Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents

Author: James Reason

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134855427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 266

View: 4177

Major accidents are rare events due to the many barriers, safeguards and defences developed by modern technologies. But they continue to happen with saddening regularity and their human and financial consequences are all too often unacceptably catastrophic. One of the greatest challenges we face is to develop more effective ways of both understanding and limiting their occurrence. This lucid book presents a set of common principles to further our knowledge of the causes of major accidents in a wide variety of high-technology systems. It also describes tools and techniques for managing the risks of such organizational accidents that go beyond those currently available to system managers and safety professionals. James Reason deals comprehensively with the prevention of major accidents arising from human and organizational causes. He argues that the same general principles and management techniques are appropriate for many different domains. These include banks and insurance companies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production companies, chemical process installations and air, sea and rail transport. Its unique combination of principles and practicalities make this seminal book essential reading for all whose daily business is to manage, audit and regulate hazardous technologies of all kinds. It is relevant to those concerned with understanding and controlling human and organizational factors and will also interest academic readers and those working in industrial and government agencies.
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Organizational Accidents Revisited

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1134806078

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 7985

Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents introduced the notion of an ’organizational accident’. These are rare but often calamitous events that occur in complex technological systems operating in hazardous circumstances. They stand in sharp contrast to ’individual accidents’ whose damaging consequences are limited to relatively few people or assets. Although they share some common causal factors, they mostly have quite different causal pathways. The frequency of individual accidents - usually lost-time injuries - does not predict the likelihood of an organizational accident. The book also elaborated upon the widely-cited Swiss Cheese Model. Organizational Accidents Revisited extends and develops these ideas using a standardized causal analysis of some 10 organizational accidents that have occurred in a variety of domains in the nearly 20 years that have passed since the original was published. These analyses provide the ’raw data’ for the process of drilling down into the underlying causal pathways. Many contributing latent conditions recur in a variety of domains. A number of these - organizational issues, design, procedures and so on - are examined in close detail in order to identify likely problems before they combine to penetrate the defences-in-depth. Where the 1997 book focused largely upon the systemic factors underlying organizational accidents, this complementary follow-up goes beyond this to examine what can be done to improve the ’error wisdom’ and risk awareness of those on the spot; they are often the last line of defence and so have the power to halt the accident trajectory before it can cause damage. The book concludes by advocating that system safety should require the integration of systemic factors (collective mindfulness) with individual mental skills (personal mindfulness).
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Das Unerwartete managen

wie Unternehmen aus Extremsituationen lernen

Author: Karl E. Weick,Kathleen M. Sutcliffe

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783791029689

Category: Crisis management

Page: 201

View: 677

Wie können Unternehmen mit unerwarteten Situationen umgehen? Um diese Frage zu beantworten, untersuchen die Autoren sogenannte High Reliability Organizations (HROs) - Organisationen, die absolut zuverlässig arbeiten müssen, wie z. B. Fluglotsen oder Feuerwehrmannschaften. An ihren spezifischen Handlungsabläufen kann sich jede Organisation orientieren, um unerwartete Ereignisse und Entwicklungen besser zu verstehen und zu bewältigen. Wie die Methoden der HROs sich in der Unternehmenspraxis umsetzen lassen, zeigt der lösungsorientierte Managementansatz.
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A Life in Error

From Little Slips to Big Disasters

Author: Professor James Reason

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472418417

Category: Political Science

Page: 150

View: 6152

This succinct but absorbing book covers the main way stations on James Reason’s 40-year journey in pursuit of the nature and varieties of human error. He presents an engrossing and very personal perspective, offering the reader exceptional insights, wisdom and wit as only James Reason can. A Life in Error charts the development of his seminal and hugely influential work from its original focus on individual cognitive psychology through the broadening of scope to embrace social, organizational and systemic issues.
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Managing the Risk of Workplace Stress

Health and Safety Hazards

Author: Sharon Clarke,Cary L. Cooper

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415297103

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 197

View: 3023

Working in a stressful environment not only increases the risk of physical illness or distress, but also increases the likelihood of workplace accidents. While legislation provides some guidelines for risk assessment of physical hazards, there remains limited guidance on the risks of psychosocial hazards, such as occupational stress. This book takes the risk management approach to stress evaluation in the workplace, offering practical guidelines for the audit, assessment and mitigation of workplace stressors. Based on research and case studies, this book provides a comprehensive source of theoretical and practical information for students and practitioners alike. It includes chapters on: * environmental stress factors * psychological stress factors * work-related accidents * job stress evaluation methods With its up-to-date approach to a fascinating area of study, this is key reading for all students of organizational psychology and those responsible for workplace safety.
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The Human Contribution

Unsafe Acts, Accidents and Heroic Recoveries

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351888110

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 2738

This book explores the human contribution to the reliability and resilience of complex, well-defended systems. Usually the human is considered a hazard - a system component whose unsafe acts are implicated in the majority of catastrophic breakdowns. However there is another perspective that has been relatively little studied in its own right - the human as hero, whose adaptations and compensations bring troubled systems back from the brink of disaster time and again. What, if anything, did these situations have in common? Can these human abilities be ’bottled’ and passed on to others? The Human Contribution is vital reading for all professionals in high-consequence environments and for managers of any complex system. The book draws its illustrative material from a wide variety of hazardous domains, with the emphasis on healthcare reflecting the author’s focus on patient safety over the last decade. All students of human factors - however seasoned - will also find it an invaluable and thought-provoking read.
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Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie

Wie man neue Märkte schafft, wo es keine Konkurrenz gibt

Author: W. Chan Kim,Renée Mauborgne

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446448470

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 3980

Das Buch ist ein globales Phänomen. Es wurde 3,5 Millionen Mal verkauft, in rekordverdächtigen 43 Sprachen publiziert und ist auf 5 Kontinenten zum Bestseller geworden. Nun ist es in einer aktualisierten und erweiterten Auflage neu erschienen. - Der internationale Bestseller: Jetzt mit neuem Vorwort, neuen Kapiteln und aktualisierten Fallstudien - Ein Bestseller auf 5 Kontinenten - Weltweit mehr als 3,5 Millionen Bücher verkauft - In 43 Sprachen übersetzt - Ein Wall-Street-Journal-, Businessweek- und Fast-Company-Bestseller Der von Organisationen und Branchen auf der ganzen Welt hochgeschätzte Bestseller stellt alles in Frage, was wir bisher über die Voraussetzungen strategischen Erfolgs zu wissen glaubten. Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie, vertritt die Ansicht, dass ein brutaler Konkurrenzkampf nur dazu führt, dass sich die Konkurrenten in einem blutrot gefärbten Ozean um rapide schwindende Gewinnmöglichkeiten streiten. Basierend auf der Untersuchung von mehr als 150 strategischen Schachzügen (im Lauf von mehr als 100 Jahren und in mehr als 50 Branchen) vertreten die Autoren die Ansicht, dass nachhaltiger Erfolg nicht auf verschärftem Konkurrenzkampf, sondern auf der Eroberung »Blauer Ozeane« beruht: der Erschließung neuer Märkte mit großem Wachstumspotenzial. Der Blaue Ozean als Strategie präsentiert einen systematischen Ansatz, wie man Konkurrenz irrelevant macht, und legt Prinzipien und Methoden vor, mit der jede Organisation ihre eigenen Blauen Ozeane erobern kann. Diese erweiterte Auflage enthält: - Ein neues Vorwort der Autoren: Hilfe! Mein Ozean färbt sich rot. - Aktualisierungen der in dem Buch behandelten Fälle und Beispiele, indem ihre Geschichte bis in die Gegenwart weitervorfolgt wird. - Zwei neue Kapitel und ein erweitertes drittes Kapitel: Ausrichtung, Erneuerung und Red Ocean Traps. Sie behandeln die wichtigsten Fragen, die die Leser in den vergangenen zehn Jahren gestellt haben. Der bahnbrechende Bestseller stellt das bisherige strategische Denken auf den Kopf und entwirft einen kühnen neuen Weg in die Zukunft. Hier können Sie lernen, wie man neue Märkte erschließt, auf denen Konkurrenz noch keine Rolle spielt. "Das ist ein extrem wertvolles Buch." Nicolas G. Hayek, Verwaltungsratpräsident, Swatch Group "Ein Muss für Manager und Wirtschaftsstudenten." Carlos Ghosn, President und CEO, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. "Die Strategien von Kim und Mauborgne sind nicht nur neu, sondern auch praxisnah. Wir haben sie in unserem Unternehmen mit großem Erfolg umgesetzt." Patrick Snowball, Chief Executive, Norwich Union Insurance Wenn Sie mehr über die innovative Kraft des Buches wissen wollen, besuchen Sie blueoceanstrategy.com. Dort finden Sie alle Mittel, die Sie brauchen: praktische Ideen und Fallbeispiele aus staatlichen Unternehmen und der Privatindustrie, Lehrmaterial, Mobile Apps, aktuelle Updates sowie Tipps und Tools, mit denen Sie Ihre Reise auf dem Blauen Ozean erfolgreich gestalten können.
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Der Narkosezwischenfall

Management kritischer Ereignisse und rechtliche Aspekte

Author: Elmar Biermann,Jürgen Schüttler

Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag

ISBN: 3131544929

Category: Medical

Page: 312

View: 7744

Maximale Sicherheit für Arzt und Patient Eine Narkose ohne Risiko gibt es nicht! Die Beherrschung kritischer Situationen im Rahmen der Anästhesieführung gehört somit zu den Kernkompetenzen des versierten Anästhesisten. Ohne einen fundierten Wissens- und Erfahrungsschatz lassen sich auf Dauer schwerwiegende Narkosekomplikationen nicht vermeiden. Im gleichen Maße bewegt sich der Anästhesist auch in einem rechtlichen Koordinatensystem und muss über die rechtlichen Grundlagen des Fachgebietes und die Konsequenzen bei Narkosezwischenfällen informiert sein. Auch in der 2. Auflage bieten die Autoren den Kollegen in Weiterbildung und den Fachärzten für Anästhesiologie wieder ein übersichtliches und handlungsorientiertes Buch, das - die Grundlagen der Zwischenfallentstehung und -prävention behandelt, ozentrale Kenntnisse zum Management von kritischen Narkoseereignissen vermittelt und - über die rechtlichen Aspekte der Bewältigung von ärztlichen Fehlern informiert. Damit ist das vorliegende Werk auch für Kollegen aus der gesamten operativen Medizin von Interesse. In der 2. Auflage wurden alle klinischen und juristischen Kapitel grundlegend überarbeitet. Neue Inhalte: - Entstehung und Prävention von anästhesiologischen Zwischenfällen - rechtliche Aspekte der Einwilligung und Aufklärung
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Human Factors - Psychologie sicheren Handelns in Risikobranchen

Author: Petra Badke-Schaub,Gesine Hofinger,Kristina Lauche

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540723218

Category: Psychology

Page: 339

View: 7956

In Luftfahrt, Kernkraft, chemischer Industrie, Medizin und Militär arbeiten Menschen mit komplexen technischen Systemen. Doch in kritischen Situationen entscheidet der Mensch, nicht die Maschine – und das häufig unter Zeitdruck und hohem Risiko. Dabei können Fehler dramatische Konsequenzen haben. „Risikobranchen" benötigen deshalb Konzepte, die Fehlerquellen minimieren, sicheres Handeln fördern und den „Faktor Mensch" effektiver einsetzen. Im ersten Buchteil erklären Wissenschaftler Konzepte zu Sicherheit, Fehlern und menschlichem Handeln. Im zweiten Teil stellen erfahrene Praktiker aktuelle Herausforderungen einzelner Branchen vor und präsentieren Lösungsansätze: Wie werden Prozesse und Systeme sicherer und Kommunikation effektiver gestaltet? Wie kann Komplexität reduziert werden? Welche Rolle spielen Personalführung oder neue Formen der Zusammenarbeit? Wie kann Teamarbeit trainiert werden? Sicherheitsbeauftragte, Manager und Personaler in Risikobranchen, Ingenieure, Trainer und Psychologen finden in diesem Buch aktuelle Konzepte der Human-Factors-Psychologie anschaulich erklärt und mit spannenden Fallbeispielen verdeutlicht.
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Managing Risk

The Human Element

Author: Romney Beecher Duffey,John Walton Saull

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047071445X

Category: Computers

Page: 568

View: 800

The human element is the principle cause of incidents and accidents in all technology industries; hence it is evident that an understanding of the interaction between humans and technology is crucial to the effective management of risk. Despite this, no tested model that explicitly and quantitatively includes the human element in risk prediction is currently available. Managing Risk: the Human Element combines descriptive and explanatory text with theoretical and mathematical analysis, offering important new concepts that can be used to improve the management of risk, trend analysis and prediction, and hence affect the accident rate in technological industries. It uses examples of major accidents to identify common causal factors, or “echoes”, and argues that the use of specific experience parameters for each particular industry is vital to achieving a minimum error rate as defined by mathematical prediction. New ideas for the perception, calculation and prediction of risk are introduced, and safety management is covered in depth, including for rare events and “unknown” outcomes Discusses applications to multiple industries including nuclear, aviation, medical, shipping, chemical, industrial, railway, offshore oil and gas; Shows consistency between learning for large systems and technologies with the psychological models of learning from error correction at the personal level; Offers the expertise of key leading industry figures involved in safety work in the civil aviation and nuclear engineering industries; Incorporates numerous fascinating case studies of key technological accidents. Managing Risk: the Human Element is an essential read for professional safety experts, human reliability experts and engineers in all technological industries, as well as risk analysts, corporate managers and statistical analysts. It is also of interest to professors, researchers and postgraduate students of reliability and safety engineering, and to experts in human performance. “...congratulations on what appears to be, at a high level of review, a significant contribution to the literature...I have found much to be admired in (your) research” Mr. Joseph Fragola – Vice President of Valador Inc. “The book is not only technically informative, but also attractive to all concerned readers and easy to be comprehended at various level of educational background. It is truly an excellent book ever written for the safety risk managers and analysis professionals in the engineering community, especially in the high reliability organizations...” Dr Feng Hsu, Head of Risk Assessment and Management, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center “I admire your courage in confronting your theoretical ideas with such diverse, ecologically valid data, and your success in capturing a major trend in them....I should add that I find all this quite inspiring . ...The idea that you need to find the right measure of accumulated experience and not just routinely used calendar time makes so much sense that it comes as a shock to realize that this is a new idea”, Professor Stellan Ohlsson, Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago
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On the Practice of Safety

Author: Fred A. Manuele

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118574761

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 616

View: 2679

Explains how to implement the best safety practices and whythey work Reviews from the Third Edition "An excellent piece of work." —Safety Health Practitioner (SHP) "This is a book to be read now for its educational value andalso to be kept on the shelf for easy future reference." —Chemistry International "A useful fountain of knowledge." —Quality World The Fourth Edition of On the Practice of Safetymakes it possible for readers to master all the core subjects andpractices that today's safety professionals need to know in orderto provide optimal protection for their organizations' property andpersonnel. Like the previous editions, each chapter is aself-contained unit, making it easy for readers to focus on selecttopics of interest. Thoroughly revised and updated, this Fourth Editionreflects the latest research and safety practice standards. Forexample, author Fred Manuele has revised the design chapters toreflect the recently adopted American National Standard onPrevention through Design. In addition, readers will find newchapters dedicated to: Management of change and pre-job planning Indirect-to-direct accident cost ratios Leading and lagging indicators Opportunities for safety professionals to apply leanconcepts Role of safety professionals in implementingsustainability Financial management concepts and practices that safetyprofessionals should know Many chapters are highly thought-provoking, questioninglong-accepted concepts in the interest of advancing and improvingthe professional practice of safety. Acclaimed by both students and instructors, On the Practiceof Safety is a core textbook for both undergraduate andgraduate degree programs in safety. Safety professionals shouldalso refer to the text in order to update and improve their safetyskills and knowledge.
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Wer denken will, muss fühlen

Die heimliche Macht der Unvernunft

Author: Dan Ariely

Publisher: Droemer eBook

ISBN: 3426415429

Category: Self-Help

Page: 368

View: 7995

In seinem neuen internationalen Bestseller untersucht Dan Ariely unser Verhalten in der Arbeitswelt und im Privatleben. Sein überraschender Befund: Unsere Gefühle verleiten uns zwar häufig zu falschen Entscheidungen, doch insgesamt geht es uns oft besser, wenn wir den Verstand auch mal links liegen lassen.
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Medical Emergency Teams

Implementation and Outcome Measurement

Author: Michael A. DeVita,Ken Hillman,Rinaldo Bellomo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387279213

Category: Medical

Page: 296

View: 8317

Why Critical Care Evolved METs? In early 2004, when Dr. Michael DeVita informed me that he was cons- ering a textbook on the new concept of Medical Emergency Teams (METs), I was surprised. At Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh we int- duced this idea some 15 years ago, but did not think it was revolutionary enough to publish. This, even though, our fellows in critical care medicine training were all involved and informed about the importance of “C- dition C (Crisis),” as it was called to distinguish it from “Condition A (Arrest). ”We thought it absurd to intervene only after cardiac arrest had occurred,because most cases showed prior deterioration and cardiac arrest could be prevented with rapid team work to correct precluding problems. The above thoughts were logical in Pittsburgh, where the legendary Dr. Peter Safar had been working since the late 1950s on improving current resuscitation techniques, ?rst ventilation victims of apneic from drowning, treatment of smoke inhalation, and so on. This was followed by external cardiac compression upon demonstration of its ef?ciency in cases of unexpected sudden cardiac arrest. Dr. Safar devoted his entire professional life to improvement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. He and many others emphasized the importance of getting the CPR team to o- of-hospital victims of cardiac arrest as quickly as possible.
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Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations

Author: American Society for Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM)

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470443715

Category: Medical

Page: 672

View: 1896

Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations, Student Edition This comprehensive textbook provides a complete introduction to risk management in health care. Risk Management Handbook, Student Edition, covers general risk management techniques; standards of health care risk management administration; federal, state and local laws; and methods for integrating patient safety and enterprise risk management into a comprehensive risk management program. The Student Edition is applicable to all health care settings including acute care hospital to hospice, and long term care. Written for students and those new to the topic, each chapter highlights key points and learning objectives, lists key terms, and offers questions for discussion. An instructor's supplement with cases and other material is also available. American Society for Healthcare Risk Management (ASHRM) is a personal membership group of the American Hospital Association with more than 5,000 members representing health care, insurance, law, and other related professions. ASHRM promotes effective and innovative risk management strategies and professional leadership through education, recognition, advocacy, publications, networking, and interactions with leading health care organizations and government agencies. ASHRM initiatives focus on developing and implementing safe and effective patient care practices, preserving financial resources, and maintaining safe working environments.
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The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture

Author: Karen M. Barbera

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199395926

Category: Psychology

Page: 752

View: 5408

The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture presents the breadth of topics from Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior through the lenses of organizational climate and culture. The Handbook reveals in great detail how in both research and practice climate and culture reciprocally influence each other. The details reveal the many practices that organizations use to acquire, develop, manage, motivate, lead, and treat employees both at home and in the multinational settings that characterize contemporary organizations. Chapter authors are both expert in their fields of research and also represent current climate and culture practice in five national and international companies (3M, McDonald's, the Mayo Clinic, PepsiCo and Tata). In addition, new approaches to the collection and analysis of climate and culture data are presented as well as new thinking about organizational change from an integrated climate and culture paradigm. No other compendium integrates climate and culture thinking like this Handbook does and no other compendium presents both an up-to-date review of the theory and research on the many facets of climate and culture as well as contemporary practice. The Handbook takes a climate and culture vantage point on micro approaches to human issues at work (recruitment and hiring, training and performance management, motivation and fairness) as well as organizational processes (teams, leadership, careers, communication), and it also explicates the fact that these are lodged within firms that function in larger national and international contexts.
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Patient Safety and Managing Risk in Nursing

Author: Melanie Fisher,Margaret Scott

Publisher: Learning Matters

ISBN: 144629630X

Category: Medical

Page: 200

View: 8949

Patient safety is a predominant feature of quality healthcare and something that every patient has the right to expect. As a nurse, you must consider the safety of the patient as paramount in every aspect of your role; and it is now an increasingly important topic in pre-registration nursing programmes. This book aims to provide you with a greater understanding of how to manage patient safety and risk in your practice. The book focuses on the essentials that you need to know, and therefore provides a clear pathway through what can sometimes seem an overwhelmingly complex mass of rules, procedures and possible options. Key features: · A practical introduction to patient safety and risk management written specifically for nurses and nursing students · Case studies and scenarios help you to apply patient safety and risk management principles to actual practice · Each chapter is mapped to the relevant NMC standards and Essential Skills Clusters so that you can see how you are meeting the professional requirements · Activities throughout help you to think critically and reflect on practice.
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Risk and Crisis Management in the Public Sector

Author: Lynn T. Drennan,Lynn T Drennan,Allan McConnell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136714146

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 6864

A particular feature of modern, post-industrial societies is their growing awareness of risk and crisis management. This book’s main theme is therefore the context, concepts and practice of risk and crisis management in the public sector in Western, notably European, and Asia Pacific countries. Relating to extraordinary phenomena, the term ‘risk and crisis management’, covers such events and incidents as: natural catastrophes (earthquakes, hurricanes and floods) terrorist attacks (Bali, New York, Madrid) corporate failures (HIH, Enron, WorldCom) threats to human and animal welfare (SARS, Foot and Mouth, BSE) critical incidents (bushfires, rail crashes, aviation accidents, mass shootings) environmental degradation (rain forests, ozone layer, oil spills) policy failures (UK Poll Tax, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander Commission, public-private partnerships). The public sector, at both national and sub-national levels, plays a crucial role not only in the management of such extraordinary events as these, but also in anticipating and preparing for the ‘unthinkable’. This book links theory and practice, to equip public managers and those studying public management with the necessary knowledge and skills to manage risk, and deal effectively with crises.
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The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Engineering

Author: John D. Lee,Alex Kirlik

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199757186

Category: Psychology

Page: 639

View: 3092

This handbook is the first to provide comprehensive coverage of original state-of-the-science research, analysis, and design of integrated, human-technology systems.
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