Metternich and Austria

An Evaluation

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137262257

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 556

This is the first serious appraisal of Metternich's role in the Austrian Empire and beyond. Covering both domestic and international affairs, Sked presents a fresh and convincing description of Metternich's era and argues that despite his battered historical reputation, Metternich was the leading diplomat in Europe over four decades.

Das Osmanische Reich und Metternichs Politik

Übersetzt von Mehmet Tahir Öncü

Author: Hüner Tuncer

Publisher: Frank & Timme GmbH

ISBN: 3732900479

Category: Austria

Page: 168

View: 3626

Mit der Diplomatie des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts in Europa ist vor allem ein Name verbunden: Klemens von Metternich. Ein Verfechter der Monarchie, widersetzte sich der österreichische Kanzler erbittert der aufkommenden National- und Demokratiebewegung, die er als Bedrohung für die weltpolitische Ordnung ansah. Anhand der Unabhängigkeitskriege Griechenlands (1821–1829) und Ägyptens (1831–1841) gegen das Osmanische Reich schildert Hüner Tuncer die politischen Schachzüge Metternichs und der europäischen Großmächte; darin kommt deren Dilemma zwischen Konservatismus, Expansionsstreben und Nationalismus in besonderer Weise zum Ausdruck. Zugleich eröffnet die Autorin dem Leser eine neue Perspektive auf vermeintliche Nebenschauplätze, die die Außenpolitik dieser Ära jedoch entscheidend geprägt haben.


Staatsmann zwischen Restauration und Moderne

Author: Wolfram Siemann

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406587849

Category: Austria

Page: 128

View: 9201


Metternich's Diplomacy at its Zenith, 1820-1823

Austria and the Congresses of Troppau, Laibach, and Verona

Author: Paul W. Schroeder

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292767919

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 6982

What Metiernich wanted at the peak of his career, why he wanted it, and the methods by which he achieved his goals are questions brilliantly answered in this survey and analysis of the Austrian chancellor's diplomacy during the period when he was the pre-eminent figure in European politics. Metternich's single-minded objective during 1820–1823 was to preserve the Austrian hegemony he had gained in Central Europe after long wars, enormous effort, and great sacrifice. If the internal security and international-power position secured by Austria at the Congress of Vienna were to be defended against the impact of widespread revolution in Europe, it was imperative that peace in Europe and the status quo be maintained. This required an unyielding opposition to all political movements that might disturb the equilibrium, especially French chauvinism and the spread of French constitutional ideas. A one-man distillate of the doctrine of absolute monarchy, Metternich was the relentless foe of any cause, just or unjust, that threatened European repose. Hence, when the revolution in Naples seriously menaced Austrian hegemony in Italy, Metternich determined that the constitutional regime in Naples must be overthrown by an Austrian armed force, an absolute monarchy restored, and an Austrian army of occupation kept there. Nor did he scruple to use duplicity, secret negotiation, trickery, or deceit against ally and adversary alike in his effort to enlist them in the common cause of all thrones. At the Congress of Troppau, Metternich succeeded not only in defeating Russian ideas for peaceful intervention and a moderate constitution at Naples, but also in converting Tsar Alexander to thoroughly conservative views, thereby making Russia a powerful supporter of Austrian policies and knowingly alienating England, formerly Austria's closest ally. Paul W. Schroeder brings to this bookexceptional scholarship and an objectivity hard to attain when dealing with a personality. Although Metternich, as Schroeder sees him, doubtless helped to maintain European peace and order, his real greatness consisted not in his European principles, but in his ability to defend Austrian interests under the guise of European principles. The evidence, gathered from documentary material in the Haus Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna, has forced the author to the conclusion that Metternich was no real statesman. The very qualities that distinguished him as a brilliant diplomat—keen vision, cogent analysis, fertility of expedients, farsightedness, flexibility, and firmness of purpose—were converted into those of blindness to reality, superficial analysis, sterility of expedients, dogmatism, and failure of will when confronted with fundamental problems of state and society.


The End of Glory

Author: Munro Price

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019163669X

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 3980

Napoleon: The End of Glory tells the story of the dramatic two years that led to Napoleon's abdication in April 1814. Though crucial to European history, they remain strangely neglected, lying between the two much better-known landmarks of the retreat from Moscow and the battle of Waterloo. Yet this short period saw both Napoleon's loss of his European empire, and of his control over France itself. In 1813 the massive battle of Leipzig - the bloodiest in modern history before the first day of the Somme - forced his armies back to the Rhine. The next year, after a brilliant campaign against overwhelming odds, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and exiled to Elba. He regained his throne the following year, for just a hundred days, in a doomed adventure whose defeat at Waterloo was predictable. The most fascinating - and least-known - aspect of these years is that at several key points Napoleon's enemies offered him peace terms that would have allowed him to keep his throne, if not his empire, a policy inspired by the brilliant and devious Austrian foreign minister Metternich. Napoleon: The End of Glory sheds fascinating new light on Napoleon, Metternich, and many other key figures and events in this dramatic period of European history, drawing on previously unused archives in France, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Through these it seeks to answer the most important question of all - why, instead of accepting a compromise, Napoleon chose to gamble on total victory at the risk of utter defeat?

Aristocrats and the Crowd in the Revolutionary Year 1848

A Contribution to the History of Revolution and Counter-Revolution

Author: Josef V. Polisensky

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438416261

Category: History

Page: 245

View: 4311

The Prague Uprising of 1848 was part of the powerful series of revolutions that shook practically the entire European Continent as the middle classes and urban and rural workers pressed against the rule of aristocrats and monarchs. Czech Marxist historian Josef Polisensky analyzes the general turmoil of revolutionary thought and action in Europe and then focuses on the specific case of the Prague Uprising. By using previously untouched sources—the records of hundreds of noble houses that came under the control of the Czech Archival Administration after World War II—Polisensky is able to show how those of the old social establishment fought the participants in the Uprising and temporarily restored the rule of the aristocracy. With an excellent sense for the dramatic and a thorough knowledge of place, Polisensky tells us who fought and died on the streets of Prague. With the conceptual framework of class conflict and a broad perspective on European events, he proposes reasons for the failure of the Prague Uprising in contrast to other successful revolutions. Aristocrats and the Crowd is the last of Polisensky's trilogy of studies on Czech society and revolution. In The Thirty Years' War and the European Crisis of the Seventeenth Century and Napoleon and the Heart of Europe, Polisensky explored the effects of other European conflicts on Czech society. Aristocrats and the Crowd describes, in his words, “the revolutionary springtime which eventually arrived, full of twists, in Bohemia itself.”

Eastern Europe 1740-1985

Feudalism to Communism

Author: Robin Okey,Senior Lecturer in History Robin Okey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113488687X

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 1976

`A fascinating book, readable and illuminating.' Times Literary Supplement


The Roads to Waterloo

Author: Gregor Dallas

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448103290

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 8829

The seventeen months from April 1814 to August 1815 were an extraordinary period in European history; a period which saw two sieges of Paris, a complete revision of Europe's political frontiers, an international Congress set up in Vienna, civil war in Italy and international war in Belgium.Gregor Dallas tells the story of these days through the perspectives of three very different European cities: the great metropolis of London, post-revolutionary Paris and baroque Vienna. The writing is almost cinematic in its power to evoke and bring to life the Europe of Tolstoy: the ebb and flow of power, of armies and of peoples across Europe's northern plains. Working essentially from primary sources, Dallas is as interested in the weather conditions before battle as in the way cartoonists reacted to court intrigues and fashions.It is also Europe seen through the eyes of its central players: Talleyrand, who has served nearly every French regime since the Revolution of 1789; Metternich, who devises new plans for a 'Germany' that does not yet exist and for a 'Europe' that remains devided; Wellington, who reveals himself a diplomat as well as a soldier; Tsar Alexander, an idealist seeking to impose a uniform plan for all Europe; and 'Boney' himself, who has his own ideal of Europe and, though banished to Elba, does not abandon his dream to realise it.

Grant and Temperley's Europe in the Nineteenth Century 1789-1905

Author: Arthur James Grant,H.W.V. Temperley,Agatha Ramm

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317872452

Category: History

Page: 440

View: 9836

This seventh edition of 'Grant and Temperley' has been comprehensively revised and rewritten by the distinguished historian Agatha Ramm. Its coverage has been greatly extended , and it now appears in two volume. This, volume one, covers the nineteenth century 1789-1905 and the second the period 1905-1970.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800-1914

Author: Carl Cavanagh Hodge

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0313043418

Category: History

Page: 874

View: 9500

This encyclopedia traces the spread of European political and economic dominance throughout the world in the century between the Napoleonic Wars and World War I.


Councillor of Europe

Author: Alan Palmer

Publisher: Faber & Faber

ISBN: 0571305849

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 7361

A glib assessment of Metternich might not be a favourable one, he was not without his ridiculous qualities, and yet he survived, more than survived, in fact, with the 'Age of Metternich' lasting for more than a generation, and giving Europe a measure of peace, albeit repressive, that was much needed after the Napoleonic convulsions. Alan Palmer describes well Metternich's extraordinary longevity. 'Clement von Metternich held continuous office at the head of Europe's affairs for a longer period of time than any other statesman in modern history: he became foreign minister of the Austrian Empire in the autumn of 1809 and he did not resign until the spring of 1848. For thirty-three of these thirty-nine years his statecraft and philosophy of government determined the political pattern of the continent. The 'Age of Metternich' , though often impatiently dismissed by historians as a mere interlude, lasted for twice as long as the 'Age of Napoleon' which preceded it and for half as long again as the 'Age of Bismarck' which followed in the closing decades of the century.' Metternich was a statesman to his fingertips, practising 'the skills of diplomacy with greater fluency than any contemporary Talleyrand, from whom he had learnt many of the refinement of the game.' How would he fare today? Probably quite well as he was, again in Alan Palmer's words, 'an early champion of federalism and a good European ...' 'As a work of history (it) cannot be faulted.' A. J. P. Taylor, Observer 'Well-written, well-researched, lucid and witty.' Philip Ziegler, The Times

Austria and the Papacy in the Age of Metternich: Between conflict and cooperation, 1809-1830

Author: Alan J. Reinerman

Publisher: N.A


Category: Austria

Page: 254

View: 3936

This study deals with the relationship between the Austrian Empire and the Papacy during the four decades when Metternich guided Habsburg foreign policy. For Metternich, relations with Rome were of major significance for his lifelong struggle to defend the Austrian Empire and the Restoration Order against the revolutionary challenge, as well as for his Italian policy and the domestic affairs of the Empire. His downfall in 1848 was the end result of the sequence of events initiated by the election of Pope Pius IX in 1846 and the ultimate failure of his Papal policy. For Italy, Austro-Papal relations were of great consequence because of their intersection at several key points with the course of the Risorgimento, whose developments they helped to shape. - Jacket flap.


A Modern History

Author: Marshall Dill,Michigan. University

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472071012

Category: History

Page: 490

View: 4548

Studies modern Germany, from its formation to the 1960s

The 33 Strategies of War

Author: Robert Greene,Joost Elffers

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101147344

Category: Psychology

Page: 496

View: 2311

Strategies of war—and the subtle social game of everyday life—by the bestselling author of The 48 Laws of Power Robert Greene’s groundbreaking guides, The 48 Laws of Power, The Art of Seduction, and Mastery espouse profound, timeless lessons from the events of history to help readers vanquish an enemy, ensnare an unsuspecting victim, or become the greatest in your field. In The 33 Strategies of War, Greene has crafted an important addition to this ruthless and unique series. Spanning world civilizations, synthesizing dozens of political, philosophical, and religious texts and thousands of years of violent conflict, The 33 Strategies of War is a comprehensive guide to the subtle social game of everyday life informed by the most ingenious and effective military principles in war. Structured in Greene’s trademark style, The 33 Strategies of War is the I-Ching of conflict, the contemporary companion to Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. Abundantly illustrated with examples from history, including the folly and genius of everyone from Napoleon to Margaret Thatcher, Shaka the Zulu to Lord Nelson, Hannibal to Ulysses S. Grant, as well as movie moguls, Samurai swordsmen, and diplomats, each of the thirty-three chapters outlines a strategy that will help you win life’s wars. Learn the offensive strategies that require you to maintain the initiative and negotiate from a position of strength, or the defensive strategies designed to help you respond to dangerous situations and avoid unwinnable wars. The great warriors of battlefields and drawing rooms alike demonstrate prudence, agility, balance, and calm, and a keen understanding that the rational, resourceful, and intuitive always defeat the panicked, the uncreative, and the stupid. An indispensable book, The 33 Strategies of War provides all the psychological ammunition you need to overcome patterns of failure and forever gain the upper hand. From the Hardcover edition.

The Risorgimento

Italy, 1815-1871

Author: Tim Chapman

Publisher: Humanities-Ebooks


Category: History

Page: 88

View: 8815

This book traces the emergence of Italy from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 through the Risorgimento to unification by 1871. Initially, only a tiny elite was interested in change as secret societies and activists tried to overthrow rulers who were support