Late Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysis

Author: Bernhard Rieger,Lisa Saunders Baugh,Smita Kacker,Susanne Striegler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605266

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 345

View: 4926

At the start of the 1950s, Ziegler and Natta discovered that simple metallorganic catalysts are capable of transforming olefins into linear polymers with highly ordered structures. This pioneering discovery was recognized with a Nobel Prize in 1963. In the 80s and 90s, the development of molecular defined metallocenes led to a renaissance for non-polar polyolefin materials. Designer catalysts allowed a greater precision in defining properties of the material. The past 10 years have seen the discovery of new catalysts based on late transition metals, which allow the combination of polar monomers with non-polar olefins and thus lead to innovative materials. Here, the world's leading authors from industry and academia describe the latest developments in this fascinating field for the first time in such comprehensive detail. In so doing, they introduce readers systematically to the basic principles and show how these new catalysts can effectively be used for polymerization reactions. This makes the book an ideal and indispensable reference for specialists, advanced students, and scientists of various disciplines dealing with research into catalysts and materials science.

Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Author: Ray Hoff,Robert T. Mathers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470504420

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 640

View: 3865

A one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts An edited volume featuring contributions from leading researchers, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts covers the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers. Dealing with those polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass and promising newer catalysts, this practical reference provides polymer and organic chemists with a comprehensive overview of the known methods for developing and applying these important catalysts. With both recent advances and historically important catalysts, the subjects covered in this text include: Metal alkyls and other compounds that function as co-catalysts with a large number of catalysts The varieties of porous silica either necessary or valuable in certain catalyst formulations Catalyst scale-up and commercialization Copper catalysts for olefin polymerization Morphology control Along with the above topics, the Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts provides tables of valuable data to assist in reproducing a synthesis or applying the knowledge to a new problem. Polymerization reactivities, polymer properties, monomer and solvent purity requirements, molecular weights, distribution, and reactivity ratios are also covered. The Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts offers an excellent one-stop resource for understanding and applying polymerization catalysts.

Metal Catalysts in Olefin Polymerization

Author: Zhibin Guan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540877509

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 578

Polyolefin is a major industry that is important for our economy and impacts every aspect of our lives. The discovery of new transition metal-based catalysts is one of the driving forces for the further advancement of this field. Whereas the classical heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts and homogeneous early transition metal metallocene catalysts remain the workhorses of the polyolefin industry, in roughly the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in developing non-metallocene-based olefin polymerization catalysts. Particularly, the discovery of late transition metal-based olefin polymerization catalysts heralds a new era for this field. These late transition metal complexes not only exhibit high activities rivaling their early metal counterparts, but more importantly they offer unique properties for polymer architectural control and copolymerization with polar olefins. In this book, the most recent major breakthroughs in the development of new olefin polymerization catalysts, including early metal metallocene and non-metallocene complexes and late transition metal complexes, are discussed by leading experts. The authors highlight the most important discoveries in catalysts and their applications in designing new polyolefin-based functional materials.

Metal-catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes

Author: Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854041508

Category: Education

Page: 290

View: 9742

Catalysis underpins most modern industrial organic processes. It has become an essential tool in creating a 'greener' chemical industry by replacing more traditional stoichiometric reactions, which have high energy consumption and high waste production, with mild processes which increasingly resemble Nature's enzymes. Metal-Catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes considers the major areas of the field and discusses the logic of using catalysis in industrial processes. This popular book, now available as softback, provides information on oxidation, hydrogenation, carbonylation, C-C bond formation, metathesis and polymerization processes, as well as on the mechanisms involved. In addition two appendices offer a concise treatment of homogeneous and heterogenous catalysis. Numerous exercises referring to problems of catalytic processes, and research perspectives complete the book. This definitive reference source, written by practising experts in the field, provides detailed and up-to-date information on key aspects of metal catalysis.

Grundlagen der metallorganischen Komplexkatalyse

Author: Dirk Steinborn

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783834805812

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 947

Die Katalyse ist als grundlegendes Prinzip zur Überwindung der kinetischen Hemmung chemischer Reaktionen von fundamentaler Bedeutung in der Chemie und die metallorganische Komplexkatalyse ist ein Eckpfeiler der modernen Chemie. Das trifft gleichermaßen für die Grundlagen- und angewandte Forschung wie für industrielle Anwendungen zu. Ausgehend von den Prinzipien der Katalyse und den katalytisch relevanten metallorganischen Elementarschritten werden wichtige metallkomplexkatalysierte Reaktionen behandelt, wobei das mechanistische Verständnis im Vordergrund steht. Besonderer Wert wird dabei auf aktuelle Entwicklungen gelegt. Asymmetrische Synthesen finden ausführlich Berücksichtigung und an ausgewählten Beispielen wird die katalytische Wirkung von Metalloenzymen aufgezeigt. Am Beispiel der Stickstofffixierung werden die drei großen Gebiete der Katalyse – die homogene, die heterogene und die enzymatische Katalyse – vergleichend betrachtet. Der Inhalt Geschichte und Grundlagen der Katalyse - Elementarreaktionen in der metallorganischen Komplexkatalyse - Hydrierung und Hydroformylierung von Olefinen - Carbonylierung von Methanol und CO-Konvertierung - Metathese von Olefinen, Alkinen und Alkanen - Oligomerisation und Polymerisation von Olefinen und Butadien - Palladiumkatalysierte C–C-Kupplungsreaktionen - Hydrocyanierungen, -silylierungen und -aminierungen von Olefinen - Oxidation von Olefinen und C–H-Funktionalisierungen von Alkanen - Stickstofffixierung Die Zielgruppe Studierende der Chemie im Vertiefungs-/Masterstudium an Fachhochschulen und Universitäten Diplomanden und Doktoranden Chemiker in Forschung und Entwicklung Der Autor Prof. Dr. Dirk Steinborn, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg Die Reihe Studienbücher Chemie Die Herausgeber: Ch. Elschenbroich, F. Hensel, H. Hopf

Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts

Author: Lisa S. Baugh,Jo Ann M. Canich

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420017083

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 696

View: 9468

New synthetic techniques allow chemists to modify polymer microstructures more precisely than ever, making it possible to design materials that meet increasingly demanding performance requirements. Written and edited by experts in the field, Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts reviews how the relative stereochemistry of polymer chains affects polymer properties and presents the latest strategies for developing tactic polymers using single-site catalysis. This unified volume explains the mechanistic basics of tactic polymerizations, beginning with an extensive survey of the most important classes of metallocene and post-metallocene catalysts used to make polypropylenes. It also focuses on tactic stereoblock and ethylene/propylene copolymers and catalyst active site models, followed by chapters discussing the structure of more stereochemically complex polymers and polymerizations that proceed via non-vinyl-addition mechanisms. Individual chapters thoroughly describe tactic polymerizations of α-olefins, styrene, dienes, acetylenes, lactides, epoxides, acrylates, and cyclic monomers, as well as cyclopolymerizations and ditactic structures, olefin/CO polymers, and metathesis polyalkenamers. An ideal reference and supplementary text, Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts enables both new and experienced chemists to better understand tactic polymers and select appropriate catalyst systems for their preparation.

Organometallic Reactions and Polymerization

Author: Kohtaro Osakada

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 366243539X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 301

View: 9145

This compilation provides advanced graduate students and researchers with a structured overview of olefin polymerization. Divided into eight chapters written by international experts, this book covers polymerization using various organotransition-metal catalysts, including early and late transition metal complexes, new trends in olefin oligomerization and related reactions. All authors address the historic and scientific backgrounds of the field as well as current research progress and potential for further research. The complete book is designed to present eight independent lectures and, because all authors are well versed in organometallic chemistry, each is based on a profound understanding of the reactions and structures of organotransition metal complexes. This book is an ideal accompaniment for researchers taking courses in olefin polymerization and also serves as a valuable resource for teachers and lecturers of chemistry when planning and researching material for advanced lecture courses.

Metallocenes in Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis

Author: Tamotsu Takahashi,K. Kanno,T. Takahashi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540016069

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 4944

Metallocene is a well known sandwich complex with two cyclopentadienyl ligands such as ferrocene. Recently, such metallocene compounds have been found to be very characteristic and they have become very important, not only in the area of organic synthesis, but also in polymerization in industry. Metal complexes with one cyclopentadienyl ligand have also become popular as half sandwich complexes. The number of researchers in the field of metallocenes has increased rapidly. However, the origin of the characteristic reactivity of metallocenes is not fully understood. In this volume, the chemistry of metal complexes with at least one cyclopentadienyl ligand is comprehensively covered by leading experts. Reactions discussed here are (i) natural product synthesis, (ii) catalytic asymmetric synthesis, (iii) cyclization reactions, (iv)catalytic reactions, (iv) polymerization reactions and (v) carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions. The reader will have access to useful information about the current state of metallocene chemistry.

Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes II

State of the art and Perspectives


Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400706965

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 3846

Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes II: State-of-the-art and Perspectives provides a critical review of the state-of-the-art developments in industrially relevant processes connected to efficient and selective olefin upgrading. Specific attention is devoted to catalysts containing imine- and amine-based ligands. All the chapters in this book have been designed to provide a systematic account of the vast amount of information available for this type of catalyst as well as to highlight the factors that ultimately control the catalyst’s performance and productivity. A comprehensive panorama of catalyst precursors is presented, spanning from group 10 α-diimine complexes and iron and cobalt 2,6-bis(imino)pyridine derivatives, to vanadium, chromium, titanium, zirconium and lanthanide complexes supported by nitrogen-containing ligands. The authors of this collective work are currently involved in the development of imine-based catalysts for efficient and selective olefin upgrading and the majority of them have dedicated most of their scientific career to this important field. In writing this book, their major goal is to transfer as many ideas and experiences as possible to the global audience of scientists engaged in this area of research.

Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts

Author: Yury Kissin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557991

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 495

View: 3644

During the past 30 years, the field of alkene polymerization over transition metal catalysts underwent several major changes: 1. The list of commercial heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylene and stereoregular polyolefins was completely renewed affording an unprecedented degree of control over the polymer structure. 2. Research devoted to metallocene and other soluble transition-metal catalysis has vastly expanded and has shifted toward complexes of transition metals with multidentate ligands. 3. Recent developments in gel permeation chromatography, temperature-rising fractionation, and crystallization fractionation provided the first reliable information about differences between various active centers in transition-metal catalysts. 4. A rapid development of high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy resulted in greatly expanded understanding of the chemical and steric features of polyolefins and alkene copolymers. These developments require a new review of all aspects of alkene polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts. The first chapter in the book is an introductory text for researchers who are entering the field. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts, the types of catalysts, and commercially manufactured polyolefins. The next chapter addresses the principal issue of alkene polymerization catalysis: the existence of catalyst systems with single and multiple types of active centers. The subsequent chapters are devoted to chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental reaction steps, structures of catalyst precursors and reactions leading to the formation of active centers, kinetics of polymerization reactions, and their mechanisms. The book describes the latest commercial polymerization catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylenes and polypropylene The book provides a detailed description of the multi-center nature of commercial Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The book devotes specialized chapters to the most important aspects of transition metal polymerization catalysts: the reactions leading to the formation of active centers, the chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental polymerization steps, reaction kinetics, and the polymerization mechanism. The book contains an introductory chapter for researchers who are entering the field of polymerization catalysis. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts and the types of commercially manufactured polyolefins and copolymers The book contains over 2000 references, the most recent up to end of 2006.

Antioxidant Polymers

Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Author: Giuseppe Cirillo,Francesca Iemma

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118445511

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 520

View: 3163

Antioxidant Polymers is an exhaustive overview of the recent developments in the field of polymeric materials showing antioxidant properties. This research area has grown rapidly in the last decade because antioxidant polymers have wide industry applications ranging from materials science to biomedical, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations Vol. 48


Author: N.A

Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag

ISBN: 3131784814

Category: Science

Page: 830

View: 1688

Science of Synthesis provides a critical review of the synthetic methodology developed from the early 1800s to date for the entire field of organic and organometallic chemistry. As the only resource providing full-text descriptions of organic transformations and synthetic methods as well as experimental procedures, Science of Synthesis is therefore a unique chemical information tool. Over 1000 world-renowned experts have chosen the most important molecular transformations for a class of organic compounds and elaborated on their scope and limitations. The systematic, logical and consistent organization of the synthetic methods for each functional group enables users to quickly find out which methods are useful for a particular synthesis and which are not. Effective and practical experimental procedures can be implemented quickly and easily in the lab.// The content of this e-book was originally published in September 2009.

Homogeneous Catalysts

Activity - Stability - Deactivation

Author: John C. Chadwick,Rob Duchateau,Zoraida Freixa,Piet W. N. M. van Leeuwen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527636005

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 1914

This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste. The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.

Polymer Reaction Engineering

Author: Jose Asua

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691425

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 392

View: 1545

Polymers are an example of “products-by-process”, where the final product properties are mostly determined during manufacture, in the reactor. An understanding of processes occurring in the polymerization reactor is therefore crucial to achieving efficient, consistent, safe and environmentally friendly production of polymeric materials. Polymer Reaction Engineering provides the link between the fundamentals of polymerization kinetics and polymer microstructure achieved in the reactor. Organized according to the type of polymerization, each chapter starts with a description of the main polymers produced by the particular method, their key microstructural features and their applications Polymerization kinetics and its effect on reactor configuration, mass and energy balances and scale-up are covered in detail. The text is illustrated with examples emphasizing general concepts, principles and methodology. Written as an authoritative guide for chemists and chemical engineers in industry and academe, Polymer Reaction Engineering will also be a key reference source for advanced courses in polymer chemistry and technology.

Metalorganic Catalysts for Synthesis and Polymerization

Recent Results by Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene Investigations

Author: Walter Kaminsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642601782

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 674

View: 6609

45 years after the discovery of transition metals and organometallics as cocatalysts for the polymerization of olefins and for organic synthesis, these compounds have not lost their fascination. The birthday of Karl Ziegler, the great pioneer in this metalorganic catalysis, is now 100 years ago. Polyolefins and polydienes produced by Ziegler-Natta catalysis are the most important plastics and elastomers. New impulses for the polymerization of olefins have been brought about by highly active metallocenes and other single site catalysts. Just by changing the ligands of the organometallic compounds, the structure of the polymers produced can be tailored in a wide manner. In invited lectures and posters, relevant aspects of the metalorganic catalysts for synthesis and polymerization are discussed in this book. This includes mechanism and kinetics, stereochemistry, material properties, and industrial applications.

Functionalization of Polyolefins

Author: T. C. Chung

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780121746513

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 8219

Summarizes the significant experimental results on the functionalization of polyolefins and classifies them into several chemical methods. This book also provides information on the functional polyolefin materials. It covers: chemical approaches in the functionalization of polyolefins, and polyolefin materials and their potential applications.

Fundamentals of Molecular Catalysis

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080532134

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 3489

Almost all contemporary organic synthesis involve transition metal complexes as catalysts or particular reagents. The aim of this book is to provide the reader with detailed accounts of elementary processes within molecular catalysis to allow its development and as an aid in designing novel catalytic systems. The book comprises authoritative reviews on elementary processes from experts working at the forefront of organometallic chemistry. · This is the first book that focuses on elementary processes in transition metal complexes for understanding catalytic mechanisms · Provides detailed description of elementary processes involved in catalytic cycles by experts in the field · Provides an overview of the mechanisms of various homogeneous catalyses

Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes I

State-of-the-art and Perspectives

Author: Giuliano Giambastiani,Juan Campora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048138159

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6640

This book highlights key advances that have occurred in the field of olefin conversion in recent years. The role of homogenous transition metal catalysts which contain an imine functionality is emphasized; their potential applications in the processing and upgrade of olefins to a wide variety of commodity products of very high industrial value is also explored. On the threshold of the fiftieth anniversary of the Noble Prize to Ziegler and Natta, this book gives a critical summary of the state of the art developments in the fascinating and rapidly developing field of the olefin polymerization, oligomerization, and co-polymerization catalysis.

Organometallic Chemistry

Author: M. Green

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854043438

Category: Reference

Page: 504

View: 7321

This Specialist Periodical Report aims to reflect the growing interest in the potential of organometallic chemistry.