Microwave-assisted Polymer Synthesis

Author: Richard Hoogenboom,Ulrich S. Schubert,Frank Wiesbrock

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319422413

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 351

View: 9956

The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students
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Microwave-Assisted Polymerization

Author: Anuradha Mishra,Tanvi Vats,James H. Clark

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782623175

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 575

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Aqueous Microwave Assisted Chemistry

Synthesis and Catalysis

Author: Vivek Polshettiwar,Rajender S. Varma

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1849730385

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 4992

The demands for green and sustainable synthetic methods in the fields of healthcare and fine chemicals, combined with the pressure to produce these substances expeditiously and in an environmentally benign fashion, pose significant challenges to the synthetic chemical community. Green chemistry can avoid pollution by utilizing techniques that are environmentally friendly by design and one of the best green techniques is the use of microwave (MW) assisted aqueous synthetic protocols. Fusing MW technique with water (as a benign reaction medium) can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these two individual components in isolation. Selective microwave heating can be exploited to develop a high yield protocol and the use of water expedites the MW-protocol with more energy efficiency. This book provides an overview of the various processes developed using aqueous microwave chemistry and is written for chemists, chemical engineers and researchers in the early stages who want to develop sustainable and green processes. Written by well known microwave experts, the book is a comprehensive examination of the field and is the first book that deals strictly with aqueous microwave chemistry and represents a significant effort towards green chemistry. It covers all the microwave-assisted aqueous reactions in depth, including heterocycle synthesis, metal catalysis, enzyme catalysis, polymer synthesis, nanomaterials synthesis and nano-catalysis. Each chapter contains representative experimental procedures, helping the reader quickly replicate some of the experiments to gain hands-on experience.
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Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis

Author: Jason Tierney,Pelle Lidström

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405168447

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 2440

The first reports on the application of microwaves in organic synthesis date back to 1986, but it was not until the recent introduction of specifically designed and constructed equipment, which countered the safety and reproducibility concerns, that synthetic application of microwaves has become established as a laboratory technique. Microwave assisted synthesis is now being adopted in many industrial and academic laboratories to take advantage of the novel chemistry that can be carried out using a variety of organic reaction types. This book demonstrates the underlying principles of microwave dielectric heating and, by reference to a range of organic reaction types, it’s effective use in synthetic organic chemistry. To illustrate the impact microwave assisted organic synthesis can have on chemical research, case studies drawn mainly from the pharmaceutical industry are presented.
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Microwave-Enhanced Polymer Chemistry and Technology

Author: Dariusz Bogdal,Aleksander Prociak

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470390247

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 8509

While polymer technology forms one of the largest areas of application of microwave technology, and the methods and procedures used therein are among the most developed, there is still a relative lack of published information on the subject. Microwave-Enhanced Polymer Chemistry and Technology describes novel approaches to polymer processing using microwave technologies. Coverage includes background and scientific data, analysis of processes and product properties in comparison with existing technology, applications that are being used in various approaches, and the status of current research. Features of microwave irradiation, i.e., solvent-free reactions, low waste, energy efficiency, high yield, short reaction time, and possible use of alternative solvents, can play an important role in the development of green chemistry methods.
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Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis

A Green Chemical Approach

Author: Suresh C. Ameta,Pinki B. Punjabi,Rakshit Ameta,Chetna Ameta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482254247

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 412

View: 8929

The large-scale production of chemicals to meet various societal needs has created environmental pollution, including pollution from byproducts and improper disposal of waste. With the world facing adverse consequences due to this pollution, green chemistry is increasingly being viewed as a means to address this concern. Since most organic syntheses require toxic solvents, more reaction time, and drastic conditions of temperature, conventional methods of organic synthesis are less preferred. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is considered to be a promising green chemical approach because it reduces reaction time from days or hours to minutes or even seconds, and has many other advantages. It helps reduce side reactions and increase yields, uses fewer solvents or is almost solvent-free, has solid supported reactions, and improves purity. This book’s main focus is microwave-assisted organic synthesis processes, particularly various reactions such as cycloaddition, rearrangement, elimination, substitution, oxidation, reduction, condensation, coupling, polymerization, nanomaterials, synthesis of heterocycles, and industrial applications under microwave irradiation. The time is not far off when this methodology will virtually replace existing and cumbersome methods of organic synthesis.
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Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis

A Green Chemical Approach

Author: Suresh C. Ameta,Pinki B. Punjabi,Rakshit Ameta,Chetna Ameta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482254247

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 412

View: 7700

The large-scale production of chemicals to meet various societal needs has created environmental pollution, including pollution from byproducts and improper disposal of waste. With the world facing adverse consequences due to this pollution, green chemistry is increasingly being viewed as a means to address this concern. Since most organic syntheses require toxic solvents, more reaction time, and drastic conditions of temperature, conventional methods of organic synthesis are less preferred. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is considered to be a promising green chemical approach because it reduces reaction time from days or hours to minutes or even seconds, and has many other advantages. It helps reduce side reactions and increase yields, uses fewer solvents or is almost solvent-free, has solid supported reactions, and improves purity. This book’s main focus is microwave-assisted organic synthesis processes, particularly various reactions such as cycloaddition, rearrangement, elimination, substitution, oxidation, reduction, condensation, coupling, polymerization, nanomaterials, synthesis of heterocycles, and industrial applications under microwave irradiation. The time is not far off when this methodology will virtually replace existing and cumbersome methods of organic synthesis.
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Microwave Heating as a Tool for Sustainable Chemistry

Author: Nicholas E. Leadbeater

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439812709

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 6574

Shorter reaction times, higher product yields, and enhanced selectivity are some of the advantages microwave heating has over conventional methods, causing its use to transition from a curiosity to mainstream, both in industrial and academic settings. Microwave Heating as a Tool for Sustainable Chemistry showcases the application of microwave heating in a number of areas of preparative chemistry as well as in the biosciences. From organic chemistry to materials and biological applications The book begins with an introduction to microwave heating, the physical concepts behind it, its application in synthetic chemistry, and commercially available microwave equipment. It shows how microwave heating can be used to facilitate the clean and sustainable synthesis of organic compounds. The authors examine microwave heating as a tool for sustainable polymer chemistry, with discussions of the use of alternative solvents and feedstocks, the design of degradable polymeric materials, and recycling polymers. They then discuss the significant contribution made by microwave-promoted synthesis in the drug discovery process, with a focus on how the technology has been used to generate discovery chemistry libraries and as a tool for medicinal chemists. Other topics examined in this application-driven text include the use of microwave heating in the preparation of inorganic and organometallic compounds, in the production of inorganic materials, and in the area of biosciences. Academic and industrial settings The book examines the scale-up of microwave-promoted chemistry and describes the various approaches and the current commercially available microwave reactors available for scale-up. It also discusses microwave heating as a tool for teaching in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. It explores curriculum, the broad range of reactions that can be performed, and the incorporation of green chemistry principles. The author maintains a website with supplemental information.
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Microwave Engineering of Nanomaterials

From Mesoscale to Nanoscale

Author: Erwann Guenin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814669431

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 8341

The use of microwaves has gradually democratized itself in several scientific areas and is now a common methodology in domains as different as chemistry, protein digestion, mining, and metallurgy. Materials chemistry is one field where microwave irradiation technologies are being studied. In recent years, development of nanotechnologies has increased the interest of materials scientists in these new technologies. Microwave methodologies are now routinely used in several areas of materials science, and new advances are ongoing. This book presents recent improvements in microwave engineering of materials and nanomaterials, interactions of microwave chemistry with materials, and advances in microwave technologies in several domains such as polymer synthesis and modification, processing of various materials (ceramics, glasses, metallic alloys, zeolites), and synthesis and functionalization of diverse nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, MOF semiconductors, inorganic nanoparticles). The book will be of interest to all students and researchers in materials science and nanosciences who want to discover or increase their knowledge of microwave technology.
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Microwave-assisted Organic Synthesis

One Hundred Reaction Procedures

Author: D. Bogdal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080518732

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 6496

Microwave-assisted Organic Synthesis: One Hundred Reaction Procedures provides readers with a broad overview of microwave assisted Organic Synthesis, enabling students and researchers alike to produce more efficient and high yield syntheses while saving time and resources. The work addresses key problems faced by chemistry laboratories in academia and in industry, that of an ever increasing need for procedures which are low-waste, energy efficient, high yield, occur over a short reaction period, and use environmentally friendly solvents. All these factors play an important role in the development of Green Chemistry methods, and in this, Microwave-assisted Organic Synthesis: One Hundred Reaction Procedures is an excellent resource for any library. Provides a broad overview of microwave enhanced chemistry Extensive references to the source of each procedure, including equipment used, full operating procedure, and associated hazards Includes exercises and worked problems which can support more independent study
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Alternative Energy Sources for Green Chemistry

Author: Georgios Stefanidis,Andrzej Stankiewicz

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782623639

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 6131

The use of alternative energy forms and transfer mechanisms is one of the key approaches of process intensification. In recent years, significant amounts of research have been carried out in developing chemical processing technologies enhanced by plasma, electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic and ultra-sound waves and high gravity fields. Discussing the broad impact of alternative energy transfer technologies on reactions, separations and materials synthesis, this book reports on recent breakthrough results in various application areas. It provides a comprehensive overview of the current developments in the field. The book enables industrialists, academics and postgraduates in alternative-energy based processing to see the potential of alternative energies for green chemistry and sustainability of chemical manufacturing.
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Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Determination

Author: Erico Marlon Moraes Flores

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444594442

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 7880

Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Analysis describes the principles, equipment, and applications involved in sample preparation with microwaves for trace element analysis. The book covers well-established applications as well as new trends in this field. Hot topics such as sample preparation for speciation, metabolomics, and halogen determination, as well as the alternatives of sample preparation for special samples (for example, carbon nanotubes, polymers, petroleum products), are also discussed. The use of microwaves in sample preparation has increased in recent decades. Several applications of microwaves for sample preparation can be found in the literature for practically all types of sample matrices, especially for the determination of trace elements by atomic spectrometric techniques, safely and cleanly reducing the time involved in this step. Microwave-assisted sample preparation is not only a tool for research but also for routine analysis laboratories; the state-of-the-art in sample preparation in trace element analysis. This book is the only resource for chemists specifically focused on this topic. The first book to describe the principles, equipment, and applications in microwave-assisted sample preparation Written by experts in the field who provide a comprehensive overview of the important concepts Introduces new alternatives and trends in microwave-assisted techniques
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Functional Oxides

Author: Duncan W. Bruce,Dermot O'Hare,Richard I. Walton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119972945

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 318

View: 8536

Functional oxides have a wide variety of applications in the electronic industry. The discovery of new metal oxides with interesting and useful properties continues to drive much research in chemistry, physics, and materials science. In Functional Oxides five topical areas have been selected to illustrate the importance of metal oxides in modern materials chemistry: Noncentrosymmetric Inorganic Oxide Materials Geometrically Frustrated Magnetic Materials Lithium Ion Conduction in Oxides Thermoelectric Oxides Transition Metal Oxides - Magnetoresistance and Half-Metallicity The contents highlight structural chemistry, magnetic and electronic properties, ionic conduction and other emerging areas of importance, such as thermoelectricity and spintronics. Functional Oxides covers these complex concepts in a clear and accessible manner providing an excellent introduction to this broad subject area.
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Advanced Nanomaterials for Water Engineering, Treatment, and Hydraulics

Author: Saleh, Tawfik A.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522521372

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 3107

While nanotechnology has been a booming research field for years, the study of how it can be used alongside water engineering has not been deeply explored. By examining the ways in which nanomaterials can aid hydraulics, these tools can be used for water purification, water treatments, and a vast array of other uses that will make water engineering easier and safer. Advanced Nanomaterials for Water Engineering, Treatment, and Hydraulics is a comprehensive reference source for the latest research-based material on the use of progressive nanotechnologies for water technologies. Featuring coverage on relevant topics such as water purification, nano-metal oxides, chitosan nanoparticles, and contaminated waste water, this is an ideal reference source for engineers, students, academics, and researchers seeking innovative perspectives on the use of nanomaterials in water engineering.
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New Trends in Green Chemistry

Author: V.K. Ahluwalia,M. Kidwai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402031750

Category: Science

Page: 263

View: 5287

Organic chemistry has played a vital role in the development of diverse molecules which are used in medicines, agrochemicals and polymers. Most ofthe chemicals are produced on an industrial scale. The industrial houses adopt a synthesis for a particular molecule which should be cost-effective. No attention is paid to avoid the release of harmful chemicals in the atmosphere, land and sea. During the past decade special emphasis has been made towards green synthesis which circumvents the above problems. Prof. V. K. Ahluwalia and Dr. M. Kidwai have made a sincere effort in this direction. This book discusses the basic principles of green chemistry incorporating the use of green reagents, green catalysts, phase transfer catalysis, green synthesis using microwaves, ultrasound and biocatalysis in detail. Special emphasis is given to liquid phase reactions and organic synthesis in the solid phase. I must congratulate both the authors for their pioneering efforts to write this book. Careful selection of various topics in the book will serve the rightful purpose for the chemistry community and the industrial houses at all levels. PROF. JAVED IQBAL, PhD, FNA Distinguished Research Scientist & Head Discovery Research Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd.
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Microwave-assisted Extraction for Bioactive Compounds

Theory and Practice

Author: Farid Chemat,Giancarlo Cravotto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461448301

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 758

With increasing energy prices and the drive to reduce CO2 emissions, food industries are challenged to find new technologies in order to reduce energy consumption, to meet legal requirements on emissions, product/process safety and control, and for cost reduction and increased quality as well as functionality. Extraction is one of the promising innovation themes that could contribute to sustainable growth in the chemical and food industries. For example, existing extraction technologies have considerable technological and scientific bottlenecks to overcome, such as often requiring up to 50% of investments in a new plant and more than 70% of total process energy used in food, fine chemicals and pharmaceutical industries. These shortcomings have led to the consideration of the use of new "green" techniques in extraction, which typically use less solvent and energy, such as microwave extraction. Extraction under extreme or non-classical conditions is currently a dynamically developing area in applied research and industry. Using microwaves, extraction and distillation can now be completed in minutes instead of hours with high reproducibility, reducing the consumption of solvent, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the energy normally needed for a conventional extraction method. Several classes of compounds such as essential oils, aromas, anti-oxidants, pigments, colours, fats and oils, carbohydrates, and other bioactive compounds have been extracted efficiently from a variety of matrices (mainly animal tissues, food, and plant materials). The advantages of using microwave energy, which is a non-contact heat source, includes more effective heating, faster energy transfer, reduced thermal gradients, selective heating, reduced equipment size, faster response to process heating control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. This book will present a complete picture of the current knowledge on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive compounds from food and natural products. It will provide the necessary theoretical background and details about extraction by microwaves, including information on the technique, the mechanism, protocols, industrial applications, safety precautions, and environmental impacts.
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Polymers in Medicine II

Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

Author: E. Chiellini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461318092

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 1364

Polymers and polymer based composites have gained increasingly larger applications in medicine and surgery. Presently, most biomaterials applications rely on industrial substances that were initially developed by industry for non-medical purposes. Moreover, polymers have been often used regardless of their peculiar characteristics which can be viceversa and very attractive for some specific applications. In the past years we have assisted to a significative and faster development of polymer science as well as of medicine and surgery. The assistance of computer aided apparatus, the use of always more advanced instruments, the larger interest of the academic and industrial world, bring continuously new contributions to the research on biomedical and parmaceutical use of polymers. The need of a forum where these specific researchs can be presented and discussed, and the success of the 1st Conference on Polymers in Medicine, held in Porto Cervo in 1982, have encouraged the Editors to plana periodical meeting, focused on polymers and composites, to be held every odd year. This book contains papers selected by an International Scientific Committee among those presented at the 2nd International Conference on Polymers in Medicine, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications, held in Capri, Italy, 3-7 June, 1985. In addition to contributed papers, several Authors were invited to present the "state of the art" as well as their personal contibution on specific key arguments. The level of all contributions was high, the participation well qualified, and the meeting interesting and hopefully pleasant.
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Microwave Synthesis

Chemistry at the Speed of Light

Author: Brittany L. Hayes

Publisher: Cem Corporation

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 8461

1. Introduction to microwave chemistry 11; 2. Solvents 29; 3. Chemical reactions in the presence and absence of solvent 77; 4. Synthetic applications 95; 5. Getting started with microwave synthesis 157; 6. Microwave safety considerations 175; 7. Microwave hardware 181.
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