Metternich and Austria

An Evaluation

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137262257

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 6872

This is the first serious appraisal of Metternich's role in the Austrian Empire and beyond. Covering both domestic and international affairs, Sked presents a fresh and convincing description of Metternich's era and argues that despite his battered historical reputation, Metternich was the leading diplomat in Europe over four decades.
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Metternich and Austria

An Evaluation

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137123753

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 9788

This is the first serious appraisal of Metternich's role in the Austrian Empire and beyond. Covering both domestic and international affairs, Sked presents a fresh and convincing description of Metternich's era and argues that despite his battered historical reputation, Metternich was the leading diplomat in Europe over four decades.
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Metternich and Austria

an evaluation

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 306

View: 2673

This is the first serious appraisal of Metternich's role in the Austrian Empire and beyond. Covering both domestic and international affairs, Sked presents a fresh and convincing description of Metternich's era and argues that despite his battered historical reputation, Metternich was the leading diplomat in Europe over four decades.
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A World Restored

Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812-22

Author: Henry Kissinger

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 1787204367

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 4828

Originally published in 1957—years before he was Secretary of State and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize—, Henry Kissinger wrote A World Restored, to understand and explain one of history’s most important and dramatic periods; a time when Europe went from political chaos to a balanced peace that lasted for almost a hundred years. After the fall of Napoleon, European diplomats gathered in a festive Vienna with the task of restoring stability following the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The central figures at the Congress of Vienna were the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, Viscount Castlereagh and the Foreign Minister of Austria Klemens Wenzel von Mettern Metternich. Castlereagh was primarily concerned with maintaining balanced powers, while Metternich based his diplomacy on the idea of legitimacy—that is, establishing and working with governments that citizens accept without force. The peace they brokered lasted until the outbreak of World War I. Through trenchant analysis of the history and forces that create stability, A World Restored gives insight into how to create long-lasting geopolitical peace-lessons that Kissinger saw as applicable to the period immediately following World War II, when he was writing this book. But the lessons don’t stop there. Like all good insights, the book’s wisdom transcends any single political period. Kissinger’s understanding of coalitions and balance of power can be applied to personal and professional situations, such as dealing with a tyrannical boss or co-worker or formulating business or organizational tactics. Regardless of his ideology, Henry Kissinger has had an important impact on modern politics and few would dispute his brilliance as a strategist. For anyone interested in Western history, the tactics of diplomacy, or political strategy, this volume will provide deep understanding of a pivotal time.
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Radetzky

Imperial Victor and Military Genius

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1848856776

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 262

View: 6100

Later in Radetzky's career, in 1848 and again in 1849, it was he who defeated a much superior army - not merely to maintain the political and geographical integrity of the Habsburg Monarchy but thereby almost certainly preventing a whole continent from dissolving once again into war and revolution as it had in 1792-1815. --
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Metternich's Diplomacy at its Zenith, 1820-1823

Austria and the Congresses of Troppau, Laibach, and Verona

Author: Paul W. Schroeder

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292767919

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 3398

What Metiernich wanted at the peak of his career, why he wanted it, and the methods by which he achieved his goals are questions brilliantly answered in this survey and analysis of the Austrian chancellor's diplomacy during the period when he was the pre-eminent figure in European politics. Metternich's single-minded objective during 1820–1823 was to preserve the Austrian hegemony he had gained in Central Europe after long wars, enormous effort, and great sacrifice. If the internal security and international-power position secured by Austria at the Congress of Vienna were to be defended against the impact of widespread revolution in Europe, it was imperative that peace in Europe and the status quo be maintained. This required an unyielding opposition to all political movements that might disturb the equilibrium, especially French chauvinism and the spread of French constitutional ideas. A one-man distillate of the doctrine of absolute monarchy, Metternich was the relentless foe of any cause, just or unjust, that threatened European repose. Hence, when the revolution in Naples seriously menaced Austrian hegemony in Italy, Metternich determined that the constitutional regime in Naples must be overthrown by an Austrian armed force, an absolute monarchy restored, and an Austrian army of occupation kept there. Nor did he scruple to use duplicity, secret negotiation, trickery, or deceit against ally and adversary alike in his effort to enlist them in the common cause of all thrones. At the Congress of Troppau, Metternich succeeded not only in defeating Russian ideas for peaceful intervention and a moderate constitution at Naples, but also in converting Tsar Alexander to thoroughly conservative views, thereby making Russia a powerful supporter of Austrian policies and knowingly alienating England, formerly Austria's closest ally. Paul W. Schroeder brings to this bookexceptional scholarship and an objectivity hard to attain when dealing with a personality. Although Metternich, as Schroeder sees him, doubtless helped to maintain European peace and order, his real greatness consisted not in his European principles, but in his ability to defend Austrian interests under the guise of European principles. The evidence, gathered from documentary material in the Haus Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna, has forced the author to the conclusion that Metternich was no real statesman. The very qualities that distinguished him as a brilliant diplomat—keen vision, cogent analysis, fertility of expedients, farsightedness, flexibility, and firmness of purpose—were converted into those of blindness to reality, superficial analysis, sterility of expedients, dogmatism, and failure of will when confronted with fundamental problems of state and society.
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Vienna, 1814

How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna

Author: David King

Publisher: Broadway Books

ISBN: 0307337170

Category: History

Page: 434

View: 4827

Details the 1814 Congress of Vienna, offering portraits of the participants and discussing the political intrigues, illicit affairs, tangled alliances, and bitter rivalries that marked the occasion that transformed the face of nineteenth-century Europe. Reprint.
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The Princess and the Politicians

Sex, Intrigue and Diplomacy, 1812-40

Author: John Charmley

Publisher: Viking Adult

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ambassadors' spouses

Page: 350

View: 5690

"The femme galante (or 'gallant woman') in question was Princess Dorothea Lieven, wife to the Russian ambassador in London from 1812 to 1840. As a woman, she was debarred from having any formal power in the world of European diplomacy. But as a Baltic Russian, brought up under the harsh regime of Catherine the Great, Dorothea Lieven was not meant to be the power behind any man: it was centre stage she craved." "In a series of brilliant conquests, Dorothea became mistress to, among others, Metternich, Lord Grey, the Duke of Wellington, the Earl of Aberdeen and Lord Palmerston. Her many enemies saw her as a diplomatic harlot, exchanging sexual favours for power and influence, but it was never as crude and simplistic as that. Dorothea had neither the obvious physical attributes of the courtesan nor the instincts of one; she sought not pleasure and personal gain but influence over the destiny of nations, using her relationships with the great men of Europe to further Russia's aims." "Dorothea's snobbery and insolence were proverbial, she could be imperious, insufferable and infuriating, but she was never dull. She had little in the way of formal education, but was clever, charismatic and graceful, and when she set out to charm she was irresistible. In the great game of politics she had one key advantage: the ability to be whatever her lovers needed without ever ceasing to be herself." "In a sweeping narrative moving from St. Petersburg to London and Paris and back, The Princess and the Politicians relates the riveting political history of Europe in the wake of the Napoleonic wars and paints an unforgettable portrait of a spirited, fascinating woman who sought to influence the destiny of nations by playing the men at their own game."--BOOK JACKET.
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Phantom Terror

Political Paranoia and the Creation of the Modern State, 1789-1848

Author: Adam Zamoyski

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465060935

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 2506

After the French Revolution, conservative governments from Britain to Russia created bulwarks to protect their power against the threat of further rebellions. They repressed and spied on their citizens, policing both speech and actions. In nations across Europe, politicians and cultural leaders from Edmund Burke to Mary Shelley chose sides, either propelling or resisting the counter-revolutionary spirit embodied in these omnipotent central states. These years of paranoia not only witnessed the first stirrings of modern totalitarian regimes, but gave birth to the political contest between the privileged and the underprivileged—a legacy that haunts us to this day. In Phantom Terror, award-winning historian Adam Zamoyski reveals that the years after the French Revolution were the crux upon which the rest of European history would turn—a moment when desperate monarchs took the world down the path of revolution, terror, and world war.
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The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918

A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary

Author: A. J. P. Taylor

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226791456

Category: History

Page: 279

View: 604

First published in 1941, The Habsburg Monarchy has become indispensable to students of nineteenth-century European history. Not only a chronological report of actions and changes, Taylor's work is a provocative exploration into the historical process of the most eventful hundred years of the Habsburg monarchy.
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Double Emperor

The Life and Times of Francis of Austria

Author: Chip Wagar

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0761870784

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 863

A biography of Francis I, the last Holy Roman Emperor and first Emperor of Austria, as well as a history of his times. The first biography in English of this mysterious, complex, and powerful personality whom Metternich and Radetzky called their master.
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The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy

War and Great Power Diplomacy After Napoleon

Author: Mark Jarrett

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1784530565

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 8743

Two centuries ago, Europe emerged from one of the greatest crises in its history. In September 1814, the rulers of Europe and their ministers descended upon Vienna to reconstruct Europe after two decades of revolution and war, with the major decisions made by the statesmen of the great powers - Castlereagh, Metternich, Talleyrand, Hardenberg and Emperor Alexander of Russia. The territorial reconstruction of Europe, however, is only a part of this story. It was followed, in the years 1815 to 1822, by a bold experiment in international cooperation and counter-revolution, known as the 'Congress System'. The Congress of Vienna and subsequent Congresses constituted a major turning point - the first genuine attempt to forge an 'international order', to bring long-term peace to a troubled Europe, and to control the pace of political change through international supervision and intervention. In this book, Mark Jarrett argues that the decade of the European Congresses in fact marked the beginning of our modern era, with a profound impact upon the course of subsequent developments. Based upon extensive research, this book provides a fresh look at a pivotal but often neglected period.
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Homemade Men in Postwar Austrian Cinema

Nationhood, Genre and Masculinity

Author: Maria Fritsche

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857459465

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 228

View: 7044

Despite the massive influx of Hollywood movies and films from other European countries after World War II, Austrian film continued to be hugely popular with Austrian and German audiences. By examining the decisive role that popular cinema played in the turbulent post-war era, this book provides unique insights into the reconstruction of a disrupted society. Through detailed analysis of the stylistic patterns, narratives and major themes of four popular genres of the time, costume film, Heimatfilm, tourist film and comedy, the book explains how popular cinema helped to shape national identity, smoothed conflicted gender relations and relieved the Austrians from the burden of the Nazi past through celebrating the harmonious, charming, musical Austrian man.
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1815

The Roads to Waterloo

Author: Gregor Dallas

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448103290

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 3730

The seventeen months from April 1814 to August 1815 were an extraordinary period in European history; a period which saw two sieges of Paris, a complete revision of Europe's political frontiers, an international Congress set up in Vienna, civil war in Italy and international war in Belgium.Gregor Dallas tells the story of these days through the perspectives of three very different European cities: the great metropolis of London, post-revolutionary Paris and baroque Vienna. The writing is almost cinematic in its power to evoke and bring to life the Europe of Tolstoy: the ebb and flow of power, of armies and of peoples across Europe's northern plains. Working essentially from primary sources, Dallas is as interested in the weather conditions before battle as in the way cartoonists reacted to court intrigues and fashions.It is also Europe seen through the eyes of its central players: Talleyrand, who has served nearly every French regime since the Revolution of 1789; Metternich, who devises new plans for a 'Germany' that does not yet exist and for a 'Europe' that remains devided; Wellington, who reveals himself a diplomat as well as a soldier; Tsar Alexander, an idealist seeking to impose a uniform plan for all Europe; and 'Boney' himself, who has his own ideal of Europe and, though banished to Elba, does not abandon his dream to realise it.
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Napoleon

The End of Glory

Author: Munro Price

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199380694

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 344

View: 9816

On April 20, 1814, after a dizzying series of battles, campaigns, and diplomatic intrigues, a defeated Napoleon Bonaparte made his farewell speech to the Old Guard in the courtyard of the Chateau de Fontainebleau and set off for exile on the island of Elba. Napoleonic legend asserts that the Emperor was brought down by foreign powers determined to destroy him and discredit his achievements, with the aid of highly placed domestic traitors. Others argue that once Napoleon's military defeats began in 1812, his fall became inevitable. But in fact, as Munro Price shows in this brilliant new book, Napoleon's fall could have been avoided altogether. Exploring a critical and often neglected period of Napoleonic history between 1812 and 1814, Napoleon: The End of Glory offers a more complete picture of the Emperor's decline and fall than any previous work. Price analyzes the political, military, and diplomatic events of the period, from Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 to the multiple failed attempts by Austria to broker peace. He illuminates the dynamic relationships between Napoleon and the wily Austrian foreign minister Metternich-whose desire for equilibrium within the European states system clashed with Napoleon's unshakeable belief in hegemony and subjection-and the charming and enigmatic Alexander I of Russia. And he explores the lasting impact of the bloody Terror of the French Revolution on Napoleon's decisions once he came to power. Rejecting the assumption that defeat was unavoidable, Price considers instead why Napoleon failed to explore a compromise peace that could have allowed him to keep his crown, arguing that the answer to this question has powerful implications for our understanding of the Napoleonic wars. Ultimately, Price provides a convincing portrait of the Emperor's decline, exposing his blindness, intransigence and miscalculations; his preference for war and his declining ability to wage it; and his nearly pathological fear of a dishonorable peace. A deeply researched study of the moment of a great man's fall, Napoleon: The End of Glory forces us to reconsider Napoleon's character, motives, and the reasons for his spectacular failure.
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