Metternich and Austria

An Evaluation

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137262257

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 2243

This is the first serious appraisal of Metternich's role in the Austrian Empire and beyond. Covering both domestic and international affairs, Sked presents a fresh and convincing description of Metternich's era and argues that despite his battered historical reputation, Metternich was the leading diplomat in Europe over four decades.
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A World Restored

Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812-22

Author: Henry Kissinger

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 1787204367

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 7916

Originally published in 1957—years before he was Secretary of State and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize—, Henry Kissinger wrote A World Restored, to understand and explain one of history’s most important and dramatic periods; a time when Europe went from political chaos to a balanced peace that lasted for almost a hundred years. After the fall of Napoleon, European diplomats gathered in a festive Vienna with the task of restoring stability following the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The central figures at the Congress of Vienna were the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, Viscount Castlereagh and the Foreign Minister of Austria Klemens Wenzel von Mettern Metternich. Castlereagh was primarily concerned with maintaining balanced powers, while Metternich based his diplomacy on the idea of legitimacy—that is, establishing and working with governments that citizens accept without force. The peace they brokered lasted until the outbreak of World War I. Through trenchant analysis of the history and forces that create stability, A World Restored gives insight into how to create long-lasting geopolitical peace-lessons that Kissinger saw as applicable to the period immediately following World War II, when he was writing this book. But the lessons don’t stop there. Like all good insights, the book’s wisdom transcends any single political period. Kissinger’s understanding of coalitions and balance of power can be applied to personal and professional situations, such as dealing with a tyrannical boss or co-worker or formulating business or organizational tactics. Regardless of his ideology, Henry Kissinger has had an important impact on modern politics and few would dispute his brilliance as a strategist. For anyone interested in Western history, the tactics of diplomacy, or political strategy, this volume will provide deep understanding of a pivotal time.
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Radetzky

Imperial Victor and Military Genius

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1848856776

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 262

View: 7401

Later in Radetzky's career, in 1848 and again in 1849, it was he who defeated a much superior army - not merely to maintain the political and geographical integrity of the Habsburg Monarchy but thereby almost certainly preventing a whole continent from dissolving once again into war and revolution as it had in 1792-1815. --
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The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815-1918

Author: Alan Sked

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317880048

Category: History

Page: 364

View: 3667

A new and revised edition of Alan Sked’s groundbreaking book which examines how the Habsburg Empire survived the revolutionary turmoil of 1848. ‘The Year of Revolutions', saw the whole of Europe convulsed in turmoil and revolt. Yet the Habsburg Empire survived. As state after state succumbed to the violent winds of change that were sweeping the continent. How did the Habsburg Empire survive? How was the army able hold together while the rest of the empire collapsed in civil war, and how was it able to seize the political initiative In this new edition, Alan Sked reflects on the changed understanding of the period which resulted from the first appearance of this book, and widens the discussion to look at the Habsburg Empire alongside the decline of the Russian and German Empires, arguing that it is possible to understand their decline from a broad European perspective, as opposed to the overly narrow focus of recent explanations. Alan Sked makes us look at familiar events with new eyes in this radical, vigorously written classic which is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of nineteenth-century Europe.
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The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809-1918

A History of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary

Author: A. J. P. Taylor

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226791456

Category: History

Page: 279

View: 1076

First published in 1941, The Habsburg Monarchy has become indispensable to students of nineteenth-century European history. Not only a chronological report of actions and changes, Taylor's work is a provocative exploration into the historical process of the most eventful hundred years of the Habsburg monarchy.
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Social Poison

The Culture and Politics of Opiate Control in Britain and France, 1821--1926

Author: Howard Padwa

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421404206

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 9127

This comparative history examines the divergent paths taken by Britain and France in managing opiate abuse during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Though the governments of both nations viewed rising levels of opiate use as a problem, Britain and France took opposite courses of action in addressing the issue. The British sanctioned maintenance treatment for addiction, while the French authorities did not hesitate to take legal action against addicts and the doctors who prescribed drugs to them. Drawing on primary documents, Howard Padwa examines the factors that led to these disparate approaches. He finds that national policies were influenced by shifts in the composition of drug-using populations of the two countries and a marked divergence in British and French conceptions of citizenship. Beyond shared concerns about public health and morality, Britain and France had different understandings of the threat that opiate abuse posed to their respective communities. Padwa traces the evolution of thinking on the matter in both countries, explaining why Britain took a less adversarial approach to domestic opiate abuse despite the productivity-sapping powers of this social poison, and why the relatively libertine French chose to attack opiate abuse. In the process, Padwa reveals the confluence of changes in medical knowledge, culture, politics, and drug-user demographics throughout the period, a convergence of forces that at once highlighted the issue and transformed it from one of individual health into a societal concern. An insightful look at the development of drug discourses in the nineteenth century and drug policy in the twentieth century, Social Poison will appeal to scholars and students in public health and the history of medicine. -- David Courtwright, author of Dark Paradise and Forces of Habit
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Phantom Terror

Political Paranoia and the Creation of the Modern State, 1789-1848

Author: Adam Zamoyski

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465060935

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 1540

After the French Revolution, conservative governments from Britain to Russia created bulwarks to protect their power against the threat of further rebellions. They repressed and spied on their citizens, policing both speech and actions. In nations across Europe, politicians and cultural leaders from Edmund Burke to Mary Shelley chose sides, either propelling or resisting the counter-revolutionary spirit embodied in these omnipotent central states. These years of paranoia not only witnessed the first stirrings of modern totalitarian regimes, but gave birth to the political contest between the privileged and the underprivileged—a legacy that haunts us to this day. In Phantom Terror, award-winning historian Adam Zamoyski reveals that the years after the French Revolution were the crux upon which the rest of European history would turn—a moment when desperate monarchs took the world down the path of revolution, terror, and world war.
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The Habsburg Empire

Author: Pieter M. Judson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674969324

Category: History

Page: 585

View: 6360

This panoramic reappraisal shows why the Habsburg Empire mattered for so long to so many Central Europeans across divides of language, religion, and region. Pieter Judson shows that creative government—and intractable problems the far-flung empire could not solve—left an enduring imprint on successor states. Its lessons are no less important today.
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Europe

The Struggle for Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present

Author: Brendan Simms

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465065953

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 5044

In this authoritative account of the past half millennium of European history, prizewinning historian Simms shows how the battle for mastery over the heart of the European continent has long shaped global affairs.
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The Congress of Vienna

Power and Politics After Napoleon

Author: Brian E. Vick

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674729714

Category: History

Page: 436

View: 4922

Historians have dismissed the pageantry of the Vienna Congress as window dressing when compared with the serious maneuverings of sovereigns and statesmen. By seeing these two dimensions as interconnected, Brian Vick reveals how one of the most important diplomatic summits in history managed to redraw the map of Europe and the international system.
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Haeckel's Embryos

Images, Evolution, and Fraud

Author: Nick Hopwood

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022604694X

Category: Art

Page: 388

View: 4276

Emphasizing the changes worked by circulation and copying, interpretation and debate, this book uses the case to explore how pictures succeed and fail, gain acceptance and spark controversy. It reveals how embryonic development was made a process that we can see, compare, and discuss, and how copying - usually dismissed as unoriginal
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Remote Sensing of Soil Salinization

Impact on Land Management

Author: Dr. Graciela Metternicht,Dr. Alfred Zinck

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420065039

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 377

View: 3915

Recognized and advocated as a powerful tool, the role of remote sensing in identifying, mapping, and monitoring soil salinity and salinization will continue to expand. Remote Sensing of Soil Salinization: Impact on Land Management delineates how to combine science and geospatial technologies for smart environmental management. Choose the Right Techniques for the Job An overview of soil salinity assessment using remote sensing technologies, the book describes a variety of sensors, ranging from ground-based to airborne and satellite-borne, and their use in a diversity of geographical regions and environmental settings from coastal to inland saline areas. It provides guidance on how to identify and choose the right remote sensing tools and data sets required based on the purpose of the study and the environmental setting. Organized into three sections, the book covers: Section I: Soil Salinity and Remote Sensing: The Object and the Tool — Focuses on the relationships between the landscape-object salinity and the remote sensing tools Section II: Trends in Mapping Soil Salinity and Monitoring Salinization Using Remote and Proximal Sensing — Provides a variety of case studies dealing with soil salinity mapping and monitoring the process of salinization Section III: Diversity of Approaches to Modeling Soil Salinity and Salinization — Demonstrates the diversity of approaches used in modeling soil salinity and salinization in space and time Combines Fundamentals, the Latest Technology, and Practical Examples The book includes analyses of basic issues of remote detection, such as the spectral behavior of salt types and vegetation influence, and evaluations of currently available remote sensing platforms delineating their advantages and disadvantages. The accompanying CD-ROM provides color images that enhance the material discussed in the text. The mixture of fundamental concepts, latest technological reviews, and practical application examples makes this an ideal resource for environmental assessment and decision making.
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The Pursuit of Italy

A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples

Author: David Gilmour

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 1466801549

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 871

One of The Economist's 2011 Books of the Year Did Garibaldi do Italy a disservice when he helped its disparate parts achieve unity? Was the goal of political unification a mistake? These questions are asked and answered in a number of ways in this engaging, original consideration of the many histories that contribute to the brilliance-and weakness-of Italy today. David Gilmour's wonderfully readable exploration of Italian life over the centuries is filled with provocative anecdotes as well as personal observations, and is peopled with the great figures of the Italian past-from Cicero and Virgil to Dante and the Medicis, from Garibaldi and Cavour to the controversial politicians of the twentieth century. Gilmour's wise account of the Risorgimento, the pivotal epoch in modern Italian history, debunks the nationalistic myths that surround it, though he paints a sympathetic portrait of Giuseppe Verdi, a beloved hero of the era. Gilmour shows that the glory of Italy has always lain in its regions, with their distinctive art, civic cultures, identities, and cuisines. Italy's inhabitants identified themselves not as Italians but as Tuscans and Venetians, Sicilians and Lombards, Neapolitans and Genoese. Italy's strength and culture still come from its regions rather than from its misconceived, mishandled notion of a unified nation. With The Pursuit of Italy, David Gilmour has provided a coherent, persuasive, and entertaining interpretation of the paradoxes of Italian life, past and present.
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Napoleon

The End of Glory

Author: Munro Price

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199660808

Category: Electronic books

Page: 324

View: 9934

The dramatic story of Napoleon's overthrow - focusing not on the battle of Waterloo, whose importance has been overestimated, but on the two years before, from the retreat from Moscow to his first abdication in 1814. This period has been much less studied, but saw Napoleon lose both his European empire and the throne of France. Compared to this, his brief return to France in 1815, ending at Waterloo, was merely an epilogue. The mostremarkable aspect of this story is that at several key moments Napoleon's enemies offered him compromise peace terms which would have maintained him on the French throne. The book uses important new material to explore these and the reasons for their failure, shedding fascinating new light on a crucialperiod in modern history.
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Napoleon and the World War of 1813

Lessons in Coalition Warfighting

Author: J.P. Riley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113632142X

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 3549

This analysis of the world war between Napoleon and the 6th coalition in 1813 covers operations in Europe, Spain and North America. It examines the differences between alliances and coalitions, comparing the long-term international relationships in alliances and the short-term union of coalitions.
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Conservatism Revisited

The Revolt Against Ideology

Author: Peter Viereck

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351526456

Category: Political Science

Page: 205

View: 8392

Peter Viereck, poet and historian, is one of the principle theoreticians of conservatism in modern American political thought. In this classic work, Viereck undertakes a penetrating and unorthodox analysis of that quintessential conservative, Prince Metternich, and offers evidence that cultural and political conservatism may perhaps be best adapted to sustain a free and reasonable society.According to Viereck's definition, conservatism is not the enemy of economic reform or social progress, nor is it the oppressive instrument of the privileged few. Although conservatism has been attacked from the left and often discredited by exploitation from the right, it remains the historic name for a point of view vital to contemporary society and culture. Divided into three parts, the book opens with a survey of conservatism in its cultural context of classicism and humanism. Rejecting the blind alley of reaction, Viereck calls for a discriminating set of principles that include preservation through reform, self-expression through self-restraint, a fruitful nostalgia for the permanent beneath the flux, and a preference for historical continuity over violent rupture.Viereck locates our idea of Western political unity in Metternich's Concert of Europe whose goal was a cosmopolitan Europe united in peace. This ideal was opposed by both the violent nationalism that resulted in Nazism and the socialist internationalism that became a tool of Soviet Russian expansionism. While not ignoring the extremely negative aspects of Metternich's legacy, Viereck focuses on his attempts to tame the bellicosity of European nationalism and his little-known efforts to reform and modernize the Hapsburg Empire.
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Revolt Against the Modern World

Politics, Religion, and Social Order in the Kali Yuga

Author: Julius Evola

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1620558548

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 412

View: 4938

With unflinching gaze and uncompromising intensity Julius Evola analyzes the spiritual and cultural malaise at the heart of Western civilization and all that passes for progress in the modern world. As a gadfly, Evola spares no one and nothing in his survey of what we have lost and where we are headed. At turns prophetic and provocative, Revolt against the Modern World outlines a profound metaphysics of history and demonstrates how and why we have lost contact with the transcendent dimension of being. The revolt advocated by Evola does not resemble the familiar protests of either liberals or conservatives. His criticisms are not limited to exposing the mindless nature of consumerism, the march of progress, the rise of technocracy, or the dominance of unalloyed individualism, although these and other subjects come under his scrutiny. Rather, he attempts to trace in space and time the remote causes and processes that have exercised corrosive influence on what he considers to be the higher values, ideals, beliefs, and codes of conduct--the world of Tradition--that are at the foundation of Western civilization and described in the myths and sacred literature of the Indo‑Europeans. Agreeing with the Hindu philosophers that history is the movement of huge cycles and that we are now in the Kali Yuga, the age of dissolution and decadence, Evola finds revolt to be the only logical response for those who oppose the materialism and ritualized meaninglessness of life in the twentieth century. Through a sweeping study of the structures, myths, beliefs, and spiritual traditions of the major Western civilizations, the author compares the characteristics of the modern world with those of traditional societies. The domains explored include politics, law, the rise and fall of empires, the history of the Church, the doctrine of the two natures, life and death, social institutions and the caste system, the limits of racial theories, capitalism and communism, relations between the sexes, and the meaning of warriorhood. At every turn Evola challenges the reader’s most cherished assumptions about fundamental aspects of modern life. A controversial scholar, philosopher, and social thinker, JULIUS EVOLA (1898-1974) has only recently become known to more than a handful of English‑speaking readers. An authority on the world’s esoteric traditions, Evola wrote extensively on ancient civilizations and the world of Tradition in both East and West. Other books by Evola published by Inner Traditions include Eros and the Mysteries of Love, The Yoga of Power, The Hermetic Tradition, and The Doctrine of Awakening.
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Metternich

Councillor of Europe

Author: Alan Palmer

Publisher: Faber & Faber

ISBN: 0571305849

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 8005

A glib assessment of Metternich might not be a favourable one, he was not without his ridiculous qualities, and yet he survived, more than survived, in fact, with the 'Age of Metternich' lasting for more than a generation, and giving Europe a measure of peace, albeit repressive, that was much needed after the Napoleonic convulsions. Alan Palmer describes well Metternich's extraordinary longevity. 'Clement von Metternich held continuous office at the head of Europe's affairs for a longer period of time than any other statesman in modern history: he became foreign minister of the Austrian Empire in the autumn of 1809 and he did not resign until the spring of 1848. For thirty-three of these thirty-nine years his statecraft and philosophy of government determined the political pattern of the continent. The 'Age of Metternich' , though often impatiently dismissed by historians as a mere interlude, lasted for twice as long as the 'Age of Napoleon' which preceded it and for half as long again as the 'Age of Bismarck' which followed in the closing decades of the century.' Metternich was a statesman to his fingertips, practising 'the skills of diplomacy with greater fluency than any contemporary Talleyrand, from whom he had learnt many of the refinement of the game.' How would he fare today? Probably quite well as he was, again in Alan Palmer's words, 'an early champion of federalism and a good European ...' 'As a work of history (it) cannot be faulted.' A. J. P. Taylor, Observer 'Well-written, well-researched, lucid and witty.' Philip Ziegler, The Times
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