Managing the risks of organizational accidents

Author: J. T. Reason

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 690

Major accidents are rare events due to the many barriers, safeguards and defences developed by modern technologies. But they continue to happen with saddening regularity and their human and financial consequences are all too often unacceptably catastrophic. One of the challenges facing the next millennium is to develop more effective ways of both understanding and limiting their occurrence.This lucid book presents a set of common principles to further our knowledge of the causes of major accidents in a wide variety of high technology systems. It also describes tools and techniques for managing the risks of such organizational accidents that go beyond those currently available to system managers and safety professionals.The Author deals comprehensively with the prevention of major accidents arising from human and organizational causes. He argues that the same general principles and management techniques are appropriate for many different domains. These include banks and insurance companies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production companies, chemical process installations and air, sea and rail transport.Its unique combination of principles and practicalities make this book essential reading for those people whose daily business is to manage, audit and regulate hazardous technologies of all kinds. It is relevant to those concerned with understanding and controlling human and organizational factors and will also interest academic readers and those working in industrial and government agencies.
Release

Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents

Author: James Reason

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134855427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 8581

Major accidents are rare events due to the many barriers, safeguards and defences developed by modern technologies. But they continue to happen with saddening regularity and their human and financial consequences are all too often unacceptably catastrophic. One of the greatest challenges we face is to develop more effective ways of both understanding and limiting their occurrence. This lucid book presents a set of common principles to further our knowledge of the causes of major accidents in a wide variety of high-technology systems. It also describes tools and techniques for managing the risks of such organizational accidents that go beyond those currently available to system managers and safety professionals. James Reason deals comprehensively with the prevention of major accidents arising from human and organizational causes. He argues that the same general principles and management techniques are appropriate for many different domains. These include banks and insurance companies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production companies, chemical process installations and air, sea and rail transport. Its unique combination of principles and practicalities make this seminal book essential reading for all whose daily business is to manage, audit and regulate hazardous technologies of all kinds. It is relevant to those concerned with understanding and controlling human and organizational factors and will also interest academic readers and those working in industrial and government agencies.
Release

Organizational Accidents Revisited

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1134806078

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 8279

Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents introduced the notion of an ’organizational accident’. These are rare but often calamitous events that occur in complex technological systems operating in hazardous circumstances. They stand in sharp contrast to ’individual accidents’ whose damaging consequences are limited to relatively few people or assets. Although they share some common causal factors, they mostly have quite different causal pathways. The frequency of individual accidents - usually lost-time injuries - does not predict the likelihood of an organizational accident. The book also elaborated upon the widely-cited Swiss Cheese Model. Organizational Accidents Revisited extends and develops these ideas using a standardized causal analysis of some 10 organizational accidents that have occurred in a variety of domains in the nearly 20 years that have passed since the original was published. These analyses provide the ’raw data’ for the process of drilling down into the underlying causal pathways. Many contributing latent conditions recur in a variety of domains. A number of these - organizational issues, design, procedures and so on - are examined in close detail in order to identify likely problems before they combine to penetrate the defences-in-depth. Where the 1997 book focused largely upon the systemic factors underlying organizational accidents, this complementary follow-up goes beyond this to examine what can be done to improve the ’error wisdom’ and risk awareness of those on the spot; they are often the last line of defence and so have the power to halt the accident trajectory before it can cause damage. The book concludes by advocating that system safety should require the integration of systemic factors (collective mindfulness) with individual mental skills (personal mindfulness).
Release

Organizational Accidents Revisited

Author: Professor James Reason

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472447670

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 144

View: 5197

Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents introduced the notion of an ‘organizational accident’. These are rare but often calamitous events that occur in complex technological systems operating in hazardous circumstances. They stand in sharp contrast to ‘individual accidents’ whose damaging consequences are limited to relatively few people or assets. Although they share some common causal factors, they mostly have quite different causal pathways. The frequency of individual accidents - usually lost-time injuries - does not predict the likelihood of an organizational accident. The book also elaborated upon the widely-cited Swiss Cheese Model. Organizational Accidents Revisited extends and develops these ideas using a standardised causal analysis of some 10 organizational accidents that have occurred in a variety of domains in the nearly 20 years that have passed since the original was published. These analyses provide the ‘raw data’ for the process of drilling down into the underlying causal pathways. Many contributing latent conditions recur in a variety of domains. A number of these - organizational issues, design, procedures and so on - are examined in close detail in order to identify likely problems before they combine to penetrate the defences-in-depth. Where the 1997 book focused largely upon the systemic factors underlying organisational accidents, this complementary follow-up goes beyond this to examine what can be done to improve the ‘error wisdom’ and risk awareness of those on the spot; they are often the last line of defence and so have the power to halt the accident trajectory before it can cause damage. The book concludes by advocating that system safety should require the integration of systemic factors (collective mindfulness) with individual mental skills (personal mindfulness).
Release

On the Practice of Safety

Author: Fred A. Manuele

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118574761

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 616

View: 6126

Explains how to implement the best safety practices and whythey work Reviews from the Third Edition "An excellent piece of work." —Safety Health Practitioner (SHP) "This is a book to be read now for its educational value andalso to be kept on the shelf for easy future reference." —Chemistry International "A useful fountain of knowledge." —Quality World The Fourth Edition of On the Practice of Safetymakes it possible for readers to master all the core subjects andpractices that today's safety professionals need to know in orderto provide optimal protection for their organizations' property andpersonnel. Like the previous editions, each chapter is aself-contained unit, making it easy for readers to focus on selecttopics of interest. Thoroughly revised and updated, this Fourth Editionreflects the latest research and safety practice standards. Forexample, author Fred Manuele has revised the design chapters toreflect the recently adopted American National Standard onPrevention through Design. In addition, readers will find newchapters dedicated to: Management of change and pre-job planning Indirect-to-direct accident cost ratios Leading and lagging indicators Opportunities for safety professionals to apply leanconcepts Role of safety professionals in implementingsustainability Financial management concepts and practices that safetyprofessionals should know Many chapters are highly thought-provoking, questioninglong-accepted concepts in the interest of advancing and improvingthe professional practice of safety. Acclaimed by both students and instructors, On the Practiceof Safety is a core textbook for both undergraduate andgraduate degree programs in safety. Safety professionals shouldalso refer to the text in order to update and improve their safetyskills and knowledge.
Release

The Human Contribution

Unsafe Acts, Accidents and Heroic Recoveries

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351888110

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 2153

This book explores the human contribution to the reliability and resilience of complex, well-defended systems. Usually the human is considered a hazard - a system component whose unsafe acts are implicated in the majority of catastrophic breakdowns. However there is another perspective that has been relatively little studied in its own right - the human as hero, whose adaptations and compensations bring troubled systems back from the brink of disaster time and again. What, if anything, did these situations have in common? Can these human abilities be ’bottled’ and passed on to others? The Human Contribution is vital reading for all professionals in high-consequence environments and for managers of any complex system. The book draws its illustrative material from a wide variety of hazardous domains, with the emphasis on healthcare reflecting the author’s focus on patient safety over the last decade. All students of human factors - however seasoned - will also find it an invaluable and thought-provoking read.
Release

Human Factors - Psychologie sicheren Handelns in Risikobranchen

Author: Petra Badke-Schaub,Gesine Hofinger,Kristina Lauche

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540723218

Category: Psychology

Page: 339

View: 4855

In Luftfahrt, Kernkraft, chemischer Industrie, Medizin und Militär arbeiten Menschen mit komplexen technischen Systemen. Doch in kritischen Situationen entscheidet der Mensch, nicht die Maschine – und das häufig unter Zeitdruck und hohem Risiko. Dabei können Fehler dramatische Konsequenzen haben. „Risikobranchen" benötigen deshalb Konzepte, die Fehlerquellen minimieren, sicheres Handeln fördern und den „Faktor Mensch" effektiver einsetzen. Im ersten Buchteil erklären Wissenschaftler Konzepte zu Sicherheit, Fehlern und menschlichem Handeln. Im zweiten Teil stellen erfahrene Praktiker aktuelle Herausforderungen einzelner Branchen vor und präsentieren Lösungsansätze: Wie werden Prozesse und Systeme sicherer und Kommunikation effektiver gestaltet? Wie kann Komplexität reduziert werden? Welche Rolle spielen Personalführung oder neue Formen der Zusammenarbeit? Wie kann Teamarbeit trainiert werden? Sicherheitsbeauftragte, Manager und Personaler in Risikobranchen, Ingenieure, Trainer und Psychologen finden in diesem Buch aktuelle Konzepte der Human-Factors-Psychologie anschaulich erklärt und mit spannenden Fallbeispielen verdeutlicht.
Release

Hochleistungsmanagement

Leistungspotenziale in Organisationen gezielt fördern

Author: Peter Pawlowsky,Peter Mistele

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3834998788

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 444

View: 4051

Dieses Buch gewährt Einblicke in das praktische Handeln von Hochleistungsteams, beinhaltet praktische Erfahrungsberichte aus den Einsatzfeldern der Hochleistung und wesentliche Linien der empirischen Forschung zu diesen Bereichen. Es versucht Erkenntnisse aus diesen unterschiedlichen disziplinären Feldern, wie z. B. Arbeitswissenschaften, Fehlerforschung, Hochverlässlichkeits-Ansätze, Human-Factor-Forschung, Sportwissenschaften, Psychologie, Soziologie oder Managementlehre zu verbinden und zeigt Möglichkeiten auf, die Erkenntnisse des Hochleistungsmanagements auf das Management und die Führung von Wirtschaftsorganisationen zu übertragen.
Release

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture

Author: Karen M. Barbera

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199395926

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 7597

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture presents the breadth of topics from Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior through the lenses of organizational climate and culture. The Handbook reveals in great detail how in both research and practice climate and culture reciprocally influence each other. The details reveal the many practices that organizations use to acquire, develop, manage, motivate, lead, and treat employees both at home and in the multinational settings that characterize contemporary organizations. Chapter authors are both expert in their fields of research and also represent current climate and culture practice in five national and international companies (3M, McDonald's, the Mayo Clinic, PepsiCo and Tata). In addition, new approaches to the collection and analysis of climate and culture data are presented as well as new thinking about organizational change from an integrated climate and culture paradigm. No other compendium integrates climate and culture thinking like this Handbook does and no other compendium presents both an up-to-date review of the theory and research on the many facets of climate and culture as well as contemporary practice. The Handbook takes a climate and culture vantage point on micro approaches to human issues at work (recruitment and hiring, training and performance management, motivation and fairness) as well as organizational processes (teams, leadership, careers, communication), and it also explicates the fact that these are lodged within firms that function in larger national and international contexts.
Release

Medical Emergency Teams

Implementation and Outcome Measurement

Author: Michael A. DeVita,Ken Hillman,Rinaldo Bellomo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387279213

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 2366

Why Critical Care Evolved METs? In early 2004, when Dr. Michael DeVita informed me that he was cons- ering a textbook on the new concept of Medical Emergency Teams (METs), I was surprised. At Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh we int- duced this idea some 15 years ago, but did not think it was revolutionary enough to publish. This, even though, our fellows in critical care medicine training were all involved and informed about the importance of “C- dition C (Crisis),” as it was called to distinguish it from “Condition A (Arrest). ”We thought it absurd to intervene only after cardiac arrest had occurred,because most cases showed prior deterioration and cardiac arrest could be prevented with rapid team work to correct precluding problems. The above thoughts were logical in Pittsburgh, where the legendary Dr. Peter Safar had been working since the late 1950s on improving current resuscitation techniques, ?rst ventilation victims of apneic from drowning, treatment of smoke inhalation, and so on. This was followed by external cardiac compression upon demonstration of its ef?ciency in cases of unexpected sudden cardiac arrest. Dr. Safar devoted his entire professional life to improvement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. He and many others emphasized the importance of getting the CPR team to o- of-hospital victims of cardiac arrest as quickly as possible.
Release

Das Unerwartete managen

wie Unternehmen aus Extremsituationen lernen

Author: Karl E. Weick,Kathleen M. Sutcliffe

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783791029689

Category: Crisis management

Page: 201

View: 7615

Wie können Unternehmen mit unerwarteten Situationen umgehen? Um diese Frage zu beantworten, untersuchen die Autoren sogenannte High Reliability Organizations (HROs) - Organisationen, die absolut zuverlässig arbeiten müssen, wie z. B. Fluglotsen oder Feuerwehrmannschaften. An ihren spezifischen Handlungsabläufen kann sich jede Organisation orientieren, um unerwartete Ereignisse und Entwicklungen besser zu verstehen und zu bewältigen. Wie die Methoden der HROs sich in der Unternehmenspraxis umsetzen lassen, zeigt der lösungsorientierte Managementansatz.
Release

Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations

Author: American Society for Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470443715

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 5522

Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations, Student Edition This comprehensive textbook provides a complete introduction to risk management in health care. Risk Management Handbook, Student Edition, covers general risk management techniques; standards of health care risk management administration; federal, state and local laws; and methods for integrating patient safety and enterprise risk management into a comprehensive risk management program. The Student Edition is applicable to all health care settings including acute care hospital to hospice, and long term care. Written for students and those new to the topic, each chapter highlights key points and learning objectives, lists key terms, and offers questions for discussion. An instructor's supplement with cases and other material is also available. American Society for Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM) is a personal membership group of the American Hospital Association with more than 5,000 members representing health care, insurance, law, and other related professions. ASHRM promotes effective and innovative risk management strategies and professional leadership through education, recognition, advocacy, publications, networking, and interactions with leading health care organizations and government agencies. ASHRM initiatives focus on developing and implementing safe and effective patient care practices, preserving financial resources, and maintaining safe working environments.
Release

The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Engineering

Author: John D. Lee,Alex Kirlik

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199757186

Category: Psychology

Page: 639

View: 5510

This handbook is the first to provide comprehensive coverage of original state-of-the-science research, analysis, and design of integrated, human-technology systems.
Release

A Life in Error

From Little Slips to Big Disasters

Author: Professor James Reason

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472418417

Category: Political Science

Page: 150

View: 1939

This succinct but absorbing book covers the main way stations on James Reason’s 40-year journey in pursuit of the nature and varieties of human error. He presents an engrossing and very personal perspective, offering the reader exceptional insights, wisdom and wit as only James Reason can. A Life in Error charts the development of his seminal and hugely influential work from its original focus on individual cognitive psychology through the broadening of scope to embrace social, organizational and systemic issues.
Release

Neuroleadership

Empirische Überprüfung und Nutzenpotenziale für die Praxis

Author: Rüdiger Reinhardt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110374218

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 468

View: 5004

Was können Führungskräfte aus den Erkenntnissen der Neurowissenschaften lernen, um ihren Job noch besser als bislang zu machen? Das Buch wendet sich an Führungskräfte, Berater, Trainer, Wissenschaftler sowie Studierende der Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Wirtschaftspsychologie. Neurowissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse können hilfreich sein, um Führungskräften neue Sicht- und Denkweisen zu vermitteln – und dadurch deren Führungseffektivität zu erhöhen. Die vorliegende Publikation verdeutlicht, wie es gelingen kann, mittels eines Neuroleadership sowohl Leistungsprobleme zu lösen, wie auch die Gesundheit der Führungskräfte und Mitarbeiter zu fördern, was sich – zusammengenommen – wiederum nachhaltig positiv auf die Leistungserstellung und somit auf den Unternehmenserfolg auswirkt. In diesem Zusammenhang bietet das vorliegende Buch folgende neuartige Perspektiven: 1.Überwindung des Empiriedefizits: Diese Publikation dient zunächst dazu, das vorhandene Empiriedefizit zum Thema „Neuroleadership“ zu überwinden: Einerseits werden die Vorhersagen von zwei „prominenteren“ Ansätzen des Neuroleadership, nämlich das SCARF-Modell von David Rock wie auch die Konsistenztheorie von Klaus Grawe in Bezug auf die Frage geprüft, ob Neuroleadership ein Ansatz ist, mit dem Leistung und Gesundheit gefördert werden kann. Hierzu wurde eine empirische Studie mit mehr als 900 berufstätigen Personen durchgeführt. Andererseits werden mittels einer Unternehmensfallstudie die Aussagen des SCARF-Modells dadurch validiert, dass Mitarbeiterurteile mit denen von Führungskräften verglichen werden. 2.Aufhebung der einseitigen Führer-Geführten-Perspektive: Die bisherige Neuroleadership-Argumentation zeichnet sich in weiten Teilen dadurch aus, dass eine große Nähe zu situativen Ansätzen der Personalführung existiert: Die Führungskraft steht im Mittelpunkt des Geschehens und optimiert – im Kontext eines solchen Führungsverständnisses – das Leistungsverhalten ihrer Mitarbeiter dadurch, dass sie die unterschiedlichen, jetzt neurobiologisch begründeten Bedürfnisse ihrer Mitarbeiter berücksichtigt. Hier wird gerade in Hinblick auf Führungskräfte verdeutlicht, wie deren eigenen Interpretationsvorlieben, Sprachgewohnheiten und Weltbilder die eigene Effektivität fördern – oder aber auch reduzieren können. 3.Transfer zur Unternehmensführung: Es wird gezeigt, welche Beziehungen zwischen den aus den empirischen Studien abgeleiteten Prinzipien eines Neuroleadership zu Befunden erfolgreicher Unternehmenspraxis bestehen. Hierzu werden einerseits ausführlichere Unternehmensfallstudien sowie die Fallstudiensammlung des Moonshot-Projekts von Gary Hamel herangezogen. Aktuelle Weiterentwicklungen dieser Überlegungen zum Neuroleadership finden sich unter www.neuroleadership-online.de.
Release

Managing the Risk of Workplace Stress

Health and Safety Hazards

Author: Sharon Clarke,Cary L. Cooper

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415297103

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 197

View: 6187

Working in a stressful environment not only increases the risk of physical illness or distress, but also increases the likelihood of workplace accidents. While legislation provides some guidelines for risk assessment of physical hazards, there remains limited guidance on the risks of psychosocial hazards, such as occupational stress. This book takes the risk management approach to stress evaluation in the workplace, offering practical guidelines for the audit, assessment and mitigation of workplace stressors. Based on research and case studies, this book provides a comprehensive source of theoretical and practical information for students and practitioners alike. It includes chapters on: * environmental stress factors * psychological stress factors * work-related accidents * job stress evaluation methods With its up-to-date approach to a fascinating area of study, this is key reading for all students of organizational psychology and those responsible for workplace safety.
Release

Secrets & lies

IT-Sicherheit in einer vernetzten Welt

Author: Bruce Schneier

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783898643023

Category:

Page: 408

View: 6470

Willkommen in der New Economy, der Welt der digitalen Wirtschaft. Informationen sind leichter zugänglich als je zuvor. Die Vernetzung wird dicher, und digitale Kommunikation ist aus den Unternehmen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Die Begeisterung für die Technologie hat jedoch Ihren Preis: Die Zahl der Sicherheitsrisiken nimmt ständig zu. Die neuen Gefahren, die mit dem E-Business verknüpft sind, müssen den Unternehmen weltweit aber erst klar werden. Dieses Buch ist ein erster Schritt in diese Richtung. Bruce Schneier, anerkannter Experte im Bereich Kryptographie, erklärt, was Unternehmen über IT-Sicherheit wissen müssen, um zu überleben und wettbewerbsfähig zu bleiben. Er deckt das gesamte System auf, von den Ursachen der Sicherheitslücken bis hin zu den Motiven, die hinter böswilligen Attacken stehen. Schneier zeigt Sicherheitstechnologien und deren Möglichkeiten, aber auch deren Grenzen auf. Fundiert und anschaulich zugleich behandelt dieser praktische Leitfaden: - Die digitalen Bedrohungen und Angriffe, die es zu kennen gilt - Die derzeit verfügbaren Sicherheitsprodukte und -prozesse - Die Technologien, die in den nächsten Jahren interessant werden könnten - Die Grenzen der Technik - Das Vorgehen, um Sicherheitsmängel an einem Produkt offenzulegen - Die Möglichkeiten, existierende Risiken in einem Unternehmen festzustellen - Die Implementierung einer wirksamen Sicherheitspolitik Schneiers Darstellung der digitalen Welt und unserer vernetzten Gesellschaft ist pragmatisch, interessant und humorvoll. Und sie ermöglicht es dem Leser, die vernetzte Welt zu verstehen und sich gegen ihre Bedrohungen zu wappnen. Hier finden Sie die Unterstützung eines Experten, die Sie für die Entscheidungsfindung im Bereich IT-Sicherheit brauchen.
Release