Logic and Reality

Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior

Author: Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand


Category: Mathematics

Page: 545

View: 1377

Logic and Reality is a collection of essays by philosophers, logicians, mathematicians, and computer scientists, celebrating the work of the late distinguished philosopher Arthur Prior on the eightieth anniversary of his birth. Topics range from philosophical discussions of the nature of time and of the nature of logic itself, to descriptions of computer systems that can reason and take account of the fact that they exist in a temporal world.

The Reconstruction of A. N. Prior's Ontology

Author: Zuzana Rybaříková

Publisher: Vydavatelství Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci

ISBN: 8087895770

Category: Philosophy

Page: 134

View: 7324

Although the first analytic philosophers were primarily focused on the logical analysis of language, some of their initial works also contained ontological discussions. One of the most distinct ontological positions of the twentieth century was defended by Arthur Norman Prior. The unusual nature of the position could be demonstrated by the fact that he was ascribed to such divergent positions as nominalism and platonism. This might have been caused by his atypical combination of ontological views. He was, on the one hand, a nominalist in his mature works. On the other hand, he advocated intensional logic and presentism. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the ideas which influenced him as he formulated his ontological positions. Not only are Prior’s ideas introduced, but also the ideas of his precursors and contemporaries who influenced him. In contrast, the ideas of logicians and philosophers who Prior opposed are also presented. The dissertation consists of four parts which deal with Prior’s concepts of possible worlds, theories of quantifications, propositions and individuals. It is a historical study and therefore the polemics which arose after Prior’s death are not discussed.

Papers on Time and Tense

Author: Arthur N. Prior,Per F. V. Hasle

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199256075

Category: Philosophy

Page: 331

View: 1753

This is a new edition, revised and expanded, of a seminal work in the logic and philosophy of time, originally published in 1968. Arthur N. Prior (1914-1969) was the founding father of temporal logic. His work has attracted increased attention in the decades since his death: its influencestretches beyond philosophy and logic to computer science and formal linguistics. Prior's fundamental ideas about the logic of time are presented here along with his investigations into the formal properties of time and tense. Already in 1969 Prior had been planning a new edition of Papers on Time and Tense, to incorporate his more recent work. Because of his untimely death this plan was never followed through--till now. Seven important papers have been added to the original selection, as well as a comprehensivebibliography of his work and an illuminating interview with his widow, Mary Prior, about his life and work. In addition, the Polish logic which made the original book difficult for many readers has been replaced by standard logical notation. This new edition will secure the classic status of thebook.

Die richtige Formel

Philosophische Probleme der logischen Formalisierung. Herausgegeben von Volker Halbach, Alexander Hieke, Hannes Leitgeb und Holger Sturm

Author: Georg Brun

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110323524

Category: Philosophy

Page: 390

View: 724

Logik ist nach dem traditionellen Verständnis eine ars iudicandi, eine Kunst, die Gültigkeit von Schlüssen zu prüfen. Da mit die normalen Mittel der modernen Logik zu diesem Zweck eingesetzt werden können, müssen erst Formeln an die Stelle von Sätzen treten: umgangssprachliche Schlüsse müssen adäquat formalisiert werden. Die richtige Formel entwickelt ein theoretisches Konzept des Formalisierens und praktisch anwendbare Adäquatheitskriterien für Formalisierungen. Dabei werden zentrale Fragen der Philosophie der Logik unter dem Gesichtspunkt des Zusammenspiels von Umgangssprache und Formalismus untersucht. Die ausführliche und systematische Diskussion von Formalisierungstests bietet eine wichtige Ergänzung zu den traditionellen Logiklehrbüchern.

Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080463032

Category: Mathematics

Page: 732

View: 8791

Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, philosophy, and the history of ideas. This volume is number seven in the eleven volume Handbook of the History of Logic. It concentrates on the development of modal logic in the 20th century, one of the most important undertakings in logic’s long history. Written by the leading researchers and scholars in the field, the volume explores the logics of necessity and possibility, knowledge and belief, obligation and permission, time, tense and change, relevance, and more. Both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. · Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. · Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights that answer many questions in the field of logic.

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics

Author: Dean Zimmerman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199267729

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

View: 7502

... dedicated to the timely publication of new work in metaphysics, broadly construed.

The Taming of the True

Author: Neil Tennant

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199251605

Category: Philosophy

Page: 465

View: 1724

The Taming of the True poses a broad challenge to the realist views of meaning and truth that have been prominent in recent philosophy. Neil Tennant starts with a careful critical survey of the realism debate, guiding the reader through its complexities; he then presents a sustained defenceof the anti-realist view that every truth is knowable in principle, and that grasp of meaning must be able to be made manifest. Sceptical arguments for the indeterminacy or non-factuality of meaning are countered; and the much-maligned notion of analyticity is reinvestigated and rehabilitated.Tennant goes on to show that an effective logical system can be based on his anti-realist view; the logical system that he advocates is justified as a body of analytic truths and inferential principles.Having laid the foundations for global semantic anti-realism, Tennant moves to the world of empirical understanding, and gives an account of the cognitive credentials of natural scientific discourse. He shows that the same canon of constructive and relevant inference suffices both forintuitionistic mathematics and for empirical science.This is an ambitious and contentious book which aims to reform not only theory of meaning, but our deductive practices across a broad range of discourses.

Empty Ideas

A Critique of Analytic Philosophy

Author: Peter Unger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199330832

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 1273

Peter Unger's provocative new book poses a serious challenge to contemporary analytic philosophy, arguing that to its detriment it focuses the predominance of its energy on "empty ideas." In the mid-twentieth century, philosophers generally agreed that, by contrast with science, philosophy should offer no substantial thoughts about the general nature of concrete reality. Leading philosophers were concerned with little more than the semantics of ordinary words. For example: Our word "perceives" differs from our word "believes" in that the first word is used more strictly than the second. While someone may be correct in saying "I believe there's a table before me" whether or not there is a table before her, she will be correct in saying "I perceive there's a table before me" only if there is a table there. Though just a parochial idea, whether or not it is correct does make a difference to how things are with concrete reality. In Unger's terms, it is a concretely substantial idea. Alongside each such parochial substantial idea, there is an analytic or conceptual thought, as with the thought that someone may believe there is a table before her whether or not there is one, but she will perceive there is a table before her only if there is a table there. Empty of import as to how things are with concrete reality, those thoughts are what Unger calls concretely empty ideas. It is widely assumed that, since about 1970, things had changed thanks to the advent of such thoughts as the content externalism championed by Hilary Putnam and Donald Davidson, various essentialist thoughts offered by Saul Kripke, and so on. Against that assumption, Unger argues that, with hardly any exceptions aside from David Lewis's theory of a plurality of concrete worlds, all of these recent offerings are concretely empty ideas. Except when offering parochial ideas, Peter Unger maintains that mainstream philosophy still offers hardly anything beyond concretely empty ideas.

Alternativen in der Raumzeit

eine Studie zur philosophischen Anwendung multimodaler Aussagenlogiken

Author: Niko Strobach

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin


Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 408

View: 5218

Ist der Indeterminismus mit der Relativitatstheorie und ihrer Konzeption der Gegenwart vereinbar? Diese Frage lasst sich beantworten, indem man die fur das alte Problem der futura contingentia entwickelten Ansatze auf Aussagen uber das Raumartige ubertragt. Die dazu hier Schritt fur Schritt aufgebaute relativistische indeterministische Raumzeitlogik ist eine erste philosophische Anwendung der multidimensionalen Modallogiken. Neben den ublichen Zeitoperatoren kommen dabei die Operatoren "uberall" und "irgendwo" sowie "fur jedes Bezugssystem" und "fur manches Bezugssystem" zum Einsatz. Der aus der kombinierten Zeit- und Modallogik bekannte Operator fur die historische Notwendigkeit wird in drei verschiedene Operatoren ("wissbar", "feststehend", "beeinflussbar") ausdifferenziert. Sie unterscheiden sich bezuglich des Gebiets, in dem mogliche Raumzeiten inhaltlich koinzidieren mussen, um als Alternativen zueinander gelten zu konnen. Die Interaktion zwischen den verschiedenen Operatoren wird umfassend untersucht. Die Ergebnisse erlauben es erstmals, die Standpunkt-gebundene Notwendigkeit konsequent auf Raumzeitpunkte zu relativieren. Dies lasst auf einen metaphysisch bedeutsamen Unterschied zwischen deiktischer und narrativer Determiniertheit aufmerksam werden. Dieses Buch erganzt das viel diskutierte Paradigma der verzweigten Raumzeit ("branching spacetime") um eine neue These: Der Raum ist eine Erzahlform der Entscheidungen der Natur.

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics

Author: Dean W. Zimmerman,Karen Bennett

Publisher: N.A


Category: Metaphysics

Page: N.A

View: 9954

" ... dedicated to the timely publication of new work in metaphysics, broadly construed.".

Arguing about metaphysics

Author: Michael Cannon Rea

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415958264

Category: Philosophy

Page: 559

View: 3554

Arguing about Metaphysics is a wide-ranging anthology that introduces students to one of the most fundamental areas of philosophy. It covers core topics in metaphysics such as personal identity, the nature of being, time, and the concept of freedom. The volume contains scholarly articles by Quine, Lewis, van Inwagen and Pereboom, as well short works of science fiction that illustrate key ideas in metaphysics. The volume is divided into five parts, helping the student get to grips with classic and core arguments and emerging debates in: - On What There Is - Time and Time Travel - Change and Identity - Freedom - Worlds and Worldmaking Michael C. Rea provides lucid introductions to each section, giving an overview of the debate and outlining the arguments of each sectionA[a, 柑"[s readings. Arguing About Metaphysics is a comprehensive and engaging reader for students who are new to philosophy.

Logic and Knowledge

Author: Carlo Cellucci,Emily Grosholz,Emiliano Ippoliti

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub


Category: Philosophy

Page: 447

View: 8233

The problematic relation between logic and knowledge has given rise to some of the most important works in the history of philosophy, from Books VIVII of Platos Republic and Aristotles Prior and Posterior Analytics, to Kants Critique of Pure Reason and Mills A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive. It provides the title of an important collection of papers by Bertrand Russell (Logic and Knowledge. Essays, 19011950). However, it has remained an underdeveloped theme in the last century, because logic has been treated as separate from knowledge. This book does not hope to make up for a century-long absence of discussion. Rather, its ambition is to call attention to the theme and stimulating renewed reflection upon it. The book collects essays of leading figures in the field and it addresses the theme as a topic of current debate, or as a historical case study, or when appropriate as both. Each essay is followed by the comments of a younger discussant, in an attempt to transform what might otherwise appear as a monologue into an ongoing dialogue; each section begins with an historical essay and ends with an essay by one of the editors.

The Design of Everyday Things

Psychologie und Design der alltäglichen Dinge

Author: Norman Don

Publisher: Vahlen

ISBN: 3800648105

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 5601

Apple, Audi, Braun oder Samsung machen es vor: Gutes Design ist heute eine kritische Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Produkte. Dieser Klassiker beschreibt die fundamentalen Prinzipien, um Dinge des täglichen Gebrauchs umzuwandeln in unterhaltsame und zufriedenstellende Produkte. Don Norman fordert ein Zusammenspiel von Mensch und Technologie mit dem Ziel, dass Designer und Produktentwickler die Bedürfnisse, Fähigkeiten und Handlungsweisen der Nutzer in den Vordergrund stellen und Designs an diesen angepasst werden. The Design of Everyday Things ist eine informative und spannende Einführung für Designer, Marketer, Produktentwickler und für alle an gutem Design interessierten Menschen. Zum Autor Don Norman ist emeritierter Professor für Kognitionswissenschaften. Er lehrte an der University of California in San Diego und der Northwest University in Illinois. Mitte der Neunzigerjahre leitete Don Norman die Advanced Technology Group bei Apple. Dort prägte er den Begriff der User Experience, um über die reine Benutzbarkeit hinaus eine ganzheitliche Erfahrung der Anwender im Umgang mit Technik in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Norman ist Mitbegründer der Beratungsfirma Nielsen Norman Group und hat unter anderem Autohersteller von BMW bis Toyota beraten. „Keiner kommt an Don Norman vorbei, wenn es um Fragen zu einem Design geht, das sich am Menschen orientiert.“ Brand Eins 7/2013 „Design ist einer der wichtigsten Wettbewerbsvorteile. Dieses Buch macht Spaß zu lesen und ist von größter Bedeutung.” Tom Peters, Co-Autor von „Auf der Suche nach Spitzenleistungen“

Der stumme Frühling

Author: Rachel Carson

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406704220

Category: Nature

Page: 348

View: 1804

Der stumme Frühling erschien erstmals 1962. Der Titel bezieht sich auf das eingangs erzählte Märchen von der blühenden Stadt, in der sich eine seltsame, schleichende Seuche ausbreitet … Das spannend geschriebene Sachbuch wirkte bei seinem Erscheinen wie ein Alarmsignal und avancierte rasch zur Bibel der damals entstehendenÖkologie-Bewegung. ZumerstenMal wurde hier in eindringlichem Appell die Fragwürdigkeit des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes dargelegt. An einer Fülle von Tatsachen machte Rachel Carson seine schädlichen Auswirkungen auf die Natur und die Menschen deutlich. Ihre Warnungen haben seither nichts von ihrer Aktualität verloren.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8810

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.