Light Absorption in Sea Water

Author: Bogdian Wozniak,Jerzy Dera

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387495606

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 4517

This book provides a detailed description of light absorption and absorbents in seawaters with respect to provenance, region of the sea, depth of the occurrence and trophicity. The text is based on a substantial body of contemporary research results taken from the subject literature (over 400 references) and the work of the authors over a period of 30 years.
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Computer Vision in Vehicle Technology

Land, Sea, and Air

Author: Antonio M. López,Atsushi Imiya,Tomas Pajdla,Jose M. Álvarez

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118868072

Category: Computers

Page: 216

View: 9473

A unified view of the use of computer vision technology for different types of vehicles Computer Vision in Vehicle Technology focuses on computer vision as on-board technology, bringing together fields of research where computer vision is progressively penetrating: the automotive sector, unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. It also serves as a reference for researchers of current developments and challenges in areas of the application of computer vision, involving vehicles such as advanced driver assistance (pedestrian detection, lane departure warning, traffic sign recognition), autonomous driving and robot navigation (with visual simultaneous localization and mapping) or unmanned aerial vehicles (obstacle avoidance, landscape classification and mapping, fire risk assessment). The overall role of computer vision for the navigation of different vehicles, as well as technology to address on-board applications, is analysed. Key features: Presents the latest advances in the field of computer vision and vehicle technologies in a highly informative and understandable way, including the basic mathematics for each problem. Provides a comprehensive summary of the state of the art computer vision techniques in vehicles from the navigation and the addressable applications points of view. Offers a detailed description of the open challenges and business opportunities for the immediate future in the field of vision based vehicle technologies. This is essential reading for computer vision researchers, as well as engineers working in vehicle technologies, and students of computer vision.
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Beyond the Visible

A Handbook of Best Practice in Plant UV Photobiology

Author: Pedro J Aphalo,Andreas Albert,Lars Olof Björn ,Andy McLeod,T. Matthew Robson,Eva Rosenqvist

Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto

ISBN: 952108362X

Category:

Page: 206

View: 551

Beyond the Visible: A handbook of best practice in plant UV photobiology presents methods for research on the responses of plants to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The knowledge needed to make informed decisions about manipulation and quantification of UV radiation is summarized. Practical recommendations for obtaining reliable and relevant data and interpretations are given. The handbook covers research both on terrestrial and aquatic plants and it deals with experimentation on ecological, eco-physiological and physiological questions. The handbook includes 115 figures, mostly in colour, 19 tables and 12 text boxes. It is the result of the activities of COST action FA0906 "UV4growth," and it includes contributions by 17 authors. From the foreword by Dr. Marcel A. K. Jansen: "This book ... is an important contribution towards such sound experimental design, promoting both "good practice" in UV-B manipulation, as well as "standardisation" of methodologies. Writing an authoritative book that will steer experimental approaches over the coming years, can not easily be done by an individual, but rather requires the concerted effort of a team of expert scientists. ... This is surely an excellent example of a concerted, Europeanwide activity that will boost the plant UV-B research field in Europe and beyond, for years to come."
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Image Blending Techniques and their Application in Underwater Mosaicing

Author: Ricard Prados,Rafael Garcia,László Neumann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319055585

Category: Computers

Page: 107

View: 7665

This work proposes strategies and solutions to tackle the problem of building photo-mosaics of very large underwater optical surveys, presenting contributions to the image preprocessing, enhancing and blending steps, and resulting in an improved visual quality of the final photo-mosaic. The text opens with a comprehensive review of mosaicing and blending techniques, before proposing an approach for large scale underwater image mosaicing and blending. In the image preprocessing step, a depth dependent illumination compensation function is used to solve the non-uniform illumination appearance due to light attenuation. For image enhancement, the image contrast variability due to different acquisition altitudes is compensated using an adaptive contrast enhancement based on an image quality reference selected through a total variation criterion. In the blending step, a graph-cut strategy operating in the image gradient domain over the overlapping regions is suggested. Next, an out-of-core blending strategy for very large scale photo-mosaics is presented and tested on real data. Finally, the performance of the approach is evaluated and compared with other approaches.
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Measurements, Mechanisms, and Models of Heat Transport

Author: Anne M. Hofmeister

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128099828

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 1307

Measurements, Mechanisms, and Models of Heat Transport offers an interdisciplinary approach to the dynamic response of matter to energy input. Using a combination of fundamental principles of physics, recent developments in measuring time-dependent heat conduction, and analytical mathematics, this timely reference summarizes the relative advantages of currently used methods, and remediates flaws in modern models and their historical precursors. Geophysicists, physical chemists, and engineers will find the book to be a valuable resource for its discussions of radiative transfer models and the kinetic theory of gas, amended to account for atomic collisions being inelastic. This book is a prelude to a companion volume on the thermal state, formation, and evolution of planets. Covering both microscopic and mesoscopic phenomena of heat transport, Measurements, Mechanisms, and Models of Heat Transport offers both the fundamental knowledge and up-to-date measurements and models to encourage further improvem Combines state-of-the-art measurements with core principles to lead to a better understanding of heat conduction and of radiative diffusion, and how these processes are linked Focuses on macroscopic models of heat transport and the underlying physical principles, providing the tools needed to solve many different problems in heat transport Connects thermodynamics with behavior of light in revising the kinetic theory of gas, which underlies all models of heat transport, and uses such links to re-derive formulae for blackbody emissions Explores all states of matter, with an emphasis on crystalline and amorphous solids
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Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean

Author: Gary E. Thomas,Knut Stamnes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521890618

Category: Science

Page: 517

View: 9454

Provides a foundation of the theoretical and practical aspects of radiative transfer, for the atmospheric, oceanic and environmental sciences.
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Cloud Optics

Author: Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402039553

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 7569

Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an important source of information on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers. All basic ideas of optics as related to scattering of light in clouds (e.g. Mie theory and radiative transfer) are considered in a self consistent way. Consequently, the book can also be a useful textbook to newcomers to the field.
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An Introduction to Ocean Remote Sensing

Author: Seelye Martin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521802802

Category: Science

Page: 426

View: 3701

Originally published in 2004, An Introduction to Ocean Remote Sensing describes the use of satellite data in the retrieval of oceanic physical and biological properties. It gives examples of the kinds of data that can be acquired and describes their oceanographic application. It also describes national and international programs in satellite oceanography. The book covers radiative transfer, ocean surface properties, satellite orbits, instruments and methods, visible remote sensing of biological properties, infrared sea surface temperature retrieval, passive microwave measurements, scatterometer wind retrieval, altimetry and SAR. Newer techniques, such as polarimetric passive microwave radiometers and SARs, interferometric radar altimetry and sea surface salinity retrieval are also discussed. This textbook is designed for graduate and senior undergraduate courses in satellite oceanography, and will prepare students and interested scientists to use satellite data in oceanographic research.
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Marine Optics

Author: N.G. Jerlov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080870502

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 6476

Marine Optics
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Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: John T. O. Kirk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139493914

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 9549

Beginning systematically with the fundamentals, the fully-updated third edition of this popular graduate textbook provides an understanding of all the essential elements of marine optics. It explains the key role of light as a major factor in determining the operation and biological composition of aquatic ecosystems, and its scope ranges from the physics of light transmission within water, through the biochemistry and physiology of aquatic photosynthesis, to the ecological relationships that depend on the underwater light climate. This book also provides a valuable introduction to the remote sensing of the ocean from space, which is now recognized to be of great environmental significance due to its direct relevance to global warming. An important resource for graduate courses on marine optics, aquatic photosynthesis, or ocean remote sensing; and for aquatic scientists, both oceanographers and limnologists.
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1998 Ocean Sciences Meeting

February 9-13, San Diego, California

Author: American Geophysical Union,American Society of Limnology and Oceanography

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aquatic sciences

Page: 204

View: 9832

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Meetings Abstracts, January-August 2006

Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, 20-24 February 2006; Joint Assembly, Baltimore, Maryland, 23-26 May 2006; Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Beijing, China, 24-27 July 2006

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aquatic sciences

Page: N.A

View: 6080

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Principles of Ocean Physics

Author: John R. Apel

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570747

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 1128

In recent years, significant advances in both the theoretical and observational sides of physical oceanography have allowed the ocean's physical behavior to be described more quantitatively. This book discusses the physical mechanisms and processes of the sea, and will be valuable not only to oceanographers but also physicists, graduate students, and scientists working in dynamics or optics of the marine environment.
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Research Centers Directory

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Learned institutions and societies

Page: N.A

View: 6124

Research institutes, foundations, centers, bureaus, laboratories, experiment stations, and other similar nonprofit facilities, organizations, and activities in the United States and Canada. Entry gives identifying and descriptive information of staff and work. Institutional, research centers, and subject indexes. 5th ed., 5491 entries; 6th ed., 6268 entries.
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Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8309

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
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How the Ocean Works

An Introduction to Oceanography

Author: Mark Denny

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400842883

Category: Nature

Page: 344

View: 9026

The world's oceans account for roughly 71 percent of the planet's surface and 99 percent of its livable volume. Any study of this huge habitat requires a solid foundation in the principles that underlie marine biology and physical and chemical oceanography, yet until now undergraduate textbooks have largely presented compilations of facts rather than explanations of principles. How the Ocean Works fills this gap, providing a concise and accessible college-level introduction to marine science that is also ideal for general readers. How are winds and currents driven? What is the dilemma of the two-layered ocean? Mark Denny explains key concepts like these in rich and fascinating detail. He explores early scientific knowledge of oceans, photosynthesis, trophic interactions and energy flow, and the impacts of human activities on marine and atmospheric systems. Focusing each chapter on a major topic and carefully explaining the principles and theory involved, Denny gives readers the conceptual building blocks needed to develop a coherent picture of the living ocean. How the Ocean Works is an indispensable resource that teaches readers how to think about the ocean--its biology, mechanics, and conservation. Provides a concise, up-to-date introduction to marine science Develops the conceptual basis needed to understand how the ocean works Explains fundamental principles and theory Includes color illustrations and informative diagrams Serves as a college textbook and a reference for general readers Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
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