Late Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysis

Author: Bernhard Rieger,Lisa Saunders Baugh,Smita Kacker,Susanne Striegler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605266

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 345

View: 2819

At the start of the 1950s, Ziegler and Natta discovered that simple metallorganic catalysts are capable of transforming olefins into linear polymers with highly ordered structures. This pioneering discovery was recognized with a Nobel Prize in 1963. In the 80s and 90s, the development of molecular defined metallocenes led to a renaissance for non-polar polyolefin materials. Designer catalysts allowed a greater precision in defining properties of the material. The past 10 years have seen the discovery of new catalysts based on late transition metals, which allow the combination of polar monomers with non-polar olefins and thus lead to innovative materials. Here, the world's leading authors from industry and academia describe the latest developments in this fascinating field for the first time in such comprehensive detail. In so doing, they introduce readers systematically to the basic principles and show how these new catalysts can effectively be used for polymerization reactions. This makes the book an ideal and indispensable reference for specialists, advanced students, and scientists of various disciplines dealing with research into catalysts and materials science.
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Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Author: Ray Hoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119242150

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 768

View: 4370

Including recent advances and historically important catalysts, this book overviews methods for developing and applying polymerization catalysts – dealing with polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable high yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass or productivity. • Contains the valuable data needed to reproduce syntheses or use the catalyst for new applications • Offers a guide to the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers • Includes the information essential for choosing the appropriate reactions to maximize yield of polymer synthesized • Presents new chapters on vanadium catalysts, Ziegler catalysts, laboratory homopolymerization, and copolymerization
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Metal Catalysts in Olefin Polymerization

Author: Zhibin Guan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540877509

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 4039

Polyolefin is a major industry that is important for our economy and impacts every aspect of our lives. The discovery of new transition metal-based catalysts is one of the driving forces for the further advancement of this field. Whereas the classical heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts and homogeneous early transition metal metallocene catalysts remain the workhorses of the polyolefin industry, in roughly the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in developing non-metallocene-based olefin polymerization catalysts. Particularly, the discovery of late transition metal-based olefin polymerization catalysts heralds a new era for this field. These late transition metal complexes not only exhibit high activities rivaling their early metal counterparts, but more importantly they offer unique properties for polymer architectural control and copolymerization with polar olefins. In this book, the most recent major breakthroughs in the development of new olefin polymerization catalysts, including early metal metallocene and non-metallocene complexes and late transition metal complexes, are discussed by leading experts. The authors highlight the most important discoveries in catalysts and their applications in designing new polyolefin-based functional materials.
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Alkene Polymerization Reactions with Transition Metal Catalysts

Author: Yury Kissin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557991

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 495

View: 4853

During the past 30 years, the field of alkene polymerization over transition metal catalysts underwent several major changes: 1. The list of commercial heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylene and stereoregular polyolefins was completely renewed affording an unprecedented degree of control over the polymer structure. 2. Research devoted to metallocene and other soluble transition-metal catalysis has vastly expanded and has shifted toward complexes of transition metals with multidentate ligands. 3. Recent developments in gel permeation chromatography, temperature-rising fractionation, and crystallization fractionation provided the first reliable information about differences between various active centers in transition-metal catalysts. 4. A rapid development of high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy resulted in greatly expanded understanding of the chemical and steric features of polyolefins and alkene copolymers. These developments require a new review of all aspects of alkene polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts. The first chapter in the book is an introductory text for researchers who are entering the field. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts, the types of catalysts, and commercially manufactured polyolefins. The next chapter addresses the principal issue of alkene polymerization catalysis: the existence of catalyst systems with single and multiple types of active centers. The subsequent chapters are devoted to chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental reaction steps, structures of catalyst precursors and reactions leading to the formation of active centers, kinetics of polymerization reactions, and their mechanisms. The book describes the latest commercial polymerization catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylenes and polypropylene The book provides a detailed description of the multi-center nature of commercial Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The book devotes specialized chapters to the most important aspects of transition metal polymerization catalysts: the reactions leading to the formation of active centers, the chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental polymerization steps, reaction kinetics, and the polymerization mechanism. The book contains an introductory chapter for researchers who are entering the field of polymerization catalysis. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts and the types of commercially manufactured polyolefins and copolymers The book contains over 2000 references, the most recent up to end of 2006.
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Handbook of Transition Metal Polymerization Catalysts

Author: Ray Hoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119242150

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 768

View: 7509

Including recent advances and historically important catalysts, this book overviews methods for developing and applying polymerization catalysts – dealing with polymerization catalysts that afford commercially acceptable high yields of polymer with respect to catalyst mass or productivity. • Contains the valuable data needed to reproduce syntheses or use the catalyst for new applications • Offers a guide to the design and synthesis of catalysts, and their applications in synthesis of polymers • Includes the information essential for choosing the appropriate reactions to maximize yield of polymer synthesized • Presents new chapters on vanadium catalysts, Ziegler catalysts, laboratory homopolymerization, and copolymerization
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Theoretical Aspects of Transition Metal Catalysis

Author: D. V. Deubel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540235101

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 3519

Transition metal catalysis belongs to the most important chemical research areas because a ubiquitous number of chemical reactions are catalyzed by transition metal compounds. Many efforts are being made by industry and academia to find new and more efficient catalysts for chemical processes. Transition metals play a prominent role in catalytic research because they have been proven to show an enormous diversity in lowering the activation barrier for chemical reactions. For many years, the search for new catalysts was carried out by trial and error, which was costly and time consuming. The understanding of the mechanism of the catalytic process is often not very advanced because it is difficult to study the elementary steps of the catalysis with experimental techniques. The development of modern quantum chemical methods for calculating possible intermediates and transition states was a breakthrough in gaining an understanding of the reaction pathways of transition metal catalyzed reactions. This volume, organized into eight chapters written by leading scientists in the field, illustrates the progress made during the last decade. The reader will obtain a deep insight into the present state of quantum chemical research in transition metal catalysis.
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Homogeneous Catalysts

Activity - Stability - Deactivation

Author: John C. Chadwick,Rob Duchateau,Zoraida Freixa,Piet W. N. M. van Leeuwen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527636005

Category: Science

Page: 418

View: 865

This first book to illuminate this important aspect of chemical synthesis improves the lifetime of catalysts, thus reducing material and saving energy, costs and waste. The international panel of expert authors describes the studies that have been conducted concerning the way homogeneous catalysts decompose, and the differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The result is a ready reference for organic, catalytic, polymer and complex chemists, as well as those working in industry and with/on organometallics.
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Fundamentals of Polymerization

Author: Broja Mohan Mandal

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814322466

Category: Science

Page: 445

View: 3655

Over the last twenty years, the field of the chemistry of polymerization witnessed enormous growth through the development of new concepts, catalysts, processes etc. Examples are: non classical living polymerizations (group transfer polymerization, living carbocationic polymerization, living radical polymerization and living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)); new catalysts (metallocenes and late transition metal catalysts for stereospecific polymerization, Schrock and Grubbs catalyst for ROMP among others) and new processes such as miniemulsion, microemulsion polymerization and dispersion polymerization (in polar solvents). Apart from the developments in the chemistry of polymerization, methods have been developed for the evaluation of highly reliable rate constants of propagation in radical as well as cationic polymerization. All these have revolutionized the field of synthetic polymer chemistry. In the book, fundamentals of both the new and old polymerization chemistry have been dealt with. The new chemistry has been given nearly equal space along with the old.
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Beyond Metallocenes

Next-generation Polymerization Catalysts

Author: Abhimanyu O. Patil,Gregory G. Hlatky,American Chemical Society. Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: 9780841238381

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 249

View: 4143

The past 15 years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and use of organometallic complexes as precatalysts for olefin polymerization. Most recently, an intense search has been started in next-generation single-site catalysts. New approaches have been taken to ligand design. This research has yielded extraordinary results such as catalysts with activities as high or higher than those of conventional metallocenes, stereospecific and living polymerizations, and amazing new polymer structures such as highly-branched ethylene homopolymers. This volume presents some of the recent disclosures in this exciting and rapidly expanding field, featuring papers by some of the leading investigators.
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Organometallic Reactions and Polymerization

Author: Kohtaro Osakada

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 366243539X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 301

View: 8630

This compilation provides advanced graduate students and researchers with a structured overview of olefin polymerization. Divided into eight chapters written by international experts, this book covers polymerization using various organotransition-metal catalysts, including early and late transition metal complexes, new trends in olefin oligomerization and related reactions. All authors address the historic and scientific backgrounds of the field as well as current research progress and potential for further research. The complete book is designed to present eight independent lectures and, because all authors are well versed in organometallic chemistry, each is based on a profound understanding of the reactions and structures of organotransition metal complexes. This book is an ideal accompaniment for researchers taking courses in olefin polymerization and also serves as a valuable resource for teachers and lecturers of chemistry when planning and researching material for advanced lecture courses.
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Transition Metals and Organometallics as Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization

Author: Walter Kaminsky,Hansjörg Sinn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642832768

Category: Science

Page: 442

View: 7749

More than 30 years after the discovery of transition metals and organometal lics as catalysts for olefin polymerization these catalysts did not have lost their fascination. Since 1953 when Karl Ziegler has discovered the catalytic polymerization of ethylene leading to plastically formable polymers which are mechanically stable up to temperatures of about 100°C, synthetic polymers and rubbers have made their way right into private houses. This discovery has been a main impetus for the fast growing production of plastics. The stereoselective poly merization of propylene and other long-chain a-olefins first detected by Giulio Natta leads to an even broadened field of applications. Another enforcing factor were the developments of Standard Oil of Indiana and Phillipps Petroleum Company who engaged in the polymerization of a-olefins supported molybdenum, cobalt and later on chromium catalysts which clearly indicates the wide variety of suitable systems. This kind of research acknowledged merit when in 1963 the Nobel prize of chemistry was awarded to Ziegler and Natta. Although to a great extent there is a technical application for these catalysts, up to now the nature of the active centres and many reaction mechanisms are not completely known.
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Functionalization of Polyolefins

Author: T. C. Chung

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780121746513

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 632

Summarizes the significant experimental results on the functionalization of polyolefins and classifies them into several chemical methods. This book also provides information on the functional polyolefin materials. It covers: chemical approaches in the functionalization of polyolefins, and polyolefin materials and their potential applications.
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Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts

Author: Lisa S. Baugh,Jo Ann M. Canich

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420017083

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 696

View: 302

New synthetic techniques allow chemists to modify polymer microstructures more precisely than ever, making it possible to design materials that meet increasingly demanding performance requirements. Written and edited by experts in the field, Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts reviews how the relative stereochemistry of polymer chains affects polymer properties and presents the latest strategies for developing tactic polymers using single-site catalysis. This unified volume explains the mechanistic basics of tactic polymerizations, beginning with an extensive survey of the most important classes of metallocene and post-metallocene catalysts used to make polypropylenes. It also focuses on tactic stereoblock and ethylene/propylene copolymers and catalyst active site models, followed by chapters discussing the structure of more stereochemically complex polymers and polymerizations that proceed via non-vinyl-addition mechanisms. Individual chapters thoroughly describe tactic polymerizations of α-olefins, styrene, dienes, acetylenes, lactides, epoxides, acrylates, and cyclic monomers, as well as cyclopolymerizations and ditactic structures, olefin/CO polymers, and metathesis polyalkenamers. An ideal reference and supplementary text, Stereoselective Polymerization with Single-Site Catalysts enables both new and experienced chemists to better understand tactic polymers and select appropriate catalyst systems for their preparation.
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Metalorganic Catalysts for Synthesis and Polymerization

Recent Results by Ziegler-Natta and Metallocene Investigations

Author: Walter Kaminsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642601782

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 674

View: 7205

45 years after the discovery of transition metals and organometallics as cocatalysts for the polymerization of olefins and for organic synthesis, these compounds have not lost their fascination. The birthday of Karl Ziegler, the great pioneer in this metalorganic catalysis, is now 100 years ago. Polyolefins and polydienes produced by Ziegler-Natta catalysis are the most important plastics and elastomers. New impulses for the polymerization of olefins have been brought about by highly active metallocenes and other single site catalysts. Just by changing the ligands of the organometallic compounds, the structure of the polymers produced can be tailored in a wide manner. In invited lectures and posters, relevant aspects of the metalorganic catalysts for synthesis and polymerization are discussed in this book. This includes mechanism and kinetics, stereochemistry, material properties, and industrial applications.
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Transition Metal-Catalyzed Couplings in Process Chemistry

Case Studies From the Pharmaceutical Industry

Author: Javier Magano,Joshua R. Dunetz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527658920

Category: Science

Page: 401

View: 1477

Transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions have a rich history that led to the awarding of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Professors Suzuki, Heck, and Negishi for their pioneering contributions to the field. The coming of age of this active area of research is showcased in this book through case studies in which process chemists from the pharmaceutical industry share their personal experiences developing their own transition metal-catalyzed couplings for the large-scale manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Authors from Pfizer, Merck, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, Amgen, GSK, AstraZeneca, and other companies describe the evolution of robust coupling processes from inception through early and late development, including commercial routes where applicable. This book covers a wide range of coupling transformations while capturing the lessons learned from each process. Every case study details the optimization of at least one transition metal-catalyzed coupling while elaborating on issues such as design of experiments, scalability and throughput, product purification, process safety, and waste management. The important issue of metal removal and the different technologies available to accomplish this goal are also addressed. Finally, a section covers novel technologies for cross-coupling with high potential for future applications on a large scale, such as microwave and flow chemistry as well as green cross-couplings performed in water. With Forewords by Stephen L. Buchwald, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Trevor Laird, Editor of Organic Process Research and Development and Neal G. Anderson, Anderson's Process Solutions LLC.
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Olefin Upgrading Catalysis by Nitrogen-based Metal Complexes I

State-of-the-art and Perspectives

Author: Giuliano Giambastiani,Juan Campora

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048138159

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 326

This book highlights key advances that have occurred in the field of olefin conversion in recent years. The role of homogenous transition metal catalysts which contain an imine functionality is emphasized; their potential applications in the processing and upgrade of olefins to a wide variety of commodity products of very high industrial value is also explored. On the threshold of the fiftieth anniversary of the Noble Prize to Ziegler and Natta, this book gives a critical summary of the state of the art developments in the fascinating and rapidly developing field of the olefin polymerization, oligomerization, and co-polymerization catalysis.
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The Chemistry of Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides

Author: S.T. Oyama

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400915659

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 5849

This book arose from a symposium titled 'Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides: Preparation, Properties, and Reactivity' organized by Jae Sung Lee, Masatoshi Nagai and myself. The symposium was part of the 1995 Congress of Pacific Rim Chemical Societies, held in Honolulu, Hawaii between December 17-22, 1995. The meeting was the first major conference to exclusively address the theme of metal carbides and nitrides, and brought together many of the major researchers in the field. Over 50 scientists and engineers reported their latest findings in five sessions of presentations and discussions. The book closely follows the topics covered in the conference: Theory of bonding Structure and composition Catalytic properties Physical properties New methods of preparation Spectroscopy and microscopy The book is unique in its coverage. It provides a general introduction to the properties and nature of the materials, but also covers their latest applications in a wide variety of fields. It should thus be of interest to both experts and nonexperts in the fields of material science, solid-state chemistry, physics, ceramics engineering, and catalysis. The first chapter gives an overview, and many of the chapters provide summaries of advanced topics. All contributions were peer-reviewed.
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Homogeneous Hydrogenation

Author: P.A. Chaloner,M.A. Esteruelas,Ferenc Joo,Luis Oro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401717915

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 7802

Homogeneous hydrogenation is one of the most thoroughly studied fields of homogeneous catalysis. The results of these studies have proved to be most important for an understanding of the underlying principles of the activation of small molecules by transition metal complexes. During the past three decades homogeneous hydrogenation has found widespread application in organic chemistry, including the production of important pharmaceuticals, especially where a sophisticated degree of selectivity is required. This volume presents a general account of the main principles and applications of homogeneous hydrogenation by transition metal complexes. Special attention is devoted to the mechanisms by which these processes occur, and the role of the recently discovered complexes of molecular hydrogen is described. Sources of hydrogen, other than H2, are also considered (transfer hydrogenation). The latest achievements in highly stereoselective hydrogenations have made possible many new applications in organic synthesis. These applications are documented by giving details of the reduction of important unsaturated substrates (alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes and ketones, nitrocompounds, etc.). Hydrogenation in biphasic and phase transfer catalyzed systems is also described. Finally, a discussion of the biochemical routes of H2 activation highlights the similarities and differences in performing hydrogenation in both natural and synthetic systems. For researchers working in the fields of homogeneous catalysis, especially in areas such as pharmaceuticals, plastics and fine chemicals.
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The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals

Author: Robert H. Crabtree

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118788249

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 3595

Fully updated and expanded to reflect recent advances, the sixth edition of this bestselling text provides students and professional chemists with a comprehensive introduction to the principles and general properties of organometallic compounds, as well as including practical information on reaction mechanisms and detailed descriptions of contemporary applications. Increased focus is given to organic synthesis applications, nanoparticle science, and green chemistry. This edition features: New sections on Multifunctional Ligands, Oxidation Catalysis, and Green Chemistry Expanded discussion on topics from the fifth edition: Supramolecular Chemistry, N-Heterocyclic Carbenes, Coupling Reactions, Organometallic Materials, Applications to Organic Synthesis, and Bioorganometallic Chemistry End-of-chapter problems and their solutions
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Metal-catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes

Author: Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854041508

Category: Education

Page: 290

View: 3046

Catalysis underpins most modern industrial organic processes. It has become an essential tool in creating a 'greener' chemical industry by replacing more traditional stoichiometric reactions, which have high energy consumption and high waste production, with mild processes which increasingly resemble Nature's enzymes. Metal-Catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes considers the major areas of the field and discusses the logic of using catalysis in industrial processes. This popular book, now available as softback, provides information on oxidation, hydrogenation, carbonylation, C-C bond formation, metathesis and polymerization processes, as well as on the mechanisms involved. In addition two appendices offer a concise treatment of homogeneous and heterogenous catalysis. Numerous exercises referring to problems of catalytic processes, and research perspectives complete the book. This definitive reference source, written by practising experts in the field, provides detailed and up-to-date information on key aspects of metal catalysis.
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