Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents

Author: James Reason

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134855354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 4448

Major accidents are rare events due to the many barriers, safeguards and defences developed by modern technologies. But they continue to happen with saddening regularity and their human and financial consequences are all too often unacceptably catastrophic. One of the greatest challenges we face is to develop more effective ways of both understanding and limiting their occurrence. This lucid book presents a set of common principles to further our knowledge of the causes of major accidents in a wide variety of high-technology systems. It also describes tools and techniques for managing the risks of such organizational accidents that go beyond those currently available to system managers and safety professionals. James Reason deals comprehensively with the prevention of major accidents arising from human and organizational causes. He argues that the same general principles and management techniques are appropriate for many different domains. These include banks and insurance companies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production companies, chemical process installations and air, sea and rail transport. Its unique combination of principles and practicalities make this seminal book essential reading for all whose daily business is to manage, audit and regulate hazardous technologies of all kinds. It is relevant to those concerned with understanding and controlling human and organizational factors and will also interest academic readers and those working in industrial and government agencies.
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Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents

Author: James Reason

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134855427

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 266

View: 6756

Major accidents are rare events due to the many barriers, safeguards and defences developed by modern technologies. But they continue to happen with saddening regularity and their human and financial consequences are all too often unacceptably catastrophic. One of the greatest challenges we face is to develop more effective ways of both understanding and limiting their occurrence. This lucid book presents a set of common principles to further our knowledge of the causes of major accidents in a wide variety of high-technology systems. It also describes tools and techniques for managing the risks of such organizational accidents that go beyond those currently available to system managers and safety professionals. James Reason deals comprehensively with the prevention of major accidents arising from human and organizational causes. He argues that the same general principles and management techniques are appropriate for many different domains. These include banks and insurance companies just as much as nuclear power plants, oil exploration and production companies, chemical process installations and air, sea and rail transport. Its unique combination of principles and practicalities make this seminal book essential reading for all whose daily business is to manage, audit and regulate hazardous technologies of all kinds. It is relevant to those concerned with understanding and controlling human and organizational factors and will also interest academic readers and those working in industrial and government agencies.
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The Human Contribution

Unsafe Acts, Accidents and Heroic Recoveries

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351888110

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 2061

This book explores the human contribution to the reliability and resilience of complex, well-defended systems. Usually the human is considered a hazard - a system component whose unsafe acts are implicated in the majority of catastrophic breakdowns. However there is another perspective that has been relatively little studied in its own right - the human as hero, whose adaptations and compensations bring troubled systems back from the brink of disaster time and again. What, if anything, did these situations have in common? Can these human abilities be ’bottled’ and passed on to others? The Human Contribution is vital reading for all professionals in high-consequence environments and for managers of any complex system. The book draws its illustrative material from a wide variety of hazardous domains, with the emphasis on healthcare reflecting the author’s focus on patient safety over the last decade. All students of human factors - however seasoned - will also find it an invaluable and thought-provoking read.
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Managing Maintenance Error

A Practical Guide

Author: James Reason,Alan Hobbs

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351920510

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 200

View: 2191

Situations and systems are easier to change than the human condition - particularly when people are well-trained and well-motivated, as they usually are in maintenance organisations. This is a down-to-earth practitioner’s guide to managing maintenance error, written in Dr. Reason’s highly readable style. It deals with human risks generally and the special human performance problems arising in maintenance, as well as providing an engineer’s guide for their understanding and the solution. After reviewing the types of error and violation and the conditions that provoke them, the author sets out the broader picture, illustrated by examples of three system failures. Central to the book is a comprehensive review of error management, followed by chapters on:- managing person, the task and the team; - the workplace and the organization; - creating a safe culture; It is then rounded off and brought together, in such a way as to be readily applicable for those who can make it work, to achieve a greater and more consistent level of safety in maintenance activities. The readership will include maintenance engineering staff and safety officers and all those in responsible roles in critical and systems-reliant environments, including transportation, nuclear and conventional power, extractive and other chemical processing and manufacturing industries and medicine.
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Human Error

Author: James Reason

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521314190

Category: Psychology

Page: 302

View: 8023

This 1991 book is a major theoretical integration of several previously isolated literatures looking at human error in major accidents.
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How Safe is Safe Enough?

Leadership, Safety and Risk Management

Author: Greg Alston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351930192

Category: Transportation

Page: 126

View: 7032

Safety is not easy, it is a full time effort, and is equally important whether people are on the job or on personal time. If an organization is serious about mission success, it must take 'risk' seriously as well. Leaders need to be involved in the risk game at every turn, and understand the key elements (discussed throughout this book) that help them to win. Winning the risk game is what safety is all about. As in operational success, risk management requires the best human faculties to achieve victory; talent of organizational players and commitment from top leadership rule the day. The book covers leadership, safety programs, and risk management for organizations and individuals. It helps in professional development, grooming current and future leaders to understand their roles in safety and risk management. Central to the author’s message are: Seven truths of safety that the author discovered as a senior safety officer. Four roadblocks to achieving zero mishaps that must be aggressively addressed. Nine elements to risk reduction, with which leaders must become familiar. He establishes the importance of an organizational leader’s role in the safety/risk management game and provides the answer to, ’How safe is safe enough?’ Often, managers at various levels do not have an understanding of what goes into a safety program, this book tells them, from an expert's view. The readership includes: executives and middle management; all leaders as a professional development book and students. It is also a supplemental textbook for safety and risk management courses.
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Safety at the Sharp End

A Guide to Non-Technical Skills

Author: Rhona Flin,Paul O'Connor

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1317059948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 330

View: 3914

Many 21st century operations are characterised by teams of workers dealing with significant risks and complex technology, in competitive, commercially-driven environments. Informed managers in such sectors have realised the necessity of understanding the human dimension to their operations if they hope to improve production and safety performance. While organisational safety culture is a key determinant of workplace safety, it is also essential to focus on the non-technical skills of the system operators based at the 'sharp end' of the organisation. These skills are the cognitive and social skills required for efficient and safe operations, often termed Crew Resource Management (CRM) skills. In industries such as civil aviation, it has long been appreciated that the majority of accidents could have been prevented if better non-technical skills had been demonstrated by personnel operating and maintaining the system. As a result, the aviation industry has pioneered the development of CRM training. Many other organisations are now introducing non-technical skills training, most notably within the healthcare sector. Safety at the Sharp End is a general guide to the theory and practice of non-technical skills for safety. It covers the identification, training and evaluation of non-technical skills and has been written for use by individuals who are studying or training these skills on CRM and other safety or human factors courses. The material is also suitable for undergraduate and post-experience students studying human factors or industrial safety programmes.
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Riskwork

Essays on the Organizational Life of Risk Management

Author: Michael Power

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191067520

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 4301

This collection of essays deals with the situated management of risk in a wide variety of organizational settings - aviation, mental health, railway project management, energy, toy manufacture, financial services, chemicals regulation, and NGOs. Each chapter connects the analysis of risk studies with critical themes in organization studies more generally based on access to, and observations of, actors in the field. The emphasis in these contributions is upon the variety of ways in which organizational actors, in combination with a range of material technologies and artefacts, such as safety reporting systems, risk maps and key risk indicators, accomplish and make sense of the normal work of managing risk - riskwork. In contrast to a preoccupation with disasters and accidents after the event, the volume as whole is focused on the situationally specific character of routine risk management work. It emerges that this riskwork is highly varied, entangled with material artefacts which represent and construct risks and, importantly, is not confined to formal risk management departments or personnel. Each chapter suggests that the distributed nature of this riskwork lives uneasily with formalized risk management protocols and accountability requirements. In addition, riskwork as an organizational process makes contested issues of identity and values readily visible. These 'back stage/back office' encounters with risk are revealed as being as much emotional as they are rationally calculative. Overall, the collection combines constructivist sensibilities about risk objects with a micro-sociological orientation to the study of organizations.
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Just Culture

Balancing Safety and Accountability

Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409440605

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 171

View: 7313

While many organizations see the value of creating a just culture they struggle when it comes to developing it. In this Second Edition, Dekker expands his views, additionally tackling the key issue of how justice is created inside organizations. Dekker also introduces new material on ethics and on caring for the' second victim' (the professional at the centre of the incident). Consequently, we have a natural evolution of the author's ideas.
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A Human Error Approach to Aviation Accident Analysis

The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System

Author: Professor Scott A Shappell,Professor Douglas A Wiegmann

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409463036

Category: Transportation

Page: 182

View: 1887

This comprehensive book provides the knowledge and tools required to conduct a human error analysis of accidents. Serving as an excellent reference guide for many safety professionals and investigators already in the field.
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Unsafety

Disaster Management, Organizational Accidents, and Crisis Sciences for Sustainability

Author: Shigeo Atsuji

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431559248

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 1310

This is the first book to examine the linkages among natural and organizational accidents and disasters in the modern era and clarifies the mechanisms involved and the significance of emerging problems, from the aging of vital infrastructure for the supply of water, gas, oil, and electricity to the breakdown of pensions, healthcare, and other social systems. The book demonstrates how we might check the underlying civilizational collapse and then explore translational systems approaches toward resilient management and policy for sustainability. In Unsafety, the author focuses on the kinds of unnatural disasters and organizational accidents that arise as repercussions of natural hazards. Japan serves as an example, where earthquakes, tsunamis, and typhoons are common, with the Fukushima nuclear disaster as an outstanding case of this link between natural disasters and organizational accidents. Natural and human-made disasters happen worldwide and cause misery through loss of life; destruction of livelihoods as in agriculture, fisheries, and the manufacturing industry; and interruption of urban life. Unsafety from a disaster in one place increases uncertainty elsewhere, presenting urgent issues in all nations for individuals, organizations, regions, and the state. The author explains that one factor in the Fukushima catastrophe, which followed in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami in 2011, was the latent deterioration and aging of systems at all levels from the physical to the social, leading through a chain reaction to unsought and unforeseen consequences. Here, the aging of the nuclear reactor system, the breakdown of safety management, and inappropriate instructions from the regulatory authorities combined to create the three-fold disaster, in which technological, organizational, and governmental dysfunction have been diagnosed as reflecting a “systems pathology” infecting all levels.
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Close Calls

Managing Risk and Resilience in Airline Flight Safety

Author: C. Macrae

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137376120

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 238

View: 2342

Drawing on extensive and detailed fieldwork within airlines-an industry that pioneered near-miss analysis- this book develops a clear set of practical implications and theoretical propositions regarding how all organizations can learn from 'near-miss' events and better manage risk and resilience.
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A Systems Approach to Managing the Complexities of Process Industries

Author: Fabienne Salimi,Frederic Salimi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128042184

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 442

View: 5837

A Systems Approach to Managing the Complexities of Process Industries discusses the principles of system engineering, system thinking, complexity thinking and how these apply to the process industry, including benefits and implementation in process safety management systems. The book focuses on the ways system engineering skills, PLM, and IIoT can radically improve effectiveness of implementation of the process safety management system. Covering lifecycle, megaproject system engineering, and project management issues, this book reviews available tools and software and presents the practical web-based approach of Analysis & Dynamic Evaluation of Project Processes (ADEPP) for system engineering of the process manufacturing development and operation phases. Key solutions proposed include adding complexity management steps in the risk assessment framework of ISO 31000 and utilization of Installation Lifecycle Management. This study of this end-to-end process will help users improve operational excellence and navigate the complexities of managing a chemical or processing plant. Presents a review of Operational Excellence and Process Safety Management Methods, along with solutions to complexity assessment and management Provides a comparison of the process manufacturing industry with discrete manufacturing, identifying similarities and areas of customization for process manufacturing Discusses key solutions for managing the complexities of process manufacturing development and operational phases
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On the Practice of Safety

Author: Fred A. Manuele

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118478940

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 598

View: 4318

Now in its fourth edition, On the Practice of Safety continues to be an unparalleled resource on best safety practices. It supplies the reader with the core information that everyone who is in the safety field must know. Each chapter is written as a self-contained unit that can be used on its own to cover a topic. The new edition updates all the chapters from the previous edition while adding new material. A number of new chapters cover such topics as sustainability, lean concepts, management of change/pre-job planning, leading and lagging indicators, and indirect and direct accident costs.
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The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error

Author: Sidney Dekker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351889753

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 252

View: 2276

When faced with a human error problem, you may be tempted to ask 'Why didn't they watch out better? How could they not have noticed?'. You think you can solve your human error problem by telling people to be more careful, by reprimanding the miscreants, by issuing a new rule or procedure. These are all expressions of 'The Bad Apple Theory', where you believe your system is basically safe if it were not for those few unreliable people in it. This old view of human error is increasingly outdated and will lead you nowhere. The new view, in contrast, understands that a human error problem is actually an organizational problem. Finding a 'human error' by any other name, or by any other human, is only the beginning of your journey, not a convenient conclusion. The new view recognizes that systems are inherent trade-offs between safety and other pressures (for example: production). People need to create safety through practice, at all levels of an organization. Breaking new ground beyond its successful predecessor, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error guides you through the traps and misconceptions of the old view. It explains how to avoid the hindsight bias, to zoom out from the people closest in time and place to the mishap, and resist the temptation of counterfactual reasoning and judgmental language. But it also helps you look forward. It suggests how to apply the new view in building your safety department, handling questions about accountability, and constructing meaningful countermeasures. It even helps you in getting your organization to adopt the new view and improve its learning from failure. So if you are faced by a human error problem, abandon the fallacy of a quick fix. Read this book.
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Normal Accidents

Living with High Risk Technologies

Author: Charles Perrow

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400828494

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 5455

Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety--building in more warnings and safeguards--fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk--complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling--this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them. The first edition fulfilled one reviewer's prediction that it "may mark the beginning of accident research." In the new afterword to this edition Perrow reviews the extensive work on the major accidents of the last fifteen years, including Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Challenger disaster. The new postscript probes what the author considers to be the "quintessential 'Normal Accident'" of our time: the Y2K computer problem.
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Risk-Based Thinking

Managing the Uncertainty of Human Error in Operations

Author: Tony Muschara

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351400169

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 5815

Society at large tends to misunderstand what safety is all about. It is not just the absence of harm. When nothing bad happens over a period of time, how do you know you are safe? In reality, safety is what you and your people do moment by moment, day by day to protect assets from harm and to control the hazards inherent in your operations. This is the purpose of risk-based thinking, the key element of the six building blocks of Human and Organizational Performance (H&OP). Generally, H&OP provides a risk-based approach to managing human performance in operations. But, specifically, risk-based thinking enables foresight and flexibility—even when surprised—to do what is necessary to protect assets from harm but also achieve mission success despite ongoing stresses or shocks to the operation. Although you cannot prepare for every adverse scenario, you can be ready for almost anything. When risk-based thinking is integrated into the DNA of an organization’s way of doing business, people will be ready for most unexpected situations. Eventually, safety becomes a core value, not a priority to be negotiated with others depending on circumstances. This book provides a coherent perspective on what executives and line managers within operational environments need to focus on to efficiently and effectively control, learn, and adapt.
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Accident Precursor Analysis and Management:

Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

Author: National Academy of Engineering

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309092167

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 220

View: 9608

In the aftermath of catastrophes, it is common to find prior indicators, missed signals, and dismissed alerts that, had they been recognized and appropriately managed before the event, could have resulted in the undesired event being averted. These indicators are typically called "precursors." Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence documents various industrial and academic approaches to detecting, analyzing, and benefiting from accident precursors and examines public-sector and private-sector roles in the collection and use of precursor information. The book includes the analysis, findings and recommendations of the authoring NAE committee as well as eleven individually authored background papers on the opportunity of precursor analysis and management, risk assessment, risk management, and linking risk assessment and management.
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The Evaluation of Risk in Business Investment

Author: J.C. Hull

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483296296

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 9866

Provides finance specialists in industry and students of management with a comprehensive set of practical procedures for evaluating the total risk in the major capital investment decisions facing a business. It discusses in detail how companies can make effective use of sensitivity analyses, risk simulations and other techniques, and deals in depth with important issues, such as: How should the results of a sensitivity analysis be interpreted?; How can adequate subjective probability distributions be obtained? How can dependencies between variables be dealt with in a practical way?; The emphasis throughout is on 'how to do it' and the reader needs only a slight knowledge of statistics. A particularly important feature of the book is the FORTRAN subroutines in Appendices A and B which the author prepared for calculating risk evaluations
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Organizational Accidents Revisited

Author: James Reason

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1134806078

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 160

View: 2164

Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents introduced the notion of an ’organizational accident’. These are rare but often calamitous events that occur in complex technological systems operating in hazardous circumstances. They stand in sharp contrast to ’individual accidents’ whose damaging consequences are limited to relatively few people or assets. Although they share some common causal factors, they mostly have quite different causal pathways. The frequency of individual accidents - usually lost-time injuries - does not predict the likelihood of an organizational accident. The book also elaborated upon the widely-cited Swiss Cheese Model. Organizational Accidents Revisited extends and develops these ideas using a standardized causal analysis of some 10 organizational accidents that have occurred in a variety of domains in the nearly 20 years that have passed since the original was published. These analyses provide the ’raw data’ for the process of drilling down into the underlying causal pathways. Many contributing latent conditions recur in a variety of domains. A number of these - organizational issues, design, procedures and so on - are examined in close detail in order to identify likely problems before they combine to penetrate the defences-in-depth. Where the 1997 book focused largely upon the systemic factors underlying organizational accidents, this complementary follow-up goes beyond this to examine what can be done to improve the ’error wisdom’ and risk awareness of those on the spot; they are often the last line of defence and so have the power to halt the accident trajectory before it can cause damage. The book concludes by advocating that system safety should require the integration of systemic factors (collective mindfulness) with individual mental skills (personal mindfulness).
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