Lay Theories

Everyday Understanding of Problems in the Social Sciences

Author: Michael Argyle

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483286479

Category: Social Science

Page: 267

View: 5595

Lay theories - the informal, common-sense explanations people give for particular social behaviours - are often very different from formal 'scientific' explanations of what actually happens. While they have been studied in the past, this is the first attempt to review, in detail, the nature of these beliefs. More specifically, it is the first study to consider such fundamental questions as the structure, aetiology, stability and consequence of lay theories about a range of topics. Each chapter covers a different area, such as psychology, psychiatry, medicine, economics, statistics, law and education.

Die Wahrnehmung des Medienwandels

Eine Exploration ihrer Dimensionen, Entstehungsbedingungen und Folgen

Author: Philipp Müller

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658128127

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 423

View: 8811

Die Studie befasst sich damit, wie Mediennutzer den Wandel im Medienbereich erleben und wie sie mit ihm umgehen. Auf einer breiten theoretischen und empirischen Basis untersucht der Autor folgende Fragen: Wie erleben und bewerten Mediennutzer den Medienwandel? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen diese Beobachtungen und Bewertungen? Und vor allem: Welche Folgen haben Wahrnehmungen des Wandels für Einstellungen und Verhalten von Mediennutzern, z.B. für ihre Einstellung zur Medienerziehung, ihre Zahlungsbereitschaft für Medien oder ihr Stressempfinden? Der Band hilft der Medienforschung und der Medienpraxis, die Nutzer und ihre Reaktion auf neue Medien und andere Veränderungen im Medienbereich besser zu verstehen.

Wahlen und Politikvermittlung durch Massenmedien

Theoretisch-methodische Implikationen längerfristiger Analysen

Author: Hans Bohrmann,Otfried Jarren,Gabriele Melischek,Josef Seethaler

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322890023

Category: Political Science

Page: 326

View: 657

Wahlen sind Kulminationspunkte politischer Kommunikation. Dabei kommt in modernen Demokratien den Massenmedien zentrale Bedeutung zu. Durch Thematisierung und Interpretation tragen sie sowohl zur Strukturierung des Wahlkampfes als auch zur Definition des politischen Kräfteverhältnisses nach der Wahl bei. Aus kommunikations- und politikwissenschaftlicher Perspektive leisten die Beiträge des Bandes eine Diskussion des aktuellen Stands der Wahlkommunikationsforschung..

The Scientific Credibility of Folk Psychology

Author: Garth J.O. Fletcher

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134787014

Category: Psychology

Page: 128

View: 4507

The examination and evaluation of folk psychology and lay cognition has been carried out predominantly in two domains: personality and social psychology, and the philosophy of psychology. Yet, work in these two areas has largely proceeded independently. The assumption on which this volume is founded is that a proper comparison between scientific cognition and folk ways of thought rests on an adequate study of both science and folk psychology. With this in mind, the author provides an analysis of the intricate, and often hidden, links between these two spheres. In doing so, the book poses two related questions. First, what is the nature of folk psychology and how is it related to scientific psychology? Second, of what should the relationship between folk psychology and scientific psychology consist? In answering these two questions, the author draws extensively from research and arguments in social psychology and social cognition, cognitive science, and the philosophy of science. The interdisciplinary approach gives the book a unique perspective that will be of interest to scholars working in social psychology, cognitive science, and philosophy of science. Written in a concise and accessible style, this volume is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students as well as a general psychological audience.

Kommunikationsberatung und Kommunikationstraining

Anwendungsfelder der Diskursforschung

Author: Reinhard Fiehler,Wolfgang Sucharowski

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322850862

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 915

Der Band faßt die Erfahrungen und Erfolge bei der Anwendung von Diskursanalysen zusammen. Er berichtet über Kommunikationsberatung und -training in verschiedenen Einrichtungen (Unternehmen, Verwaltung, Krankenhaus und ärztliche Praxis, Telefonseelsorge, AIDS-Beratung etc.). Vorteile einer diskursanalytisch fundierten Beratung sind das umfangreiche Wissen über Kommunikationsregularitäten und -muster sowie die Verwendung von authentischem Sprachmaterial zur Identifizierung von Problemen und zur Entwicklung alternativer kommunikativer Verhaltensweisen.

Methodologie (Sprache in der Gesellschaft / Sprache und Klassifikation / Datensammlung und -verarbeitung)

Author: Günter Holtus

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110938375

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1239

View: 8536

Nach der Publikation der Bände zum Verhältnis von Latein und Romanisch und zur historisch-vergleichenden Grammatik der romanischen Sprachen (Bd. II,1), zu den einzelnen romanischen Sprachen und Sprachgebieten vom Mittelalter bis zur Renaissance (Bd. II,2) und von der Renaissance bis zur Gegenwart (Bde. III, IV, V,1, V,2, VI,1, VI,2) sowie zu den Themen Kontakt, Migration und Kunstsprachen sowie Kontrastivität, Klassifikation und Typologie (Bd. VII) wird nun Band I des seit 1988 erscheinenden »LRL« in zwei Teilbänden zur Geschichte und Methodologie des Faches Romanistik vorgelegt. Der erste Halbband (Artikel 1-38) befaßt sich mit der Geschichte des Faches Romanistik und der Methodologie (»Das Sprachsystem«), der zweite Halbband (Artikel 39--90) mit den methodologischen Bereichen »Sprache in der Gesellschaft«, »Sprache und Klassifikation«, »Datensammlung und -verarbeitung«. Das Gesamtwerk wird in den kommenden Jahren mit den Indices und dem Literaturverzeichnis (Bd. VIII) abgeschlossen werden.

Distributed Decision Making

Report of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Human-Systems Integration,Committee on Human Factors

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309041996

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 74

View: 2732

Decision making in today's organizations is often distributed widely and usually supported by such technologies as satellite communications, electronic messaging, teleconferencing, and shared data bases. Distributed Decision Making outlines the process and problems involved in dispersed decision making, draws on current academic and case history information, and highlights the need for better theories, improved research methods and more interdisciplinary studies on the individual and organizational issues associated with distributed decision making. An appendix provides additional background reading on this socially and economically important problem area.


Author: Wolfgang Wagner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783801707149

Category: Individualism

Page: 359

View: 984



Studien zu Sprach- und Kommunikationsproblemen im Alltag : am Beispiel von Sprachratgebern und Kommunikationstrainings

Author: Gerd Antos

Publisher: Max Niemeyer Verlag


Category: Discourse analysis

Page: 395

View: 9276

This study looks into the forms taken and the functions performed by lay theories of language and communication implicit in publications of a linguistic nature designed for the general reader. The approach combines detailed empirical examination of this phenomenon with a discussion of language-theoretical reasons for such broadly conceived forms of reflection on 'language in action'. In addition the book attempts a systematic historical presentation of the relations between laypersons and experts in significant areas of modern linguistics.

Everyday understanding

social and scientific implications

Author: G. R. Semin,Kenneth J. Gergen

Publisher: Sage Pubns


Category: Psychology

Page: 248

View: 5201

Combining the talents of a culturally diverse, international group of scholars, this important volume critically examines the most significant strands in the ongoing debate surrounding lay theories. The main focus is with people's everyday understanding of the world, and more directly, their understandings of themselves and others. Contributors explore the status and origins of lay understandings, how they are generated, how they are assessed, and how they influence or insinuate themselves into science. They also discuss whether or not it is appropriate to value scientific theorizing above lay theorizing. Lastly, they answer fundamental questions about the nature of language, cognition, culture, and the foundations of social and scientific knowledge. "Editors Semin and Gergen strike a balance between the specific and the general. . . . Everyday Understanding: Social and Scientific Implications will appeal to readers who support a multiplicity of approaches or even support an alternative to theexperimental method. . . . The series itself is a welcome scientific contribution, and Everyday Understanding: Social and Scientific Implications is an excellent addition to the series and admirably realizes many of the goals of the series. . . . Although readers may sometimes disagree with particular conclusions or arguments made by the authors, the questions raised and the discussions of the issues are intriguing, and scientific understanding may be increased by exploring such issues. . . . The editors succeed in their goal of presenting a range of views and contributing to the current debate about lay theories and their relation to scientific theories." --Contemporary Psychology

Habermas, Critical Theory and Health

Author: Graham Scambler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136285849

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 5259

The contribution of the German sociologist and philosopher Jurgen Habermas has proved seminal for attempts to understand the nature of social change in the context of global capitalism. This book provides an accessible introduction to his work and shows how his theories can be fruitfully applied to a wide range of topics in the sociology of health and illness including: * lay health knowledge * doctor-patient interaction * health care decision-making * health inequalities * new social movements in health * health care rationing * the Foucault perspective. Habermas, Critical Theory and Health will open up both new issues and new lines of empirical enquiry which will be of special interest to teachers and students of social theory and the sociology of health and illness and offers healthcare professionals new perspectives on their practice.

Conceptual Issues in Psychology

Author: Elizabeth R. Valentine

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415039253

Category: Psychology

Page: 238

View: 6617

Drawing heavily on the recollections and literature of the people themselves, Harrison places late Victorian Britain firmly in its social and political context.

Theory and Practice of Education

Author: Meriel Downey,A V Kelly

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781853960949

Category: Education

Page: 304

View: 7577

Theory and Practice of Education is readable and accessible, and an invaluable introduction to essential educational issues and concepts. It is equally suitable for initial courses of teacher education at both under-graduate and postgraduate levels, and for in-service courses for practising teachers.

Social Psychology

Understanding Human Interaction

Author: Robert A. Baron,Donn Erwin Byrne

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon


Category: Psychology

Page: 633

View: 1245


Racial Theories

Author: Michael Banton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521629454

Category: Social Science

Page: 253

View: 2683

This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Michael Banton's classic book reviews historical theories of racial and ethnic relations and contemporary struggles to supersede them. It shows how eighteenth- and nineteenth-century concepts of race attempted to explain human difference in terms of race as a permanent type and how these were followed by social scientific conceptions of race as a form of status. In a new concluding chapter, "Race as Social Construct," Michael Banton makes the case for a historically sensitive social scientific understanding of racial and ethnic groupings that operates within a more general theory of collective action and is, therefore, able to replace racial explanations as effectively as they have been replaced in biological science. This book is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand contemporary debates about racial and ethnic conflict. This new edition is thoroughly updated and contains a new chapter on developments in recent years.

The International Handbook on Social Innovation

Collective Action, Social Learning and Transdisciplinary Research

Author: Frank Moulaert

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849809992

Category: History

Page: 500

View: 6434

ÔThe challenges of poverty and social exclusion cannot be fully resolved through conventional public sector policies and market-led innovation. The case studies in this Handbook capture some of the key success factors of socially innovative action in different socio-economic contexts. This Handbook will inspire readers as it highlights the creativity and commitment of diverse enterprises and movements working for social innovation.Õ Ð Anna Kajumulo Tibaijuka, Minister for Lands, Housing and Human Settlements, United Republic of Tanzania, and retired UN Under Secretary General, immediate former Executive Director of UN-HABITAT ÔSocial innovation may not be a new idea but it is clearly an idea whose time has come, not least because the traditional models of innovation Ð narrowly framed technical models Ð have run their course and no longer resonate in a world of societal challenges. This Handbook has two great merits Ð it brings conceptual rigour to the debate and it provides compelling narratives of social innovation in practice.Õ Ð Kevin Morgan, Cardiff University, UK ÔIn an era where social innovation is re-emerging as an important policy framework for bringing social transformation, this volume is a significant contribution to the theory and practice of social innovation. The incremental discussion from concepts to theory to practice and then to social innovation research is supported by cases literally from all over the globe. It moves the discourse from isolated models of neighbourhood engagements and social enterprises, to a comprehensive, multidimensional approach combining needs, social relations and empowerment. A must read for academicians, learners, practitioners and policy makers alike.Õ Ð S. Parasuraman, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India ÔSocial innovation is an important instrument for understanding how contemporary societies deal with social change and how social practices and policies intended to combat poverty and social exclusion are developed and implemented effectively. The Handbook offers a valuable contribution to the development of a clear, transdisciplinary and critical understanding of social innovation practices. The reader will find an in-depth discussion of the most important theoretical approaches to the concept and a thorough exposition of the epistemological and methodological framework for research in social innovation. The volume includes a number of interesting case studies in different areas of social change and issues of policy and governance.Õ Ð Enzo Mingione, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy This enriching Handbook covers many aspects of the scientific and socio-political debates on social innovation today. The contributors provide an overview of theoretical perspectives, methodologies and instructive experiences from all continents, as well as implications for collective action and policy. They argue strongly for social innovation as a key to human development. The Handbook defines social innovation as innovation in social relations within both micro and macro spheres, with the purpose of satisfying unmet or new human needs across different layers of society. It connects social innovation to empowerment dynamics, thus giving a political character to social movements and bottom-up governance initiatives. Together these should lay the foundations for a fairer, more democratic society for all. This interdisciplinary work, written by scholars collaborating to develop a joint methodological perspective toward social innovation agency and processes, will be invaluable for students and researchers in social science and humanities. It will also appeal to policy makers, policy analysts, lobbyists and activists seeking to give inspiration and leadership from a social innovation perspective.

Theories of Delinquency

An Examination of Explanations of Delinquent Behavior

Author: Donald J. Shoemaker

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195127768

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 1630

Theories of Delinquency provides a comprehensive survey of major theoretical approaches to the understanding of delinquent behavior. It includes discussions and evaluations of all major individualistic and sociological theories, presenting each theory in a standard format with basic assumptions, important concepts, and critical evaluations of the research connected with these theories. Theories covered include biological and psychological explanations, anomie and social disorganization, differential association, drift theory, labeling theory, critical theories, and explanations of female delinquency. Now in its fourth edition, Theories of Delinquency, contains updated discussions of these theories, and special attention is given to the international aspects of the explanations discussed. Clearly written and consistently organized, Theories of Delinquency is important reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in crime and delinquency.