Introduction to the structure of matter

a course in modern physics

Author: John J. Brehm,William J. Mullin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc


Category: Science

Page: 941

View: 2124

A first course in two of the 20th century's most exciting contributions to physics: special relativity and quantum theory. Historical material is incorporated into the exposition. Coverage is broad and deep, offering the instructor flexibility in presentation. Nearly every section contains at least one illustrative example (with all calculations), and each chapter has a wide selection of problems. Topics covered include relativistic dynamics, quantum mechanics, parity, quantum statistical physics, the nuclear shell model, fission, fusion, color and the strong interaction, gauge symmetries, and grand unification.

An Introduction to the Properties of Condensed Matter

Author: D. J. Barber,R. Loudon

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521269070

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 9798

This book covers the basic, mainly classical, physics of the properties of solids and liquids. The main emphasis is on macroscopic characteristics of materials, although their is some discussion of the atomic or molecular phenomena that underlie the macroscopic effects. Topics that are discussed in detail include the elastic properties of solids, with applications to acoustic waves and the deformation and stability of rods and struts; static and dynamic properties of liquids, with applications to interfacial phenomena and fluid flow characteristics; and diffusion in solids and liquids, with applications to Brownian motion, heat conduction and creep. The coverage combines treatments of the more traditional aspects of these topics with details of developments, such as novel materials, catastrophe theory and soliton propagation. This textbook will be suitable for second- and third-year undergraduates in universities and polytechnics taking courses in the properties of condensed matters in departments of physics, materials science and to some extent in engineering.

Introduction to the Physics of Matter

Basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

Author: Nicola Manini

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319143824

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 5013

This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in graduate courses.

The Fourth State of Matter

An Introduction to Plasma Science, 2nd Edition

Author: Shalom Eliezer,Y Eliezer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420033433

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 6224

Plasma physics may hold the key to a virtually inexhaustible future energy source through the control of thermonuclear reactions. The complexity of plasma physics makes it a difficult subject to write about in popular terms, but the authors of The Fourth State of Matter: An Introduction to Plasma Science, Second Edition treat plasma in a comprehensible way. Combining factual substance with an easy-to-read and lucid presentation, the book describes the characteristics of plasma, its distribution in the universe, and how it is used by man. It explores plasma in industry and presents current and possible future applications. The book also details the history of plasma research and plasma technology. Retained from the first edition, rhyming verses add fun to the explanation of what can be complicated scientific concepts. Accessible to anyone interested in plasma physics, this non-mathematical book is an excellent addition to a well-rounded science collection.

Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Modern Physics

Author: Carlo Maria Becchi,Massimo D'Elia

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9788847016163

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 7177

These notes are designed as a text book for a course on the Modern Physics Theory for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework using elementary mathematical tools. A number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of exercises and answered questions are also given.

Leiter, Halbleiter, Supraleiter - Eine Einführung in die Festkörperphysik

Für Physiker, Ingenieure und Naturwissenschaftler

Author: Rudolf Huebener

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642348793

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 9068

In der 2. Hälfte des vorigen Jahrhunderts erfuhr die Festkörperphysik und Materialwissenschaft einen großen Aufschwung und etablierte sich als wichtiges und eigenständiges Fach. Das vorliegende Buch gibt eine Einführung in die Grundlagen der Festkörperphysik, wobei auch die beteiligten Personen und ihr Umfeld beleuchtet werden. Der Schwerpunkt liegt bei den elektrischen und magnetischen Materialeigenschaften. Die Zielgruppe Das Buch richtet sich an Studenten im Fach Physik, Ingenieurwissenschaften und Materialwissenschaften bis zum Bachelor. Es kann durch seine anschaulichen Erklärungen und seinen didaktischen Ansatz auch als motivierende Vorstufe und unterstützendes Begleitwerk beim Studium anspruchsvollerer Lehrbücher der Festkörperphysik benutzt werden. Ein Grundlagenwerk für Studierende der Festkörperphysik und Anwender, die mit Leitern, Halbleitern oder Supraleitern umgehen. Geeignet zur Wiederholung und Prüfungsvorbereitung.​

Classical Physics of Matter

Author: J Bolton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750307178

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 6290

Classical Physics of Matter explores the properties of matter that can be explained more or less directly in terms of classical physics. Among the topics discussed are the principles of flight and the operation of engines and refrigerators. The discussion introduces ideas such as temperature, heat, and entropy that will take you beyond Newtonian mechanics and into the realm of thermodynamics and statistical physics.

Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids

Author: Henri Alloul

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642135651

Category: Science

Page: 618

View: 7782

This textbook sets out to enable readers to understand fundamental aspects underlying quantum macroscopic phenomena in solids, primarily through the modern experimental techniques and results. The classic independent-electrons approach for describing the electronic structure in terms of energy bands helps explain the occurrence of metals, insulators and semiconductors. It is underlined that superconductivity and magnetism can only be understood by taking into account the interactions between electrons. The text recounts the experimental observations that have revealed the main properties of the superconductors and were essential to track its physical origin. While fundamental concepts are underlined, those which are required to describe the high technology applications, present or future, are emphasized as well. Problem sets involve experimental approaches and tools which support a practical understanding of the materials and their behaviour.

Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Duan Feng,Guojun Jin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812387110

Category: Science

Page: 591

View: 1369

This is volume 1 of two-volume book that presents an excellent, comprehensive exposition of the multi-faceted subjects of modern condensed matter physics, unified within an original and coherent conceptual framework. Traditional subjects such as band theory and lattice dynamics are tightly organized in this framework, while many new developments emerge spontaneously from it. In this volume,? Basic concepts are emphasized; usually they are intuitively introduced, then more precisely formulated, and compared with correlated concepts.? A plethora of new topics, such as quasicrystals, photonic crystals, GMR, TMR, CMR, high Tc superconductors, Bose-Einstein condensation, etc., are presented with sharp physical insights.? Bond and band approaches are discussed in parallel, breaking the barrier between physics and chemistry.? A highly accessible chapter is included on correlated electronic states ? rarely found in an introductory text.? Introductory chapters on tunneling, mesoscopic phenomena, and quantum-confined nanostructures constitute a sound foundation for nanoscience and nanotechnology.? The text is profusely illustrated with about 500 figures.

Introduction to the Physics of Nanoelectronics

Author: Seng Ghee Tan,Mansoor B. A Jalil

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857095889

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 3879

This book provides an introduction to the physics of nanoelectronics, with a focus on the theoretical aspects of nanoscale devices. The book begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronics, to facilitate the understanding of subsequent chapters. It goes on to encompass quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devices. Theoretical methodology is developed using quantum mechanical and non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) techniques to calculate electronic currents and elucidate their transport properties at the atomic scale. The spin Hall effect is explained and its application to the emerging field of spintronics – where an electron’s spin as well as its charge is utilised – is discussed. Topological dynamics and gauge potential are introduced with the relevant mathematics, and their application in nanoelectronic systems is explained. Graphene, one of the most promising carbon-based nanostructures for nanoelectronics, is also explored. Begins with an overview of the mathematics and quantum mechanics pertaining to nanoscale electronics Encompasses quantum electronics, spintronics, Hall effects, carbon and graphene electronics, and topological physics in nanoscale devices Comprehensively introduces topological dynamics and gauge potential with the relevant mathematics, and extensively discusses their application in nanoelectronic systems

Physics of Neutron Star Interiors

Author: D. Blaschke,N.K. Glendenning,A. Sedrakian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540423400

Category: Science

Page: 516

View: 2574

Neutron stars are the densest observable bodies in our universe. Born during the gravitational collapse of luminous stars - a birth heralded by spectacular supernova explosions - they open a window on a world where the state of the matter and the strengths of the fields are anything but ordinary. This book is a collection of pedagogical lectures on the theory of neutron stars, and especially their interiors, at the forefront of current research. It addresses graduate students and researchers alike, and should be particularly suitable as a text bridging the gap between standard textbook material and the research literature.

Neutron Stars: Theory and Observation

Author: J.E Ventura,David Pines

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792313977

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 4886

Some twenty-three years after the discovery of pulsars and their identification as rotating neutron stars, neutron star physics may be regarded as comingofage. Pul sars and accreting neutron stars have now been studied at every wavelength, from the initial radio observations, through optical, X-, and "{-ray, up to the very recent observations in the TeV region, while theorists have studied in some detail relevant physical processes both outside and inside neutron stars. As a result, comparisonof theory with observation provides a test ofour theoretical ideas in fields as diverse as neutron and nuclear matter, superfluidity and superconductivity, the acceleration of high energy particles, and the generation and maintenance of intense magnetic fields. For example, through observations of glitches and post glitch behavior of pulsars, it has become possible to establish the presence ofsuperfluid neutron mat ter in the inner crust of neutron stars, and to determine some of its properties, while neutron stars in compact binary systems offer one ofthe most efficient energy generation mechanisms known. It is in fact the interactive interpretation of these ,diverse pieces of information that can lead to major advances in our understanding of the physics of these exotic objects, and justifies the characterization of neutron stars as hadron physics laboratories.

Introduction to the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

Author: Heinrich F. Beyer,Viateheslav P. Shevelko

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142003409X

Category: Science

Page: 361

View: 4622

Emphasizing a physical understanding with many illustrations, Introduction to the Physics of Highly Charged Ions covers the major areas of x-ray radiation and elementary atomic processes occurring with highly charged ions in hot laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Topics include light and ion sources, spectroscopy, atomic structure, magnetic and QED effects, and a thorough look at atomic collisions, from elementary processes in plasmas to ion-surface interaction and hollow atoms. Avoiding unnecessary mathematical details, this book is accessible to a broad range of readers, including graduate students and researchers.

Physics of Continuous Matter

Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World

Author: B. Lautrup

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750307529

Category: Science

Page: 624

View: 5689

Offering a modern approach to this most classical of subjects, Physics of Continuous Matter is first and foremost an introduction to the basic concepts and phenomenology of continuous systems, and the derivations of the equations of continuum mechanics from Newtonian mechanics. Although many examples, particularly in the earlier chapters, are taken from geophysics and astrophysics, the author places the emphasis frimly on generic methods and applications. Each chapter begins with a ‘soft’ introduction, placing the discussion within an everyday context, and the level of difficulty then rises steadily, a pattern which is reflected throughout the text as a whole. The necessary mathematical tools are developed in parallel with the physics on a ‘need-to-know’ basis, an approach that avoids lengthy mathematical preliminaries.

Quantum Physics of Light and Matter

A Modern Introduction to Photons, Atoms and Many-Body Systems

Author: Luca Salasnich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319051792

Category: Science

Page: 195

View: 7824

The book gives an introduction to the field quantization (second quantization) of light and matter with applications to atomic physics. The first chapter briefly reviews the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics and the basic notions of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics. The second chapter is devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, while the third chapter shows the consequences of the light field quantization in the description of electromagnetic transitions. In the fourth chapter it is analyzed the spin of the electron, and in particular its derivation from the Dirac equation, while the fifth chapter investigates the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra (Stark and Zeeman effects). The sixth chapter describes the properties of systems composed by many interacting identical particles by introducing the Hartree-Fock variational method, the density functional theory and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Finally, in the seventh chapter it is explained the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e. the Schrodinger field, which gives a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body problems and also atomic quantum optics. At the end of each chapter there are several solved problems which can help the students to put into practice the things they learned.

Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials

Author: Robert J. Naumann

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420061348

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 533

View: 4625

Discusses the Structure and Properties of Materials and How These Materials Are Used in Diverse Applications Building on undergraduate students’ backgrounds in mathematics, science, and engineering, Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials provides the foundation needed for more advanced work in materials science. Ideal for a two-semester course, the text focuses on chemical bonding, crystal structure, mechanical properties, phase transformations, and materials processing for the first semester. The material for the second semester covers thermal, electronic, photonic, optical, and magnetic properties of materials. Requiring no prior experience in modern physics and quantum mechanics, the book introduces quantum concepts and wave mechanics through a simple derivation of the Schrödinger equation, the electron-in-a-box problem, and the wave functions of the hydrogen atom. The author also presents a historical perspective on the development of the materials science field. He discusses the Bose–Einstein, Maxwell–Boltzmann, Planck, and Fermi–Dirac distribution functions, before moving on to the various properties and applications of materials. With detailed derivations of important equations, this applications-oriented text examines the structure and properties of materials, such as heavy metal glasses and superconductors. It also explores recent developments in organics electronics, polymer light-emitting diodes, superconductivity, and more.

Introduction to the Physics of Cohesive Sediment Dynamics in the Marine Environment

Author: Johan C. Winterwerp,Walther G.M. van Kesteren

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080473734

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 6222

This book is an introduction to the physical processes of cohesive sediment in the marine environment. It focuses on highly dynamic systems, such as estuaries and coastal seas. Processes on the continental shelf are also discussed and attention is given to the effects of chemistry, biology and gas. The process descriptions are based on hydrodynamic and soil mechanic principles, which integrate at the soil-water interface. This approach is substantiated through a classification scheme of sediment occurrences in which distinction is made between cohesive and granular material. Emphasis is also placed on the important interactions between turbulent flow and cohesive sediment suspensions, and on the impact of flow-induced forces on the stability of the seabed. An overview of literature on cohesive sediment dynamics is presented and a number of new developments are highlighted, in particular in relation to floc formation, settling and sedimentation, consolidation, bed failure and liquefaction and erosion of the bed. Moreover, it presents a summary on methods and techniques to measure the various sediment properties necessary to quantify the various parameters in the physical-mathematical model descriptions. A number of examples and case studies have been included.

Introduction to the Physics of Rocks

Author: Yves Guéguen,Victor Palciauskas

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691034522

Category: Nature

Page: 294

View: 4455

Finding viable solutions to many of the problems threatening our environment hinges on understanding the rocks below the earth's surface. For those evaluating the relative hazards of radioactive waste sites, investigating energy resources such as oil, gas, and hydrothermal energy, studying the behavior of natural hazards like earthquakes and volcanoes, or charting the flow of groundwater through the earth, this book will be indispensable. Until now, there has been no book that treats the subject of the nature and behavior of rocks in a comprehensive yet accessible manner. Yves Gu�guen and Victor Palciauskas first discuss the physical properties of rocks, proceeding by chapter through mechanical, fluid flow, acoustical, electrical, dielectric, thermal, and magnetic properties. Then they provide the theoretical framework for achieving reliable data and making reasonable inferences about the aggregate system within the earth. Introduction to the Physics of Rocks covers the important and most current theoretical approaches to the physics of inhomogeneous media, including theoretical bounds on properties, various effective medium theories, percolation, and fractals. This book will be of use to students and researchers in civil, petroleum, and environmental engineering and to geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, and other earth scientists interested in the physics of the earth. Its clear presentation, with problems at the end of each chapter and selective references, will make it ideal for advanced undergraduate-or graduate-level courses.

An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Author: W. Noel Cottingham,Derek A. Greenwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521588324

Category: Science

Page: 235

View: 3732

This graduate textbook provides a concise, accessible introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics. Theoretical concepts are developed clearly and carefully throughout the book--from the electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons and quarks to the strong interactions of quarks. Chapters developing the theory are interspersed with chapters describing some of the wealth of experimental data supporting the model. The book assumes only the standard mathematics taught in an undergraduate physics course; more sophisticated mathematical ideas are developed in the text and in appendices. For graduate students in particle physics and physicists working in other fields who are interested in the current understanding of the ultimate constituents of matter, this textbook provides a lucid and up-to-date introduction.

An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter

Author: N.J Carron

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420012371

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1525

Identifying where to access data, extracting a needed subset from available resources, and knowing how to interpret the format in which data are presented can be time-consuming tasks for scientists and engineers. By collecting all of this information and providing a background in physics, An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter enables specialists and nonspecialists alike to understand and apply the data. Making modern data more accessible, this book explores the interactions with matter of energetic particles, including photons, electrons, protons, alpha particles, and neutrons. It presents quantities of interest in many applications, such as photon and neutron cross sections, charged particle stopping powers, electron mean ranges, and angular distributions. The book also discusses electron multiple scattering and models for electron mean range against both stopping power and scattering. The author uses numerous graphs throughout the book to illustrate the material and describes the basic physics underlying all processes. The accompanying CD-ROM includes full datasets and large color contour graphs of cross sections, stopping powers, and ranges in all elements at all interesting energies. Compiling information that is scattered throughout the literature, An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter provides a comprehensive foundation of particle interactions that is of prime importance to many areas of applied physics and supplies an introduction to the massive, invaluable Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) library.