Lay Participation in Criminal Trials

The Case of Croatia

Author: Sanja Kutnjak Ivković

Publisher: Austin & Winfield Pub


Category: Law

Page: 566

View: 6052

Ordinary citizens have been a part of many decision-making bodies throughout history. In this important new study, Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic examines development of various forms of lay participation in legal decision-making. She specifically focuses on the development of mixed tribunals in which professional and lay judges decide cases jointly. Primarily concerned with the nature of Croatian mixed tribunals, Ivkovic investigates recent trials, providing an in-depth look at the interaction among tribunal members. She presents a detailed analysis that determines how gender, age, occupational prestige, and education affect the perceived frequency and importance of lay judges' participation during trial and deliberation. Finally, she discusses the future of mixed tribunals and possible improvements to the system. Ivkovic's work is a timely contribution that will not only help readers understand recent events in Croatia but has the potential to improve the quality of any tribunal composed of professional and lay members.

Democracy in the Courts

Lay Participation in European Criminal Justice Systems

Author: Marijke Malsch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317153065

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 6323

Democracy in the Courts examines lay participation in the administration of justice and how it reflects certain democratic principles. An international comparative perspective is taken for exploring how lay people are involved in the trial of criminal cases in European countries and how this impacts on their perspectives of the national legal systems. Comparisons between countries are made regarding how and to what extent lay participation takes place and the relation between lay participation and the legal system's legitimacy is analyzed. Presenting the results of interviews with both professional judges and lay participants in a number of European countries regarding their views on the involvement of lay people in the legal system, this book explores the ways in which judges and lay people interact while trying cases, examining the characteristics of both professional and lay judging of cases. Providing an important analysis of practice, this book will be of interest to academics, legal scholars and practitioners alike.

Popular Participation in Japanese Criminal Justice

From Jurors to Lay Judges

Author: Andrew Watson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319350773

Category: Social Science

Page: 177

View: 6429

This book analyses the mixed courts of professional and lay judges in the Japanese criminal justice system. It takes a particular focus on the highly public start of the mixed court, the saiban-in system, and the jury system between 1928-1943. This was the first time Japanese citizens participated as decision makers in criminal law. The book assesses reasons for the jury system's failure, and its suspension in 1943, as well as the renewed interest in popular involvement in criminal justice at the end of the twentieth century. Popular Participation in Japanese Criminal Justice proceeds by explaining the process by which lay participation in criminal trials left the periphery to become an important national matter at the turn of the century. It shows that rather than an Anglo-American jury model, outline recommendations made by the Japanese Judicial Reform Council were for a mixed court of judges and laypersons to try serious cases. Concerns about the lay judge/saiban-in system are raised, as well as explanations for why it is flourishing in contemporary society despite the failure of the jury system during the period 1928-1943. The book presents the wider significance of Japanese mixed courts in Asia and beyond, and in doing so will be of great interests to scholars of socio-legal studies, criminology and criminal justice.

Japan and Civil Jury Trials

The Convergence of Forces

Author: Matthew J. Wilson,Hiroshi Fukurai,Takashi Maruta

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1783479191

Category: Law

Page: 208

View: 5061

With effective solutions in both criminal and civil disputes at a premium, reformers have advanced varied forms of jury systems as a means of fostering positive political, economic, and social change. Many countries have recently integrated lay partici

Japanese Society and Lay Participation in Criminal Justice

Social Attitudes, Trust, and Mass Media

Author: Masahiro Fujita

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811003386

Category: Law

Page: 282

View: 7418

This book describes the state of the lay participation system in criminal justice, saiban-in seido, in Japanese society. Starting with descriptions of the outlines of lay participation in the Japanese criminal justice system, the book deals with the questions of what the lay participants think about the system after their participation, how the general public evaluate the system, whether the introduction of lay participation has promoted trust in the justice system in Japan, and the foci of Japanese society’s interest in the lay participation system. To answer these questions, the author utilizes data obtained from social surveys of actual participants and of the general public. The book also explores the results of quantitative text analyses of newspaper articles. With those data, the author describes how Japanese society evaluates the implementation of the system and discusses whether the system promotes democratic values in Japan.

The Right to a Fair Trial

Author: Thom Brooks

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351541005

Category: Law

Page: 532

View: 8340

The right to a fair trial is often held as a central constitutional protection. It nevertheless remains unclear what precisely should count as a 'fair' trial and who should decide verdicts. This already difficult issue has become even more important given a number of proposed reforms of the trial, especially for defendants charged with terrorism offences. This collection, The Right to a Fair Trial, is the first to publish in one place the most influential work in the field on the following topics: including the right to jury trial; lay participation in trials; jury nullification; trial reform; the civil jury trial; and the more recent issue of terrorism trials. The collection should help inform both scholars and students of both the importance and complexity of the right to a fair trial, as well as shed light on how the trial might be further improved.

Human Rights in Criminal Procedure

A Comparative Study : [revisions of Papers Presented at a Conference Organized by the United Kingdom National Committee of Comparative Law, Held at Manchester in Sept., 1978]

Author: John Albert Andrews,United Kingdom National Committee of Comparative Law

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789024725526

Category: Law

Page: 451

View: 8524

Revised papers from a conference organised by the United Kingdom National Commission on Comparative Law at Manchester 1978.

Comparative Criminal Procedure

Author: Jacqueline E. Ross,Stephen C. Thaman

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1781007195

Category: Law

Page: 576

View: 455

This Handbook presents innovative research that compares different criminal procedure systems by focusing on the mechanisms by which legal systems seek to avoid error, protect rights, ground their legitimacy, expand lay participation in the criminal process and develop alternatives to criminal trials, such as plea bargaining, as well as alternatives to the criminal process as a whole, such as intelligence operations. The criminal procedures examined in this book include those of the United States, Germany, France, Spain, Russia, India, Latin America, Taiwan and Japan, among others.

The Trial on Trial: Volume 2

Judgment and Calling to Account

Author: R A Duff,Lindsay Farmer,Sandra Marshall,Victor Tadros

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847311636

Category: Law

Page: 280

View: 789

What are the aims of a criminal trial? What social functions should it perform? And how is the trial as a political institution linked to other institutions in a democratic polity? What follows if we understand a criminal trial as calling a defendant to answer to a charge of criminal wrongdoing and, if he is judged to be responsible for such wrongdoing, to account for his conduct? A normative theory of the trial, an account of what trials ought to be and of what ends they should serve, must take these central aspects of the trial seriously; but they raise a number of difficult questions. They suggest that the trial should be seen as a communicative process: but what kinds of communication should it involve? What kind of political theory does a communicative conception of the trial require? Can trials ever actually amount to more than the imposition of state power on the defendant? What political role might trials play in conflicts that must deal not simply with issues of individual responsibility but with broader collective wrongs, including wrongs perpetrated by, or in the name of, the state? These are the issues addressed by the essays in this volume. The third volume in this series, in which the four editors of this volume develop their own normative account, will be published in 2007.

Juries in the Japanese Legal System

The Continuing Struggle for Citizen Participation and Democracy

Author: Dimitri Vanoverbeke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317487338

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 2131

Trial by jury is not a fundamental part of the Japanese legal system, but there has been a recent important move towards this with the introduction in 2009 of the lay assessor system whereby lay people sit with judges in criminal trials. This book considers the debates in Japan which surround this development. It examines the political and socio-legal contexts, contrasting the view that the participation of ordinary citizens in criminal trials is an important manifestation of democracy, with the view that Japan as a society where authority is highly venerated is not natural territory for a system where lay people are likely to express views at odds with expert judges. It discusses Japan’s earlier experiments with jury trials in the late 19th Century, the period 1923-43, and up to 1970 in US-controlled Okinawa, compares developing views in Japan on this issue with views in other countries, where dissatisfaction with the jury system is often evident, and concludes by assessing how the new system in Japan is working out and how it is likely to develop.

A History of Lay Judges

Author: John Philip Dawson

Publisher: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.

ISBN: 1886363692

Category: Law

Page: 310

View: 9234

Dawson, John P. A History of Lay Judges. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960. viii, [2], 310 pp. Reprinted 1999 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 98-50812. ISBN 1-886363-69-2. Cloth. $75. * An analysis of the divergent legal systems in England, France, Germany and Rome showing the relationship of the courts to the community, the legal structure and political organizations. The work examines the evolution of medieval French and German courts from the Roman canonist system. This study also explores the role of the local courts in England and examines in detail the workings and influence of a typical manor court, Redgrave, in Suffolk, England, (which was owned by Sir Nicholas Bacon, the father of Sir Francis Bacon) for the period up to 1711. Extensive notes, indexed. Scholars interested in the roots of the modern political structures in Europe will find this work of supreme benefit.

Reason Curve, Jury Competence, and the English Criminal Justice System

The Case for a 21st Century Approach

Author: Bethel Erastus-Obilo

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1599429268

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 3470

Reason Curve, Jury Competence, and the English Criminal Justice System, a cross-jurisdictional and cross-disciplinary book, seeks to stimulate discussion and extend the debate in the area of criminal trials in light of the absence of an articulated explanation for a verdict. The book traces the history and development of the jury, from the Carolingian kings, its advancement in the English Courts following papal intervention, the impact of the Magna Carta, to its general use, current curtailment in England and Wales, and re-emergence in Continental Europe. Central to the book's submission is the dictum that the jurors' franchise to deliver a cryptic verdict is 'a matter between them and their conscience.' In light of human and civil rights movements, the book advances arguments that a cryptic verdict may offend the principle of fair trials in criminal justice. This is amplified by the presence of a developing and significant body of law that demands that decisions by public officers be accompanied by articulated pronouncements regarding the basis for their decision. While the book does not contend with the sanctity of jury deliberations and recognizes the difficulties associated with reason articulation by lay assessors, it argues that the jury continuum provides a fertile ground not only for articulating a verdict in light of human experiences, but also for generating the reason curve, which provides legitimacy for that verdict. Furthermore, the reason curve argues that it is entirely possible for the jury to articulate its reasons provided the Criminal Justice System makes provisions not just to expect an explained verdict from the jury, but also provides it with the necessary facilities needed for compliance. Exploring research and sources in the fields of law and psychology in Europe, the USA, and other jurisdictions around the world, this book is written for an international audience as a catalyst for the student of legal jurisprudence who has interests in the concepts of reason, accountability, transparency, and human rights in the criminal justice system. It is also written for the cognitive and behavioral psychologist with an interest in lay decision-making in criminal trials. In the large legal jurisdictions of the USA and Canada, the right to a jury trial is enshrined in state articles. As such, there is less tinkering with the institution. In England and Wales where Parliament is supreme and the constitution is unwritten, no such right exists. Consequently, the government enjoys tremendous leeway in tinkering with the 'right to jury trial.' Whether or not the institution can evolve to deliver a 21st Century approach is a matter for full debate, research, and the march of time.

The Reform of the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure in Comparative Perspective

Author: M.S. Groenhuijsen,Tijs Kooijmans

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004232591

Category: Law

Page: 236

View: 9515

Looking back at the findings of the ‘Strafvordering 2001’-research project, the contributions in this book discuss the question of whether the legislator has succeeded in improving the Dutch system of criminal procedure.

Who Rules Japan?

Popular Participation in the Japanese Legal Process

Author: Leon Wolff,Luke Nottage,Kent Anderson

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784717495

Category: Law

Page: 232

View: 6962

The dramatic growth of the Japanese economy in the postwar period, and its meltdown in the 1990s, has attracted sustained interest in the power dynamics underlying the management of Japanês administrative state. Scholars and commentators have long deba

Trials Without Truth

Why Our System of Criminal Trials Has Become an Expensive Failure and What We Need to Do to Rebuild It

Author: William T. Pizzi

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814768113

Category: Law

Page: 257

View: 568

Reginald Denny. O. J. Simpson. Colin Ferguson. Louise Woodward: all names that have cast a spotlight on the deficiencies of the American system of criminal justice. Yet, in the wake of each trial that exposes shocking behavior by trial participants or results in counterintuitive rulings—often with perverse results—the American public is reassured by the trial bar that the case is not "typical" and that our trial system remains the best in the world. William T. Pizzi here argues that what the public perceives is in fact exactly what the United States has: a trial system that places far too much emphasis on winning and not nearly enough on truth, one in which the abilities of a lawyer or the composition of a jury may be far more important to the outcome of a case than any evidence. How has a system on which Americans have lavished enormous amounts of energy, time, and money been allowed to degenerate into one so profoundly flawed? Acting as an informal tour guide, and bringing to bear his experiences as both insider and outsider, prosecutor and academic, Pizzi here exposes the structural faultlines of our trial system and its paralyzing obsession with procedure, specifically the ways in which lawyers are permitted to dominate trials, the system's preference for weak judges, and the absurdities of plea bargaining. By comparing and contrasting the U.S. system with that of a host of other countries, Trials Without Truth provides a clear-headed, wide-ranging critique of what ails the criminal justice system—and a prescription for how it can be fixed.

Transitional Justice

Images and Memories

Author: Prof Dr Chrisje Brants,Professor Antoine Hol,Professor Dina Siegel

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409472582

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 8260

Transitional justice is usually associated with international criminal courts and tribunals, but criminal justice is merely one way of dealing with the legacy of conflict and atrocity. Justice is not only a matter of law. It is a process of making sense of the past and accepting the possibility of a shared future together, although perpetrators, victims and bystanders may have very different memories and perceptions, experiences and expectations. This book goes further than providing a legal analysis of the effectiveness of transitional justice and presents a wider perspective. It is a critical appraisal of the different dimensions of the process of transitional justice that affects the imagery and constructions of past experiences and perceptions of conflict. Examining hidden histories of atrocities, public trials and memorialization, processes and rituals, artistic expressions and contradictory perceptions of past conflicts, the book constructs what transitional justice and the imagery involved can mean for a better understanding of the processes of justice, truth and reconciliation. In transcending the legal, although by no means denying the significance of law, the book also represents a multidisciplinary, holistic approach to justice and includes contributions from criminal and international lawyers, cultural anthropologists, criminologists, political scientists and historians.

The Integrity of Criminal Process

From Theory into Practice

Author: Jill Hunter,Paul Roberts,Simon N M Young,David Dixon

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782255710

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 4596

Criminal proceedings, it is often now said, ought to be conducted with integrity. But what, exactly, does it mean for criminal process to have, or to lack, 'integrity'? Is integrity in this sense merely an aspirational normative ideal, with possibly diffuse influence on conceptions of professional responsibility? Or is it also a juridical concept with robust institutional purchase and enforceable practical consequences in criminal litigation? The 16 new essays contained in this collection, written by prominent legal scholars and criminologists from Australia, Hong Kong, the UK and the USA, engage systematically with - and seek to generate further debate about - the theoretical and practical significance of 'integrity' at all stages of the criminal process. Reflecting the flexibility and scope of a putative 'integrity principle', the essays range widely over many of the most hotly contested issues in contemporary criminal justice theory, policy and practice, including: the ethics of police investigations, charging practice and discretionary enforcement; prosecutorial independence, policy and operational decision-making; plea bargaining; the perils of witness coaching and accomplice testimony; expert evidence; doctrines of admissibility and abuse of process; lay participation in criminal adjudication; the role of remorse in criminal trials; the ethics of appellate judgment writing; innocence projects; and state compensation for miscarriages of justice.

Taiwan and International Human Rights

A Story of Transformation

Author: Jerome A. Cohen,William P. Alford,Chang-fa Lo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811303494

Category: Law

Page: 697

View: 8301

This book tells a story of Taiwan’s transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic system where human rights are protected as required by international human rights treaties. There were difficult times for human rights protection during the martial law era; however, there has also been remarkable transformation progress in human rights protection thereafter. The book reflects the transformation in Taiwan and elaborates whether or not it is facilitated or hampered by its Confucian tradition. There are a number of institutional arrangements, including the Constitutional Court, the Control Yuan, and the yet-to-be-created National Human Rights Commission, which could play or have already played certain key roles in human rights protections. Taiwan’s voluntarily acceptance of human rights treaties through its implementation legislation and through the Constitutional Court’s introduction of such treaties into its constitutional interpretation are also fully expounded in the book. Taiwan’s NGOs are very active and have played critical roles in enhancing human rights practices. In the areas of civil and political rights, difficult human rights issues concerning the death penalty remain unresolved. But regarding the rights and freedoms in the spheres of personal liberty, expression, privacy, and fair trial (including lay participation in criminal trials), there are in-depth discussions on the respective developments in Taiwan that readers will find interesting. In the areas of economic, social, and cultural rights, the focuses of the book are on the achievements as well as the problems in the realization of the rights to health, a clean environment, adequate housing, and food. The protections of vulnerable groups, including indigenous people, women, LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) individuals, the disabled, and foreigners in Taiwan, are also the areas where Taiwan has made recognizable achievements, but still encounters problems. The comprehensive coverage of this book should be able to give readers a well-rounded picture of Taiwan’s human rights performance. Readers will find appealing the story of the effort to achieve high standards of human rights protection in a jurisdiction barred from joining international human rights conventions.

Soviet Criminal Law and Procedure

The RSFSR Codes

Author: Harold Joseph Berman

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674826366

Category: History

Page: 399

View: 7622

A second edition has been made necessary by the large number of important changes in the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure introduced since July 3, 1965, the effective date of the first edition. I have taken advantage of the opportunity thus presented to make some changes in the Introduction as well.