Comparative Perspectives on Multidimensional Equality Law
Author: Dagmar Schiek,Victoria Chege
View: 9252EU equality law is multidimensional in being based on different rationales and concepts. Consequently, the concept of discrimination has become fragmented, with different instruments envisaging different scopes of protection. This raises questions as to the ability of EU law to address the situation of persons excluded on a number of grounds. This edited collection addresses the increasing complexity of European Equality Law from jurisprudential, sociological and political science perspectives. Internationally renowned researchers from Scandinavian, Continental and Central European countries and Britain analyse consequences of multiplying discrimination grounds within EU equality law, considering its multidimensionality and intersectionality. The contributors to the volume theorise the move from formal to substantive equality law and its interrelation to new forms of governance, demonstrating the specific combination of non-discrimination law with welfare state models which reveal the global implications of the European Union. The book will be of interest to academics and policy makers all over the world, in particular to those researching and studying law, political sciences and sociology with an interest in human rights, non discrimination law, contract and employment law or European studies.
Author: Henrik Schramm
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
View: 8183Auswahlentscheidungen gehen nicht ohne Ungleichbehandlung einher. Aber unter welchen Umstanden ist es verbotene Diskriminierung, wenn etwa ein Bewerber um einen Miet- oder Arbeitsvertrag kein Angebot erhalt? Henrik Schramm spurt der in Rechtsprechung und Literatur zum Allgemeinen Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (AGG) verbreiteten Unsicherheit uber subjektive und objektive Komponenten des Diskriminierungsunrechts nach. Dabei wird deutlich, dass die unmittelbare Diskriminierung zwar nicht nur verwerfliche Motive erfasst, sondern jedwedes Anknupfen an ein geschutztes Merkmal und die mittelbare Diskriminierung unverhaltnismassig nachteilige Auswirkungen neutraler Kriterien. Aber das heisst im Privatrechtsverkehr nichts anderes als aus verbotenen Grunden entscheiden oder anhand unakzeptabler Kriterien. Wird private Diskriminierung auf handlungstheoretisch-analytischer Grundlage scharfer konturiert, kommt Licht in ein Dickicht von Streitfragen - uber die begriffliche Rekonstruktion der Tatbestande bis hin etwa zur EuGH-Rechtsprechung zur Schwangerschafts- als Geschlechtsdiskriminierung, die sich als weniger systemlos und schwankend erweist als oft angenommen. Das Problem aber, dass fur die Aussenwelt oft ungewiss und manchmal auch fur den Verbotsadressaten selbst diffus bleibt, ob diskriminierende Grunde im Spiel sind, erfordert eine Beweiserleichterung. Richtig verstanden setzt diese nur beim Beweismass an und verandert die Beweislast nicht.
Author: John Stuart Mill
Category: Social Science
View: 7983Diese Ausgabe von "Die Hörigkeit der Frau" wurde mit einem funktionalen Layout erstellt und sorgfältig formatiert. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) war ein englischer Philosoph und Ökonom und einer der einflussreichsten liberalen Denker des 19. Jahrhunderts. Er war Anhänger des Utilitarismus, der von Jeremy Bentham, dem Lehrer und Freund seines Vaters James Mill, entwickelt wurde. Aus dem Buch: "Bei allen zarteren Verrichtungen der Natur - von welchen die der belebten Schöpfung die zartesten und von diesen wieder die des Nervensystems die allerzartesten sind - hängen die Verschiedenheiten der Wirkung ebensowohl von der Verschiedenheit der betreffenden Organe nach ihrer Qualität wie nach ihrer Quantität ab, und wenn die Qualität eines Instrumentes nach der Feinheit und Sauberkeit des Werkes, das es verrichten kann, zu beurteilen ist, so weist dieser Schluß auf eine durchschnittlich feinere Qualität des Gehirnes und Nervensystems der Frauen als der Männer hin. Sieht man indes von allen abstrakten Unterschieden der Qualität ab, die zu belegen immer eine schwierige Sache bleibt, so weiß man doch, daß die Wirksamkeit eines Organes nicht allein von seinem Umfange, sondern von seiner Tätigkeit abhängt, und von dieser haben wir ein annäherndes Maß in der Kraft, mit welcher das Blut durch dasselbe zirkuliert, da sowohl der Stimulus wie die ersetzende Kraft hauptsächlich von dieser Zirkulation abhängt."
Papers & Proceedings of the VIIth European Regional Congress of the International Society for Labour Law and Social Security Law, Stockholm, September 2002
Author: Roger Blanpain
View: 1739Although nominally protected by a plethora of laws, and championed in several well-intentioned declarations and charters, today's worker often feels adrift on an uncharted sea subject to unpredictable currents that have nothing to do with the quality of his or her work. Can we get at the root of this serious problem? We can at least determine if our existing legal systems, especially in the area of collective bargaining, discrimination, social security and European integration are able and ready to tackle the world-of-work challenges that confront us. And if they are not, we can begin to formulate a basis for new and effective labour and social security laws. This was in fact the essential impetus for the European Conference of the International Society of Labour Law and Social Security held in Stockholm in September 2002, a ground-breaking conference of which this book is the written record. In general, the papers stress the European situation, as it is in the EU, both as it exists today and as it is likely to be in the foreseeable future, a community of twenty-five nations, that the major work challenges are felt, and that the legal debate on relevant issues is strongest and most open. However, the twenty-four distinguished authors include representatives from countries as far-flung as Belarus and Congo, Korea and Turkey, and with these contributions the analysis extends to a study of fundamental rights as they actually exist under a wide variety of labour and social security law regimes in today's world. Collective Bargaining, Discrimination, Social Security and European Integration should not be overlooked by any policymaker or academic in the fields of labour and industrial relations law or social security law. It is one of the most detailed and current investigations we have of a situation that threatens to become a crisis in contemporary law and society.
Author: Monica den Boer
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
View: 7601Public police forces are a regular phenomenon in most jurisdictions around the world, yet their highly divergent legal context draws surprisingly little attention. Bringing together a wide range of police experts from all around the world, this book provides an overview of traditional and emerging fields of public policing, New material and findings are presented with an international-comparative perspective, it is a must-read for students of policing, security and law and professionals in related fields.
Chinese and European Perspectives
Author: Yuwen Li,J. E. Goldschmidt
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
View: 1896Employment discrimination is present in any society. However, this severe social problem has escalated in the post-Mao era in China. The imbalance between supply and demand in the labour market, combined with a lack of general consciousness regarding labour rights, have contributed to the swift spread of discrimination. This book contains the most recent research on the reality of discrimination in China, and advocates for effective employment equality protection through law and specialised equality institutions. The study of equal treatment in the legal systems of the EU illustrates the important contribution law, together with general policies, can make to the improvement of equality in employment. While both systems face a distinctive range and degree of problems, employment discrimination ought to be taken seriously in China and the countries of the EU.
Livelihood, Rights and Entitlements
Author: Nicola Piper
Category: Political Science
View: 8942This book discusses recent theoretical and empirical developments in international migration from a gender perspective. Its main objective is to analyse the diversification and stratification of gendered migratory streams with regard to skill level, labour market integration, and legal status. In turn a migrant’s position in relation to these axes influences access to entitlements and rights. Conceptually, the book builds upon the recent shift in scholarly research on migration, with women-centred research shifting more toward the analysis of gender. Migration is now viewed as a gendered phenomenon that requires more sophisticated theoretical and analytical tools than sex as a dichotomous variable. Theoretical formulations of gender as relational, and as spatially and temporally contextual have begun to inform gendered analyses of migration. The contributions to this book elaborate in more detail the broader social factors that influence migrating women’s and men’s roles, access to resources, facilities and services. Empirically, all major regions are discussed, pointing to common trends such as the increasing significance of the regionalization of migration flows as well as some noteworthy differences.
Challenges and Innovative Tools
Author: Marie Mercat-Bruns,David B. Oppenheimer,Cady Sartorius
View: 802This book focuses on anti-discrimination law in order to identify commonalities and best practices across nations. Almost every nation in the world embraces the principle of equality and non-discrimination, in theory if not in practice. As the authors' expert contributions establish, the sources of the principle vary considerably, from international treaties to religious law, traditions and more. There are many approaches to methods of enforcement and other variables, but the principle is nearly universal. What does a comparison of the laws and approaches across different lands reveal? Readers may explore the enforcement and effectiveness of anti-discrimination law from 25 nations, across six continents. Esteemed authors examine national, regional and international systems looking for common and best practices, identifying innovative approaches to long-standing problems. The many ways that anti-discrimination law is enforced are brought to light, from criminal or civil prosecution through to community resolution processes, amongst others. Through comparing the approaches of different lands, the authors consider which methods of enforcement are effective. These enriching national and international perspectives highlight the need for more creative, concrete and coordinated means of enforcement to ensure the effectiveness of anti-discrimination law, regardless of the legal tradition concerned, but in light of these traditions. Readers will find each nation remarkable, and learn something new and interesting from each report.
Author: Janneke H. Gerards,A. W. Heringa,Heleen L. Janssen
Publisher: Intersentia nv
View: 7657During the last decades, a better understanding of the influence of genetic factors on the onset of illness and disease has evolved. Unfortunately, however, the information revealed by genetic tests is not always accurate and reliable and its probabilistic value is often limited. Throughout the world, the possibility of genetic testing and the availability of individual genetic information have therefore caused increasing social concern, especially since many actors outside the medical profession, such as health and life insurance companies and employers, have shown a growing interest in individual genetic information. In many states, as well as on the international level, there is an ongoing debate about the balance that should be struck between the protection of the individual against misuse of genetic information and the interests of social actors and genetic research institutes, and about the policy options that are at hand to reduce the risks that are created by the availability of genetic information. This book offers some clarity as to the choices that have been made in various legal systems, both national and international, with respect to the regulation of genetic information. On the basis of an elaborate analysis of relevant legislation, policy approaches and case-law in the United States, the various European states and on the international level, the book aims to provide insight in the issues that must be deemed relevant in considering and, eventually, introducing regulative measures with respect to genetic information.
A Legal Perspective
Author: Tamara Hervey,Jeff Kenner
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
View: 4327The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union includes,in addition to the traditional 'civil and political rights', a large number of rights of an economic or social nature. This collection of essays by leading scholars in this field considers the significance of the inclusion of such rights within the EU Charter, in terms of protection of individual and collective social and economic interests within and between the EU and its Member States. What differences might it make to EU law and policy (both in terms of its substance, and in terms of the processes by which it is formed), that certain economic and social rights are proclaimed in the EU Charter?
Sex Discrimination and the Law
Author: Deborah L. RHODE,Deborah L Rhode
Publisher: Harvard University Press
View: 8118This is the first book to provide a comprehensive investigation of gender and the law in the United States. Deborah Rhode describes legal developments over the last two centuries against a background of historical and sociological changes in women's activities and attitudes toward these new developments. She shows the way cultural perceptions of gender influence and in turn are influenced by legal constructions, and what this complicated interaction implies about the possibility-or impossibility-of using law as a tool of social change. Table of Contents: Introduction Part One: Historical Frameworks 1. Natural Rights and Natural Roles Domesticity as Destiny The Emergence of a Feminist Movement Nineteenth-Century Legal Ideology: Separate and Unequal 2. The Fragmentation of Feminism and the Legalization of Difference The Postsuffrage Women's Movement Separate Spheres and Legal Thought Part Two: Equal Rights in Retrospect 3. Feminist Challenges and Legal Responses The Growth of the Contemporary Women's Movement Governmental Rejoinders Liberalism and Liberation 4. The Equal Rights Campaign Instrumental Claims Symbolic Underpinnings Political Strategies Requiems and Revivals 5. The Evolution of Discrimination Doctrine The Search for Standards Separate Spheres Revisited: Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications Definitions of Difference Part Three: Contemporary Issues 6. False Dichotomies Benign and Invidious Discrimination in Welfare Policy: Elderly Women and Social Security Special Treatment or Equal Treatment: Pregnancy, Maternal, and Caretaking Policy Public and Private: Social Welfare and Childcare Policies 7. Competing Perspectives on Family Policy Form and Substance: The Marital-Nonmarital Divide Lesbian-Gay Rights and Social Wrongs Equality and Equity in Divorce Reform Text and Subtext in Custody Adjudication 8. Equality in Form and Equality in Fact: Women and Work Occupational Inequality The Legal Response Employment Policy and Structural Change 9. Reproductive Freedom The Historical Legacy Abortion Adolescent Pregnancy Reproductive Technology 10. Sex and Violence Sexual Harassment Domestic Violence Rape Prostitution Pornography 11. Association and Assimilation Private Clubs and Public Values Education Athletics Different But Equal Conclusion: Principles and Priorities Differences over Difference Differences over Sameness Theory about Theory Legal Frameworks Notes Index Reviews of this book: Rhode's work is impressive in its scholarship and its range...a compelling account. --Josephine Shaw, International and Comparative Law Quarterly Reviews of this book: The definitive treatment of the American legal system's struggle to deal with issues pertaining to gender...The strength of Rhode's analysis, however, is not its historical aspect but its probing view of modern gender issues...The focus is always on the deeper forces that have led to gender disadvantage...There is much to be learned from reading this volume. --Victoria J. Dodd, Bimonthly Review of Law Books Reviews of this book: A comprensive journey through the history of law and gender...The book is important in a number of ways...[It] paints in stark, irrefutable colors the irrational prejudices that have served to justify legal determinations limiting equality...[I]t has the audacity to ask the law to turn on itself and work more justly. --Sheila James Kuehl, California Lawyer Reviews of this book: Encyclopedic.. . Thorough, carefully nuanced ... [Rhode] gives all sides their fair due on every issue she takes up... A valuable resource for many years to come. --Susan 0kin, Law and Social Inquiry Justice and Gender breaks the impasse created by legal and theoretical debates over 'sameness' and 'difference.' Deborah Rhode's brilliant analysis of gender and the law in the United States from the nineteenth century to the present argues persuasively for theories rooted in careful contextual analysis and for a legal emphasis on gender disadvantage rather than gender difference. This book offers a new vantage point from which to think about the role of law in building a just society. --Sarah M. Evans, University of Minnesota
Author: Thomas Lemke
View: 1156Over the past 15 years, a series of empirical studies in different countries have shown that our increasing genetic knowledge leads to new forms of exclusion, disadvantaging and stigmatization. The spectrum of this "genetic discrimination" ranges from disadvantages at work, via problems with insurance policies, to difficulties with adoption agencies. The empirical studies on the problem of genetic discrimination have not gone unnoticed. Since the beginning of the 1990s, a series of legislative initiatives and statements, both on the national level and on the part of international and supranational organizations and commissions, have been put forward as ways of protecting people from genetic discrimination. This is the first book to critically evaluate the empirical evidence and the theoretical usefulness of the concept of "genetic discrimination." It discusses the advantages and limitations of adopting the concept, and offers a more complex account distinguishing between several dimensions and forms of genetic discrimination.
Author: Malcolm Sargeant
View: 8958Discrimination and the Law provides an exploration and evaluation of Discrimination Law, with a primary focus on discrimination in employment. Introducing readers to the concepts of equality and the historical origins of discrimination law, Malcolm Sargeant explores the wider political, social and economic contexts through which the law has evolved. The book provides an examination of the main provisions of and the application of the Equality Act 2010 which was passed to consolidate the complicated and numerous array of Acts and Regulations, which formed the basis of anti-discrimination law in Great Britain. Encompassing sex, race, age, disability, discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation or religious belief, this book also considers aspects of discrimination which are not provided for, such as multiple discriminations and intersectionality. In addition, the provisions of the Equality Act and subsequent UK case law are considered within the context of EU Directives and judgments from the European Court of Justice and other international sources of equality law. Concise, accessible and with a review of current debates and issues at the end of each chapter, Discrimination and the Law is an essential introduction to the wide-ranging law relating to discrimination in the UK for both LLB and HRM students.