Metamagical Themas

Questing For The Essence Of Mind And Pattern

Author: Douglas Hofstadter

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0786723866

Category: Psychology

Page: 880

View: 575

Hofstadter's collection of quirky essays is unified by its primary concern: to examine the way people perceive and think.
Release

Der Gödelsche Beweis

Author: Ernest Nagel,James R. Newman

Publisher: de Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN: 9783486597264

Category:

Page: 110

View: 8174

Spätestens seit Douglas R. Hofstadters "Gödel, Escher, Bach" ist der Name Gödel auch bei Nichtmathematikern bekannt geworden. 1931 hatte Kurt Gödel unter dem Titel "Über formal unterscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme" seinen Unvollständigkeitssatz publiziert. Nagel und Newman haben das Wesentliche an Gödels Ergebnissen für Nichtfachleute dargestellt. Die vorliegende 9. Auflage ist ein unveränderter Nachdruck der längst klassisch gewordenen Ausgabe von 1958.
Release

DAS SUBSYMBOLISCHE PARADIGMA PAUL SMOLENSKY'S VOR DEM HINTERGRUND DER SYMBOLISMUS VS. KONNEKTIONISMUS DEBATTE

Author: Harald Maurer

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3837083535

Category:

Page: 162

View: 4912

Das Buch stellt eine leicht uberarbeitete Fassung meiner Magisterarbeit dar, die ich im Fachbereich Philosophie und Wissenschsaftstheorie bei Prof. Dr. Dr. W. Hoering im Wintersemester 2005/06 und im Sommersemester 2006 geschrieben habe. Es gibt erstmals einen umfassenden Uberblick uber die Debatte zwischen der klassichen Symboltheorie i.S. J.A. Fodor's, Z.W. Pylyshyn's und Br. McLaughlin's und dem bedeutensten Vertreter des konnektionistischen Programms in der kunstlichen Intelligenz, Paul Smolensky, der mit seinem sog. Subsymbolischen Paradigma" den Anspruch erhebt, eine alternative und integrative Theorie der Kognition vorzulegen, indem die Theorie der kunstlichen Neuronalen Netzwerke auf die Kognitionswissenschaft angewendet wird. Die Debatte behandelt dabei das Problem der modelltechnischen Realisation von Information, m.a.W. die Beantwortung der Frage: Wie funktioniert die intelligente Informationsverarbeitung des Menschen? Wahrend in der sog. symbolorientierten Klassischen Kunstlichen Intelligenz," dem Symbolismus, interne mentale Reprasentationen als syntaktisch strukturierte Symbole betrachtet werden, wird in der sog. subsymbolorientierten Kunstlichen Intelligenz," dem Konnektionismus, der Begriff der Reprasentation" auf dynamische Vektor- und Tensorkonstruktionen aus der Theorie der Kunstlichen Neuronalen Netzwerke angewendet, sodass man versuchen kann kognitive Funktionen wie Produktivitat, Systematizitat, Kompositionalitat und logische Inferenz auf der Basis einer sog. vektoriellen Form" zu erklaren, d.h. gegrundet im Dynamischen System- und Selbstorganisations-Paradigma."
Release

Können Roboter lügen? (Telepolis)

Essays zur Robotik und Künstlicher Intelligenz

Author: Raúl Rojas

Publisher: Heise Zeitschriften Verlag GmbH & Co. KG

ISBN: 3944099923

Category: Science

Page: 150

View: 9639

Dieses e-Book bietet dem Leser eine Sammlung von Essays über Kognitionswissenschaften, Mikroelektronik und Robotik, die in den Jahren 2011 bis 2013 in Telepolis erschienen sind. Wenn wir intelligente Maschinen bauen möchten, sollten wir als erstes die Intelligenz der Menschen und anderer Lebewesen unter der Lupe nehmen. So beschäftigen sich die Texte über das menschliche Gehirn mit der Struktur und Vernetzung unseren Neuronen, mit Messungen der neuronalen Aktivität und mit dem "Human Brain Project". Als Informatiker har Rojas seit Jahrzehnten die rasche Entwicklung der Mikroelektronik und die Möglichkeiten, die sie bietet, verfolgt, um intelligentes Verhalten in Maschinen nachzubauen. Das Mooresche Gesetz scheint sich immer wieder selbst am eigenen Schopf aus dem Sumpf zu ziehen, um alle technischen Schwierigkeiten zu überwinden. Milliarden von elektronischen Komponenten verbergen sich bereits in kleinsten Rechenmaschinen. Das Problem ist aber nun ein anderes, nämlich die Energiezufuhr zu garantieren und die übermäßige Wärmeentwicklung unter Kontrolle zu bringen. An der Stelle bleibt das biologische Vorbild immer noch unerreicht. Der dritte Teil über Robotik und KI gibt einen Einblick in die Arbeit, die in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet geleistet worden ist. Wir wären froh, mit Robotern die Eleganz eines Insekts bei der Bewältigung von Hindernissen zu erreichen. Wir können aber schon heute kleine und große Roboter - z.B. autonome Fahrzeuge - mit kognitiven Architekturen ausstatten, die eine effiziente und nützliche Funktionalität erlauben. Die Kapitel über Roboter, die lügen, bzw. über das Watson-System zeigen die zwei Seiten der Medaille: Wie weit die künstliche Intelligenz gekommen ist und wie weit entfernt sie doch noch vom Ziel bleibt.
Release

Artificial Intelligence

Critical Concepts

Author: Ronald Chrisley,Sander Begeer

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415193320

Category: Artificial intelligence

Page: 500

View: 6317

Release

The Age of Spiritual Machines

When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence

Author: Ray Kurzweil

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101077887

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 8224

Ray Kurzweil is the inventor of the most innovative and compelling technology of our era, an international authority on artificial intelligence, and one of our greatest living visionaries. Now he offers a framework for envisioning the twenty-first century--an age in which the marriage of human sensitivity and artificial intelligence fundamentally alters and improves the way we live. Kurzweil's prophetic blueprint for the future takes us through the advances that inexorably result in computers exceeding the memory capacity and computational ability of the human brain by the year 2020 (with human-level capabilities not far behind); in relationships with automated personalities who will be our teachers, companions, and lovers; and in information fed straight into our brains along direct neural pathways. Optimistic and challenging, thought-provoking and engaging, The Age of Spiritual Machines is the ultimate guide on our road into the next century. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Release

Sacred Pain

Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul

Author: Ariel Glucklich

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198030409

Category: Religion

Page: 288

View: 5213

Why would anyone seek out the very experience the rest of us most wish to avoid? Why would religious worshipers flog or crucify themselves, sleep on spikes, hang suspended by their flesh, or walk for miles through scorching deserts with bare and bloodied feet? In this insightful new book, Ariel Glucklich argues that the experience of ritual pain, far from being a form of a madness or superstition, contains a hidden rationality and can bring about a profound transformation of the consciousness and identity of the spiritual seeker. Steering a course between purely cultural and purely biological explanations, Glucklich approaches sacred pain from the perspective of the practitioner to fully examine the psychological and spiritual effects of self-hurting. He discusses the scientific understanding of pain, drawing on research in fields such as neuropsychology and neurology. He also ranges over a broad spectrum of historical and cultural contexts, showing the many ways mystics, saints, pilgrims, mourners, shamans, Taoists, Muslims, Hindus, Native Americans, and indeed members of virtually every religion have used pain to achieve a greater identification with God. He examines how pain has served as a punishment for sin, a cure for disease, a weapon against the body and its desires, or a means by which the ego may be transcended and spiritual sickness healed. "When pain transgresses the limits," the Muslim mystic Mizra Asadullah Ghalib is quoted as saying, "it becomes medicine." Based on extensive research and written with both empathy and critical insight, Sacred Pain explores the uncharted inner terrain of self-hurting and reveals how meaningful suffering has been used to heal the human spirit.
Release

Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View

Author: R. Hegselmann,Ulrich Mueller,Klaus G. Troitzsch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401586861

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7016

Model building in the social sciences can increasingly rely on well elaborated formal theories. At the same time inexpensive large computational capacities are now available. Both make computer-based model building and simulation possible in social science, whose central aim is in particular an understanding of social dynamics. Such social dynamics refer to public opinion formation, partner choice, strategy decisions in social dilemma situations and much more. In the context of such modelling approaches, novel problems in philosophy of science arise which must be analysed - the main aim of this book. Interest in social simulation has recently been growing rapidly world- wide, mainly as a result of the increasing availability of powerful personal computers. The field has also been greatly influenced by developments in cellular automata theory (from mathematics) and in distributed artificial intelligence which provided tools readily applicable to social simulation. This book presents a number of modelling and simulation approaches and their relations to problems in philosophy of science. It addresses sociologists and other social scientists interested in formal modelling, mathematical sociology, and computer simulation as well as computer scientists interested in social science applications, and philosophers of social science.
Release

Hidden in Plain Sight

The Social Structure of Irrelevance

Author: Eviatar Zerubavel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199366632

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 4842

Many of us take for granted that what we perceive is a completely accurate representation of the world around us. Yet we have all had the experience of suddenly realizing that the keys or glasses that we had been looking for in vain were right in front of us the whole time. The capacity of our sense organs far exceeds our mental capabilities, and as such, looking at something does not guarantee that we will notice it. Our minds constantly prioritize and organize the information we take in, bringing certain things to the foreground, while letting others - that which we deem irrelevant - recede into the background. What ultimately determines what we perceive, and what we do not? In this fascinating book, noted sociologist Eviatar Zerubavel argues that we perceive things not just as human beings but as social beings. Drawing on fascinating examples from science, the art world, optical illusions, and all walks of life, he shows that what we notice or ignore varies across cultures and throughout history, and illustrates how our environment and our social lives - everything from our lifestyles to our professions to our nationalities - play a role in determining how we actually use our senses to access the world. A subtle yet powerful examination of one of the central features of our conscious life, this book offers a way to think about all that might otherwise remain hidden in plain sight.
Release

Rationality + Consciousness = Free Will

Author: David Hodgson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190208600

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 9095

In recent years, philosophical discussions of free will have focused largely on whether or not free will is compatible with determinism. In this challenging book, David Hodgson takes a fresh approach to the question of free will, contending that close consideration of human rationality and human consciousness shows that together they give us free will, in a robust and indeterministic sense. In particular, they give us the capacity to respond appositely to feature-rich gestalts of conscious experiences, in ways that are not wholly determined by laws of nature or computational rules. The author contends that this approach is consistent with what science tells us about the world; and he considers its implications for our responsibility for our own conduct, for the role of retribution in criminal punishment, and for the place of human beings in the wider scheme of things. Praise for David Hodgson's previous work, The Mind Matters "magisterial...It is balanced, extraordinarily thorough and scrupulously fair-minded; and it is written in clear, straightforward, accessible prose." --Michael Lockwood, Times Literary Supplement "an excellent contribution to the literature. It is well written, authoritative, and wonderfully wide-ranging. ... This account of quantum theory ... will surely be of great value. ... On the front cover of the paper edition of this book Paul Davies is quoted as saying that this is "a truly splendid and provocative book". In writing this review I have allowed myself to be provoked, but I am happy to close by giving my endorsement to this verdict in its entirety!" --Euan Squires, Journal of Consciousness Studies "well argued and extremely important book." --Sheena Meredith, New Scientist "His reconstructions and explanations are always concise and clear." --Jeffrey A Barrett, The Philosophical Review "In this large-scale and ambitious work Hodgson attacks a modern orthodoxy. Both its proponents and its opponents will find it compelling reading." --J. R. Lucas, Merton College, Oxford
Release

No Contest

The Case Against Competition

Author: Alfie Kohn

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 054752739X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 9402

No Contest stands as the definitive critique of competition. Contrary to accepted wisdom, competition is not basic to human nature; it poisons our relationships and holds us back from doing our best. In this new edition, Alfie Kohn argues that the race to win turns all of us into losers.
Release

Philosophy of Biology

Author: Brian Garvey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317493664

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 4380

This major new series in the philosophy of science aims to provide a new generation of textbooks for the subject. The series will not only offer fresh treatments of core topics in the theory and methodology of scientific knowledge, but also introductions to newer areas of the discipline. Furthermore, the series will cover topics in current science that raise significant foundational issues both for scientific theory and for philosophy more generally. Biology raises distinct questions of its own not only for philosophy of science, but for metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. This comprehensive new textbook for a rapidly growing field of study provides students new to the subject with an up-to-date presentation of the key philosophical issues. Care is taken throughout to keep the technicalities accessible to the non-biologist but without sacrificing the philosophical subtleties. The first part of the book covers the philosophical challenges posed by evolution and evolutionary biology, beginning with Darwin's central argument in the Origin of the Species. Individual chapters cover natural selection, the selfish gene, alternative units of selection, developmental systems theory, adaptionism and issues in macroevolution. The second part of the book examines philosophical questions arising in connection with biological traits, function, nature and nurture, and biological kinds. The third part of the book examines metaphysical questions, biology's relation with the traditional concerns of philosophy of science, and how evolution has been introduced into epistemological debates. The final part considers the relevance of biology to questions about ethics, religion and human nature.
Release

Signs, Search and Communication

Semiotic Aspects of Artificial Intelligence

Author: René J. Jorna,Barend van Heusden,Roland Posner

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110136586

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 377

View: 6672

A selection of papers presented at the conference Expert Systems, Culture and Semiotics, held in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1990. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part is about signs and representations, the second about reasoning and search, and the third about communicat
Release

Writing to Learn

How to Write - and Think - Clearly About Any Subject at All

Author: William Zinsser

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062244698

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 272

View: 1359

This is an essential book for everyone who wants to write clearly about any subject and use writing as a means of learning.
Release

Zahl und Numerale

eine Untersuchung zur Korrelation konzeptueller und sprachlicher Strukturen

Author: Heike Wiese

Publisher: De Gruyter Akademie Forschung

ISBN: N.A

Category: Grammar, Comparative and general

Page: 389

View: 811

Release

Ex Libris

Bekenntnisse einer Bibliomanin

Author: Anne Fadiman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783257236460

Category:

Page: 224

View: 9805

Release