Logic and Reality

Essays on the Legacy of Arthur Prior

Author: Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 545

View: 7584

Logic and Reality is a collection of essays by philosophers, logicians, mathematicians, and computer scientists, celebrating the work of the late distinguished philosopher Arthur Prior on the eightieth anniversary of his birth. Topics range from philosophical discussions of the nature of time and of the nature of logic itself, to descriptions of computer systems that can reason and take account of the fact that they exist in a temporal world.
Release

The Reconstruction of A. N. Prior's Ontology

Author: Zuzana Rybaříková

Publisher: Vydavatelství Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci

ISBN: 8087895770

Category: Philosophy

Page: 134

View: 3126

Although the first analytic philosophers were primarily focused on the logical analysis of language, some of their initial works also contained ontological discussions. One of the most distinct ontological positions of the twentieth century was defended by Arthur Norman Prior. The unusual nature of the position could be demonstrated by the fact that he was ascribed to such divergent positions as nominalism and platonism. This might have been caused by his atypical combination of ontological views. He was, on the one hand, a nominalist in his mature works. On the other hand, he advocated intensional logic and presentism. The aim of this study is to reconstruct the ideas which influenced him as he formulated his ontological positions. Not only are Prior’s ideas introduced, but also the ideas of his precursors and contemporaries who influenced him. In contrast, the ideas of logicians and philosophers who Prior opposed are also presented. The dissertation consists of four parts which deal with Prior’s concepts of possible worlds, theories of quantifications, propositions and individuals. It is a historical study and therefore the polemics which arose after Prior’s death are not discussed.
Release

Papers on Time and Tense

Author: Arthur N. Prior,Per F. V. Hasle

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199256075

Category: Philosophy

Page: 331

View: 9351

This is a new edition, revised and expanded, of a seminal work in the logic and philosophy of time, originally published in 1968. Arthur N. Prior (1914-1969) was the founding father of temporal logic. His work has attracted increased attention in the decades since his death: its influencestretches beyond philosophy and logic to computer science and formal linguistics. Prior's fundamental ideas about the logic of time are presented here along with his investigations into the formal properties of time and tense. Already in 1969 Prior had been planning a new edition of Papers on Time and Tense, to incorporate his more recent work. Because of his untimely death this plan was never followed through--till now. Seven important papers have been added to the original selection, as well as a comprehensivebibliography of his work and an illuminating interview with his widow, Mary Prior, about his life and work. In addition, the Polish logic which made the original book difficult for many readers has been replaced by standard logical notation. This new edition will secure the classic status of thebook.
Release

Die richtige Formel

Philosophische Probleme der logischen Formalisierung. Herausgegeben von Volker Halbach, Alexander Hieke, Hannes Leitgeb und Holger Sturm

Author: Georg Brun

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110323524

Category: Philosophy

Page: 390

View: 4141

Logik ist nach dem traditionellen Verständnis eine ars iudicandi, eine Kunst, die Gültigkeit von Schlüssen zu prüfen. Da mit die normalen Mittel der modernen Logik zu diesem Zweck eingesetzt werden können, müssen erst Formeln an die Stelle von Sätzen treten: umgangssprachliche Schlüsse müssen adäquat formalisiert werden. Die richtige Formel entwickelt ein theoretisches Konzept des Formalisierens und praktisch anwendbare Adäquatheitskriterien für Formalisierungen. Dabei werden zentrale Fragen der Philosophie der Logik unter dem Gesichtspunkt des Zusammenspiels von Umgangssprache und Formalismus untersucht. Die ausführliche und systematische Diskussion von Formalisierungstests bietet eine wichtige Ergänzung zu den traditionellen Logiklehrbüchern.
Release

Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080463032

Category: Mathematics

Page: 732

View: 4733

Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, philosophy, and the history of ideas. This volume is number seven in the eleven volume Handbook of the History of Logic. It concentrates on the development of modal logic in the 20th century, one of the most important undertakings in logic’s long history. Written by the leading researchers and scholars in the field, the volume explores the logics of necessity and possibility, knowledge and belief, obligation and permission, time, tense and change, relevance, and more. Both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. · Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. · Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights that answer many questions in the field of logic.
Release

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics

Author: Dean Zimmerman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199267729

Category: Philosophy

Page: 348

View: 8404

... dedicated to the timely publication of new work in metaphysics, broadly construed.
Release

The Taming of the True

Author: Neil Tennant

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199251605

Category: Philosophy

Page: 465

View: 9055

The Taming of the True poses a broad challenge to the realist views of meaning and truth that have been prominent in recent philosophy. Neil Tennant starts with a careful critical survey of the realism debate, guiding the reader through its complexities; he then presents a sustained defenceof the anti-realist view that every truth is knowable in principle, and that grasp of meaning must be able to be made manifest. Sceptical arguments for the indeterminacy or non-factuality of meaning are countered; and the much-maligned notion of analyticity is reinvestigated and rehabilitated.Tennant goes on to show that an effective logical system can be based on his anti-realist view; the logical system that he advocates is justified as a body of analytic truths and inferential principles.Having laid the foundations for global semantic anti-realism, Tennant moves to the world of empirical understanding, and gives an account of the cognitive credentials of natural scientific discourse. He shows that the same canon of constructive and relevant inference suffices both forintuitionistic mathematics and for empirical science.This is an ambitious and contentious book which aims to reform not only theory of meaning, but our deductive practices across a broad range of discourses.
Release

Empty Ideas

A Critique of Analytic Philosophy

Author: Peter Unger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199330832

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 2579

Peter Unger's provocative new book poses a serious challenge to contemporary analytic philosophy, arguing that to its detriment it focuses the predominance of its energy on "empty ideas." In the mid-twentieth century, philosophers generally agreed that, by contrast with science, philosophy should offer no substantial thoughts about the general nature of concrete reality. Leading philosophers were concerned with little more than the semantics of ordinary words. For example: Our word "perceives" differs from our word "believes" in that the first word is used more strictly than the second. While someone may be correct in saying "I believe there's a table before me" whether or not there is a table before her, she will be correct in saying "I perceive there's a table before me" only if there is a table there. Though just a parochial idea, whether or not it is correct does make a difference to how things are with concrete reality. In Unger's terms, it is a concretely substantial idea. Alongside each such parochial substantial idea, there is an analytic or conceptual thought, as with the thought that someone may believe there is a table before her whether or not there is one, but she will perceive there is a table before her only if there is a table there. Empty of import as to how things are with concrete reality, those thoughts are what Unger calls concretely empty ideas. It is widely assumed that, since about 1970, things had changed thanks to the advent of such thoughts as the content externalism championed by Hilary Putnam and Donald Davidson, various essentialist thoughts offered by Saul Kripke, and so on. Against that assumption, Unger argues that, with hardly any exceptions aside from David Lewis's theory of a plurality of concrete worlds, all of these recent offerings are concretely empty ideas. Except when offering parochial ideas, Peter Unger maintains that mainstream philosophy still offers hardly anything beyond concretely empty ideas.
Release

Alternativen in der Raumzeit

eine Studie zur philosophischen Anwendung multimodaler Aussagenlogiken

Author: Niko Strobach

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: 408

View: 7277

Ist der Indeterminismus mit der Relativitatstheorie und ihrer Konzeption der Gegenwart vereinbar? Diese Frage lasst sich beantworten, indem man die fur das alte Problem der futura contingentia entwickelten Ansatze auf Aussagen uber das Raumartige ubertragt. Die dazu hier Schritt fur Schritt aufgebaute relativistische indeterministische Raumzeitlogik ist eine erste philosophische Anwendung der multidimensionalen Modallogiken. Neben den ublichen Zeitoperatoren kommen dabei die Operatoren "uberall" und "irgendwo" sowie "fur jedes Bezugssystem" und "fur manches Bezugssystem" zum Einsatz. Der aus der kombinierten Zeit- und Modallogik bekannte Operator fur die historische Notwendigkeit wird in drei verschiedene Operatoren ("wissbar", "feststehend", "beeinflussbar") ausdifferenziert. Sie unterscheiden sich bezuglich des Gebiets, in dem mogliche Raumzeiten inhaltlich koinzidieren mussen, um als Alternativen zueinander gelten zu konnen. Die Interaktion zwischen den verschiedenen Operatoren wird umfassend untersucht. Die Ergebnisse erlauben es erstmals, die Standpunkt-gebundene Notwendigkeit konsequent auf Raumzeitpunkte zu relativieren. Dies lasst auf einen metaphysisch bedeutsamen Unterschied zwischen deiktischer und narrativer Determiniertheit aufmerksam werden. Dieses Buch erganzt das viel diskutierte Paradigma der verzweigten Raumzeit ("branching spacetime") um eine neue These: Der Raum ist eine Erzahlform der Entscheidungen der Natur.
Release

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics

Author: Dean W. Zimmerman,Karen Bennett

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Metaphysics

Page: N.A

View: 9006

" ... dedicated to the timely publication of new work in metaphysics, broadly construed.".
Release

Persistence

Contemporary Readings

Author: Sally Anne Haslanger,Roxanne Marie Kurtz

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: 9780262083508

Category: Philosophy

Page: 483

View: 9298

How does an object persist through change? How can a book, for example, open in the morning and shut in the afternoon, persist through a change that involves the incompatible properties of being open and being shut? The goal of this reader is to inform and reframe the philosophical debate around persistence; it presents influential accounts of the problem that range from classic papers by W. V. O. Quine, David Lewis, and Judith Jarvis Thomson to recent work by contemporary philosophers. The authors take on the question of persistence by examining three broad approaches: perdurantism, which holds that change over time is analogous to change over space; exdurantism, according to which identity over time is analogous to identity across possible worlds; and endurantism, which holds that ordinary objects persist by enduring. Each of these approaches appears to be coherent, but each also has its own metaphysical problems. Persistence includes papers that argue for perdurantism, exdurantism, or endurantism, as well as papers that explore some metaphysical difficulties challenging each account. In this way the collection allows readers to balance the trade-offs of each approach in terms of intuitiveness, theoretical attractiveness, and elegance.Contributors:Yuri Balashov, William Carter, Graeme Forbes, Sally Haslanger, Katherine Hawley, H. S. Hestevold, Mark Hinchliffe, Mark Johnston, Roxanne Marie Kurtz, David K. Lewis, Ned Markosian, D. H. Mellor, W. V. O. Quine, Theodore Sider, Richard Taylor, Judith Jarvis Thomson, Peter van Inwagen, Dean Zimmerman
Release

Arguing about metaphysics

Author: Michael Cannon Rea

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415958264

Category: Philosophy

Page: 559

View: 5782

Arguing about Metaphysics is a wide-ranging anthology that introduces students to one of the most fundamental areas of philosophy. It covers core topics in metaphysics such as personal identity, the nature of being, time, and the concept of freedom. The volume contains scholarly articles by Quine, Lewis, van Inwagen and Pereboom, as well short works of science fiction that illustrate key ideas in metaphysics. The volume is divided into five parts, helping the student get to grips with classic and core arguments and emerging debates in: - On What There Is - Time and Time Travel - Change and Identity - Freedom - Worlds and Worldmaking Michael C. Rea provides lucid introductions to each section, giving an overview of the debate and outlining the arguments of each sectionA[a, 柑"[s readings. Arguing About Metaphysics is a comprehensive and engaging reader for students who are new to philosophy.
Release

Turing

Pioneer of the Information Age

Author: B. Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198719183

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 4050

Alan Turing is regarded as one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century. But who was Turing, and what did he achieve during his tragically short life of 41 years? Best known as the genius who broke Germany's most secret codes during the war of 1939-45, Turing was also the father of the modern computer. Today, all who 'click-to-open' are familiar with the impact of Turing's ideas. Here, B. Jack Copeland provides an account of Turing's life and work, exploring the key elements of his life-story in tandem with his leading ideas and contributions. The book highlights Turing's contributions to computing and to computer science, including Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life, and the emphasis throughout is on the relevance of his work to modern developments. The story of his contributions to codebreaking during the Second World War is set in the context of his thinking about machines, as is the account of his work in the foundations of mathematics.
Release

Alan Turing's Electronic Brain

The Struggle to Build the ACE, the World's Fastest Computer

Author: B. Jack Copeland

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199609152

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 553

View: 2638

Rev. ed. of: Alan Turing's automatic computing engine / edited by B. Jack Copeland.
Release

Praktisches Wissen

Grundlagen einer konstruktiven Theorie menschlichen Handelns

Author: Guido Löhrer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Agent (Philosophy)

Page: 489

View: 4024

Release