displaced by the conflict are likely to continue for years, perhaps even for decades. The Syrian displacement crisis raises fundamental questions about the relationship between action to resolve conflicts and humanitarian aid to assist the victims and demonstrates the limits of humanitarian response, even on a massive scale, to resolve political crises. The increasingly protracted nature of the crisis also raises the need for the international community to think beyond just relief assistance and adopt developmental policies to help refugees become productive members of their host communities.
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