Methodology of Sociological Research

General Problems

Author: S. Nowak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401011176

Category: Philosophy

Page: 521

View: 8749

This is the first part of a textbook for students of sociology, and for those students of other social sciences who wish to make use in their work of the research methods elaborated in the course of the develop ment of empirical sociology over the last few decades. The development of empirical sociological research in our country and the growing demand both for a practical application of its results and for graduates of sociological studies in various fields of social practice testifies to a much broader trend. It is evidence of a desire to base our understanding and conscious transformation of social phenom ena on a sound, scientific perception of social processes and the mechanisms governing them. The increasing volume of studies in Poland is accompanied by a growing need for a particular type of re search method, namely one in which questions addressed to the socio logist would be answered in a manner as free as possible of conclusions based on impressions and defining as unambiguously as possible both the limits of the generality and the degree of validity of the inferences drawn from the results of the research. These conditions are met by the so-called standardized methods of investigating social phenomena which, together with statistical methods of analyzing collected material, consti tute the principal means of conducting sociological research in the world today.
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In the Scope of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science

Volume Two of the 11th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Cracow, August 1999

Author: Peter Gärdenfors,Jan Wolenski,K. Kijania-Placek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402009303

Category: Computers

Page: 362

View: 2017

This is the second of two volumes containing papers submitted by the invited speakers to the 11th international Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, held in Cracow in 1999, under the auspices of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. The invited speakers are the leading researchers and accordingly the book presents the current state of the intellectual discourse in the respective fields. The papers delivered at the congress were divided into 17 sections. Thus the structure of the volume corresponds to the very schedule of the congress. Volume two contains the closing lecture by John Maynard Smith and the invited papers in sections of Philosophy of the Biological Sciences, Philosophy of Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Linguistics, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Ethics of Science and Technology, History of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Philosophical Questions Raised by the History and Sociology of Science. It also contains invited papers in two special symposia: A Hundred Years of the Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Science Meets Philosophy of Science, as well as a special lecture delivered by Stanislaw Lem. We hope that the book could be of interest to philosophers, biologists, linguists, cognitive scientists, social scientists, sociologists, as well as historians and philosophers of science.
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Abductive Reasoning

Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation

Author: Atocha Aliseda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402039077

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 4441

Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation is a much awaited original contribution to the study of abductive reasoning, providing logical foundations and a rich sample of pertinent applications. Divided into three parts on the conceptual framework, the logical foundations, and the applications, this monograph takes the reader for a comprehensive and erudite tour through the taxonomy of abductive reasoning, via the logical workings of abductive inference ending with applications pertinent to scientific explanation, empirical progress, pragmatism and belief revision.
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Causality in Sociological Research

Author: Jakub Karpinski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400904959

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 8339

The general treatment of problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena has traditionally been the domain of philosophy, but when one examines the relationships taking place in the various fields, the study of such conditionings belongs to the empirical sciences. Sociology is no exception in that respect. In that discipline we note a certain paradox. Many problems connected with the causal conditioning of phenomena have been raised in sociology in relatively recent times, and that process marked its empirical or even so-called empiricist trend. That trend, labelled positivist, seems in this case to be in contradiction with a certain type of positivism. Those authors who describe positivism usually include the Humean tradition in its genealogy and, remembering Hume's criticism of the concept of cause, speak about positivism as about a trend which is inclined to treat lightly the study of causes and confines itself to the statements on co-occurrence of phenomena.
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Phenomenological Aspects of Wittgenstein’s Philosophy

Author: B.-C. Park

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401151512

Category: Philosophy

Page: 260

View: 7594

In his writings around 1930, Wittgenstein relates his philosophy in different ways to the idea of phenomenology. He indicates that his main philosophical project had earlier been the construction of a purely phenomenological language, and even after having given up this project he believed that "the world we live in is the world of sense-data,,,l that is, of phenomenological objects. However, a problem is posed by the fact that he does not appear ever to have given a full, explicit account of what he means by his 'phenomenology', 'phenomenological language', or 'phenomenological problems'. In this book, I have tried to unravel the nature of Wittgenstein's phenomenology and to examine its importance for his entire work in philosophy. Phenomenology can be characterized as philosophy whose primary concern is what is immediately given in one's experience. This 'immediately given' is not merely impressions inside one's mind, but includes also the part of objective reality that impinges upon one's consciousness. Thus, an aim of phenomenological enterprise is to grasp this objective reality by attending to immediate experience. Husserl's phenomenology is in fact a case in point.
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Reference, Truth and Conceptual Schemes

A Defense of Internal Realism

Author: G. Forrai

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401728682

Category: Philosophy

Page: 163

View: 1559

1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The purpose of the book is to develop internal realism, the metaphysical-episte mological doctrine initiated by Hilary Putnam (Reason, Truth and History, "Introduction", Many Faces). In doing so I shall rely - sometimes quite heavily - on the notion of conceptual scheme. I shall use the notion in a somewhat idiosyncratic way, which, however, has some affinities with the ways the notion has been used during its history. So I shall start by sketching the history of the notion. This will provide some background, and it will also give opportunity to raise some of the most important problems I will have to solve in the later chapters. The story starts with Kant. Kant thought that the world as we know it, the world of tables, chairs and hippopotami, is constituted in part by the human mind. His cen tral argument relied on an analysis of space and time, and presupposed his famous doctrine that knowledge cannot extend beyond all possible experience. It is a central property of experience - he claimed - that it is structured spatially and temporally. However, for various reasons, space and time cannot be features of the world, as it is independently of our experience. So he concluded that they must be the forms of human sensibility, i. e. necessary ingredients of the way things appear to our senses.
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Monographic Series

Author: Library of Congress

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Monographic series

Page: N.A

View: 2023

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To Know Or Not to Know

Beyond Realism and Anti-Realism

Author: Jan T. J. Srzednicki

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

View: 9014

The theory presented here represents a radical departure from current treatments of the theory of knowledge. It makes the point that all such work is based on the false assumption that what makes knowledge possible is in itself knowable in some way, whereas in fact it is below the threshold of any cognitive consciousness. It is therefore necessary to seek the basis of the possibility of knowledge on entirely different levels, and in entirely novel ways. To Know or Not to Know is the first presentation of the theory in full, earlier writings being only preliminary and brief. It is aimed at the general philosopher, and the specialist in the field of epistemology, but relevant to anyone who would understand how it is possible to know anything at all.
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Books in Print

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 8742

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Die Methodologie der wissenschaftlichen Forschungsprogramme

Author: Imre Lakatos

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 366308082X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 255

View: 5883

Royal Society, betrachtet die Hexentheorie als das Musterbeispiel empirischen Denkens. Wir müssen das empirische Denken definieren, ehe wir mit Hume anfangen, Bücher zu verbren nen. Das wissenschaftliche Denken konfrontiert die Theorien mit den Tatsachen; und eine der Hauptbedingungen dabei ist, daß die Theorien von den Tatsachen gestützt sein müs sen. Wie ist das nun des genaueren möglich? Darauf sind mehrere verschiedene Antworten vorgeschlagen worden. Newton selbst glaubte, seine Gesetze aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen zu haben. Er war stolz darauf, keine bloßen Hypothesen anzubieten; er veröffentlichte nur Theorien, die aufgrundder Tatsa chen bewiesen waren. Und zwar behauptete er, seine Gesetze aus den Keplerschen 'Erschei nungen' abgeleitet zu haben. Doch das war Unsinn, denn nach Kepler bewegten sich die Plane ten in Ellipsen, nach Newton aber wäre das nur richtig, wenn die Planeten nicht gegenseitig ihre Bewegung stören würden, und eben dies tun sie. Daher mußte Newton eine Störungstheo rie entwickeln, nach der sich kein Planet auf einer Ellipse bewegt. Heute kann man leicht zeigen, daß sich kein Naturgesetz aus endlich vielen Tatsa chen schlüssig ableiten läßt; doch man liest immer noch, wissenschaftliche Theorien würden aufgrundder Tatsachen bewiesen. Woher kommt diese hartnäckige Sperre gegen die elemen tare Logik? Das läßt sich sehr einleuchtend erklären. Die Wissenschaftler möchten ihren Theorien Achtung verschaffen, sie sollen die Bezeichnung 'Wissenschaft' verdienen, also echte Erkenntnis sein. Nun bezog sich im 17. Jahrhundert, als die Wissenschaft entstand, die wichtigste Erkenntnis auf Gott und den Teufel, auf Himmel und Hölle.
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Books in Series

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Monographic series

Page: N.A

View: 5143

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Subject Guide to Books in Print

An Index to the Publishers' Trade List Annual

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 6313

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Demography

Analysis And Synthesis; A Treatise in Population Studies

Author: Guillaume J. Wunsch,Graziella Caselli,Jacques Vallin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012765660X

Category: Social Science

Page: 2976

View: 3008

This four-volume collection of over 140 original chapters covers virtually everything of interest to demographers, sociologists, and others. Over 100 authors present population subjects in ways that provoke thinking and lead to the creation of new perspectives, not just facts and equations to be memorized. The articles follow a theory-methods-applications approach and so offer a kind of "one-stop shop" that is well suited for students and professors who need non-technical summaries, such as political scientists, public affairs specialists, and others. Unlike shorter handbooks, Demography: Analysis and Synthesis offers a long overdue, thorough treatment of the field. Topics to be covered: * Population Dynamics and the Relationship Between Population Growth and Structure * The Determinants of Fertility * The Determinants of Mortality * The Determinants of Migration * Historical and Geographical Determinants of Population * The Effects of Population on Health, Economics, Culture, and the Environment * Population Policies * Data Collection Methods and Teaching about Population Studies * All chapters share a common format * Each chapter features several cross-references to other chapters * Tables, charts, and other non-text features are widespread * Each chapter contains at least 30 bibliographic citations
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