Author: David A. Perry,Ram Oren,Stephen C. Hart
Publisher: JHU Press
View: 6575This acclaimed textbook is the most comprehensive available in the field of forest ecology. Designed for advanced students of forest science, ecology, and environmental studies, it is also an essential reference for forest ecologists, foresters, and land managers. The authors provide an inclusive survey of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests with an emphasis on ecological concepts across scales that range from global to landscape to microscopic. Situating forests in the context of larger landscapes, they reveal the complex patterns and processes observed in tree-dominated habitats. The updated and expanded second edition covers â€¢ Conservationâ€¢ Ecosystem services â€¢ Climate changeâ€¢ Vegetation classificationâ€¢ Disturbanceâ€¢ Species interactionsâ€¢ Self-thinningâ€¢ Geneticsâ€¢ Soil influencesâ€¢ Productivityâ€¢ Biogeochemical cyclingâ€¢ Mineralizationâ€¢ Effects of herbivoryâ€¢ Ecosystem stability
A Comprehensive Multiscaled Approach
Author: David B. Lindenmayer,Jerry F. Franklin
Publisher: Island Press
View: 4908While most efforts at biodiversity conservation have focused primarily on protected areas and reserves, the unprotected lands surrounding those area--the "matrix"--are equally important to preserving global biodiversity and maintaining forest health. In Conserving Forest Biodiversity, leading forest scientists David B. Lindenmayer and Jerry F. Franklin argue that the conservation of forest biodiversity requires a comprehensive and multiscaled approach that includes both reserve and nonreserve areas. They lay the foundations for such a strategy, bringing together the latest scientific information on landscape ecology, forestry, conservation biology, and related disciplines as they examine:the importance of the matrix in key areas of ecology such as metapopulation dynamics, habitat fragmentation, and landscape connectivitygeneral principles for matrix managementusing natural disturbance regimes to guide human disturbancelandscape-level and stand-level elements of matrix management the role of adaptive management and monitoringsocial dimensions and tensions in implementing matrix-based forest managementIn addition, they present five case studies that illustrate aspects and elements of applied matrix management in forests. The case studies cover a wide variety of conservation planning and management issues from North America, South America, and Australia, ranging from relatively intact forest ecosystems to an intensively managed plantation.Conserving Forest Biodiversity presents strategies for enhancing matrix management that can play a vital role in the development of more effective approaches to maintaining forest biodiversity. It examines the key issues and gives practical guidelines for sustained forest management, highlighting the critical role of the matrix for scientists, managers, decisionmakers, and other stakeholders involved in efforts to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem processes in forest landscapes.
A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains
Author: W.D. Newmark
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 6358Tanzania is one of the most biologically diverse nations in the world. Traveling from west to east across Tanzania, one encounters an incredible array of ecosystems and species. Beginning at Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyasa that form much of the western boundary of Tanzania, one finds the most diverse and some of the most spectacular concentrations of endemic fish in any of the world's lakes. Moving further inland from the lakes, one meets the woodlands and plains of Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Tarangire, and Lake Manyara. The assemblages and movements of large mammals in these protected areas are unparalleled worldwide. Traveling yet further to the east, one comes to Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa. Mount Kilimanjaro is of sufficient height to not only contain seven major vegetation zones, but also maintain permanent glaciers. Finally, shortly before arriving at the Indian Ocean, one encounters the Eastern Arc Mountains, a series of isolated and geologically ancient mountains, which due to their height and proximity to the Indian Ocean intercept sufficient precipitation to support, in many areas, moist tropical forest. The Eastern Arc Mountains are among the richest sites biologically in all of Africa and harbor unusually high concentrations of endemic species - species whose geographic distribution are restricted to these mountains. Unfortunately, much of Tanzania's biodiversity is threatened by habitat alteration, destruction, and exploitation. The Eastern Arc forests face some of the most severe threats to any of Tanzania's biologically unique sites.
An Interdisciplinary Approach
Author: Tohru Nakashizuka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 1628Biodiversity is decreasing at the fastest rate in the history of the earth. The sustainable use of ecosystems allowing maintenance of biological diversity is an urgent problem that must be solved. The work featured in this book presents the results achieved by the RIHN project, together with reports on other international activities and related efforts, as ecologists, forestry scientists, environmental economists, and sociologists share in discussions of the issues.
Author: Mahesh Prasad Singh,J.K. Singh,Reena Mohanka
Publisher: Daya Books
View: 3786Forests play important role in combating desertification, preventing erosion problems, other protective functions, climatic change and acting as carbon reservoirs and sinks. Forests, the biodiversity they contain and the ecological function they maintain, are a heritage of mankind. The vital role of forests in protecting fragile ecosystems, watersheds and freshwater reservoirs and as storehouses of rich biodiversity should be recognized. Forests contain not only woody species and wild animals but also a wealth of other species of actual or potentially socio-economic importance at the global, national and local levels, including wild relatives of important crop species. Biodiversity is the variety and variability of plant, animal and micro organism in a ecosystem. Biodiversity, in wild and domesticated forms, is the source for most of humanity food, medicine, clothing and housing, most of the cultural diversity and most of the intellectual and spiritual inspirations. In other words, it is the very basis of man s being. Currently, there is severe and widespread loss of biodiversity because of a variety of factors and therefore its conservation is of utmost importance. Conservation and development are partners in the process of environmental protection. To maintain and increase the ecological, biological, climatic, socio-cultural and economic contributions of forests, their conservation and management are urgently required. Biological diversity (biodiversity) is also to be preserved to achieve sustainable development. The book is a sincere effort of the authors to provide compiled information on the subject matter of forest environment and diversity. It includes the impact of forests on environment, basic concept, status and extent of biodiversity, its loss and suggests ways and means of conservation for achieving sustainable development. Contents Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Land Use, Forest Area and Population; Chapter 3: History of Forestry in India; Chapter 4: Ecological Perceptions; Chapter 5: Ecology of Indian Forests; Chapter 6: Forests and Environments; Chapter 7: Ecosystem Theory and Application; Chapter 8: Forests and Environment: Soil Erosion and Floods; Chapter 9: Wildlife and Biosphere Reserves; Chapter 10: Atmosphere; Chapter 11: Socio-Economic Effects and Constraints; Chapter 12: Women and Environment; Chapter 13: Macro Issues: Pressure on Forests; Chapter 14: Forestry and Rural Development; Chapter 15: Peoples Participation in Afforestation; Chapter 16: Environmental Considerations; Chapter 17: The Environmental Scenario; Chapter 18: Environmental Problems; Chapter 19: Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment; Chapter 20: Methods of Impact Analysis; Chapter 21: Some Case Studies of Environmental Impact Assessment; Chapter 22: Pollution: An Appraisal; Chapter 23: Air Pollution; Chapter 24: Water Pollution; Chapter 25: Biological Diversity; Chapter 26: Management of Forests for Wildlife; Chapter 27: Conservation of Biodiversity; Chapter 28: Action Plan for National Biodiversity Strategy; Chapter 29: Social Biota for Biodiversity; Chapter 30: Biodiversity Loss and Threat; Chapter 31: Biological Diversity Convention; Chapter 32: Conservation of Biodiversity in Indian Scenario; Chapter 33: Diversity in Community; Chapter 34: Bioresources Protection; Chapter 35: Biodiversity of Threatened Species of Medicinal Plants in India: An Appraisal; Chapter 36: Vegetative Propagation; Chapter 37: Tree Improvement through Biotechnological Tools; Chapter 38: Forest Resources and its Management; Chapter 39: Production and Receipt of Forest Products. C
Author: Per Angelstam,Monica Donz-Breuss,Jean-Michel Roberge
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
View: 8358Maintaining forest biodiversity by combining protection, management and restoration of forest and woodland landscapes is a central component of sustainable development. Evidence that there are threshold levels for how much habitat loss may be tolerated for viable populations of specialised species to be maintained. Policy-makers, businesses and managers pose questions about how to balance use of renewable forest resources and conserve biodiversity. Examples are presented on how biodiversity assessments can be made. Proposes how the critical gaps in our knowledge identified throughout the book could be filled through macroecological research and international co-operation.
The Role of Traditional Agro-ecosystems
Author: Patricia Halladay,Donald Allan Gilmour
View: 4606Limits to expansion of protected area systems underline the importance of seeking new ways to conserve biodiversity. The twelve case studies ranging from the High Andes to Viet Nam support the view that certain traditional agricultural and pastoral systems can succeed in attaining a sustainable level of production while at the same time maintaining both a high level of biodiversity and most functional aspects of the ecosystems.
Forest Sector Development in a Difficult Political Economy
Author: Boniface Essama-Nssah,James Jerome Gockowski
Publisher: World Bank Publications
Category: Technology & Engineering
View: 3228This country case study, part of the Operations Evaluation Department (OED) A Review of the 1991 World Bank Forest Strategy and Its Implementation, evaluates World Bank operations in Cameroon for their consistency with the strategy. The strategic aspects of those operations are judged here on their relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, institutional development, and sustainability. The fundamental objective of the forest policy reform in Cameroon was to establish a transparent, equitable, and sustainable management system for forest resources. The outcome of the reform process was limited, for four reasons. First, the government of Cameroon lacked genuine commitment and the capacity to carry out the reform. Second, key actors in the reform process (particularly foreign logging companies and the parliament) chose to oppose it. Third, partners such as the World Bank failed to devise an implementation strategy compatible with the underlying dynamics of political and socioeconomic changes in Cameroon. Finally, while Cameroon's forest policy is well codified in documents, it is poorly implemented. Although the reforms have led to increased tax revenues and increased the share of GDP attributable to the forest sector, the structural underpinnings of the sector have been little affected. Government agencies in the sector continue to be weak. The international logging companies that dominate the sector continue to have a free hand in the development and use of the forest resources of Cameroon. Local communities were left out of the reform process, despite the declared objective to include them in forest resource management. Overall, the interventions of the Bank inside and outside the forest sector in Cameroon were relevant to its strategic objectives, but they were neither efficacious nor efficient. Because of weak institutional development, the achievements are unlikely to be sustained. The Bank should focus its future reform efforts in Cameroon on the collection and dissemination of relevant and reliable information, working with a larger set of stakeholders, and using more Cameroonian expertise to gain local perspective and build capacity. The success of such an approach hinges on government commitment and the cooperation of other donor countries, including those with timber interests in Cameroon.
The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate
Author: University of Regina. Canadian Plains Research Center
Publisher: University of Regina Press
View: 728The Canadian Prairies in a Changing Climate is a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of climate change in the prairie provinces, the impacts on natural resources, communities, human health and sectors of the economy, and the adaptation options that are available for alleviating adverse impacts and taking advantage of new opportunities provided by a warmer climate.
Author: James K Agee
Publisher: Island Press
View: 2733The structure of most virgin forests in the western United States reflects a past disturbance history that includes forest fire. James K. Agee, an expert in the emergent field of fire ecology, analyzes the ecological role of fire in the creation and maintenance of natural western forests, focusing primarily on forest stand development patterns. His discussion of the natural fire environment and the environmental effects of fire is applicable to a wide range of temperate forests.
Managing for Complex Forest Stand Structures
Author: Kevin O'Hara
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 1539This book presents the latest scientific and management information on multiaged silviculture, an emerging strategy for managing forestry systems worldwide. Over recent decades, forest science and management have tended to emphasize plantation silviculture. Whilst this clearly meets our wood production needs, many of the world's forests need to be managed far less intensively and more flexibly in order to maintain their natural ecosystem functions together with the values inherent in those processes. Developing multiaged management strategies for these complex forest ecosystems represents a global challenge to successfully integrate available science with sustainable management practices. Multiaged Silviculture covers the ecology and dynamics of multiaged stands, the management operations associated with regeneration, tending, and stocking control, and the implications of this strategy on production, genetic diversity, and stand health. It is primarily aimed at graduate level students and researchers in the fields of forestry and silviculture, but will also be of relevance and use to all professional foresters and silviculturists.
Valuation in Tropical Forest Ecosystems
Author: K. N. Ninan
Category: Business & Economics
View: 4387Economic valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services is possibly the most powerful tool for halting the loss of biodiversity while maintaining incomes and livelihoods. Yet rarely have such approaches been applied to tropical forest ?hotspots?, which house the vast majority of the planets plant and animal species. This ground-breaking work is the most comprehensive and detailed examination of the economics of environmental valuation and biodiversity conservation to date. Focusing on the Western Ghats of India, one of the top biodiversity hotspots in the world, this volume looks at a cross-section of local communities living within or near sanctuaries and reserve forests such as coffee growers, indigenous people and farmers-cum-pastoralists to assess the use and non-use values that people derive from tropical forests. It also looks at the extent of their dependence on forests for various goods and services, and examines their perceptions and attitudes towards biodiversity conservation and wildlife protection. The book concludes with an assessment of the institutional alternatives and policies for promoting biodiversity conservation through economic valuation methods.Related titlesEconomics for Collaborative Environmental Management (2005) 1-84407-095-6
Author: Susan Chamley
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
View: 8779Synthesizes the existing literature about traditional and local ecological knowledge relating to biodiversity (BD) in Pacific NW forests in order to assess what is needed to apply this knowledge to forest BD conservation efforts. Four topics are addressed: (1) views and values people have relating to BD; (2) the resource use and mgmt. practices of local forest users and their effects on BD; (3) methods and models for integrating traditional and local ecological knowledge into BD conservation; and (4) challenges to applying traditional and local ecological knowledge for BD conservation. Focuses on the ecological knowledge of three groups who inhabit the region: Native Amer.,family forest owners, and commercial nontimber forest product harvesters.
Author: Pushpam Kumar
Category: Business & Economics
View: 7120Human well-being relies critically on ecosystem services provided by nature. Examples include water and air quality regulation, nutrient cycling and decomposition, plant pollination and flood control, all of which are dependent on biodiversity. They are predominantly public goods with limited or no markets and do not command any price in the conventional economic system, so their loss is often not detected and continues unaddressed and unabated. This in turn not only impacts human well-being, but also seriously undermines the sustainability of the economic system. It is against this background that TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity project was set up in 2007 and led by the United Nations Environment Programme to provide a comprehensive global assessment of economic aspects of these issues. This book, written by a team of international experts, represents the scientific state of the art, providing a comprehensive assessment of the fundamental ecological and economic principles of measuring and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity, and showing how these can be mainstreamed into public policies. This volume and subsequent TEEB outputs will provide the authoritative knowledge and guidance to drive forward the biodiversity conservation agenda for the next decade.
Author: H. Décamps,R.J. Naiman
Publisher: CRC Press
View: 8486This book represents the only collective international effort that provides individuals and agencies with a broad perspective of ecotonal communities at the land-water interface, and the value of those ecotones in maintaining the long-term vitality of aquatic environments in this rapidly changing world. The text focuses on the natural features and the management potential of ecotones occurring at the aquatic-terrestrial interface of continental waters.
Aspects of Theory and Application
Author: F. Helles,Per Holten-Andersen,Lars Wichmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 3527This volume comprises eighteen papers dealing with the theory and application of modern decision-making and management planning of multiple use of forestry and other natural resources in the landscape. Generally, an economic approach is used as implemented by operations research methods, but broader contexts are applied too, e.g. ecosystem management, discounting, preference analysis and policy formulation. The volume is aimed at researchers, students and practitioners in management of forestry and other natural resources.