Introduction to the structure of matter

a course in modern physics

Author: John J. Brehm,William J. Mullin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 941

View: 491

A first course in two of the 20th century's most exciting contributions to physics: special relativity and quantum theory. Historical material is incorporated into the exposition. Coverage is broad and deep, offering the instructor flexibility in presentation. Nearly every section contains at least one illustrative example (with all calculations), and each chapter has a wide selection of problems. Topics covered include relativistic dynamics, quantum mechanics, parity, quantum statistical physics, the nuclear shell model, fission, fusion, color and the strong interaction, gauge symmetries, and grand unification.
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An Introduction to the Properties of Condensed Matter

Author: D. J. Barber,R. Loudon

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521269070

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 396

This book covers the basic, mainly classical, physics of the properties of solids and liquids. The main emphasis is on macroscopic characteristics of materials, although their is some discussion of the atomic or molecular phenomena that underlie the macroscopic effects. Topics that are discussed in detail include the elastic properties of solids, with applications to acoustic waves and the deformation and stability of rods and struts; static and dynamic properties of liquids, with applications to interfacial phenomena and fluid flow characteristics; and diffusion in solids and liquids, with applications to Brownian motion, heat conduction and creep. The coverage combines treatments of the more traditional aspects of these topics with details of developments, such as novel materials, catastrophe theory and soliton propagation. This textbook will be suitable for second- and third-year undergraduates in universities and polytechnics taking courses in the properties of condensed matters in departments of physics, materials science and to some extent in engineering.
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Introduction to the Theory of Soft Matter

From Ideal Gases to Liquid Crystals

Author: Jonathan V. Selinger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319210548

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 4239

This book presents the theory of soft matter to students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. It provides a basic introduction to theoretical physics as applied to soft matter, explaining the concepts of symmetry, broken symmetry, and order parameters; phases and phase transitions; mean-field theory; and the mathematics of variational calculus and tensors. It is written in an informal, conversational style, which is accessible to students from a diverse range of backgrounds. The book begins with a simple “toy model” to demonstrate the physical significance of free energy. It then introduces two standard theories of phase transitions—the Ising model for ferromagnetism and van der Waals theory of gases and liquids—and uses them to illustrate principles of statistical mechanics. From those examples, it moves on to discuss order, disorder, and broken symmetry in many states of matter, and to explain the theoretical methods that are used to model the phenomena. It concludes with a chapter on liquid crystals, which brings together all of these physical and mathematical concepts. The book is accompanied online by a set of “interactive figures”—some allow readers to change parameters and see what happens to a graph, some allow readers to rotate a plot or other graphics in 3D, and some do both. These interactive figures help students to develop their intuition for the physical meaning of equations. This book will prepare advanced undergraduate or early graduate students to go into more advanced theoretical studies. It will also equip students going into experimental soft matter science to be fully conversant with the theoretical aspects and have effective collaborations with theorists.
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The Fourth State of Matter

An Introduction to Plasma Science, 2nd Edition

Author: Shalom Eliezer,Y Eliezer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420033433

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 7172

Plasma physics may hold the key to a virtually inexhaustible future energy source through the control of thermonuclear reactions. The complexity of plasma physics makes it a difficult subject to write about in popular terms, but the authors of The Fourth State of Matter: An Introduction to Plasma Science, Second Edition treat plasma in a comprehensible way. Combining factual substance with an easy-to-read and lucid presentation, the book describes the characteristics of plasma, its distribution in the universe, and how it is used by man. It explores plasma in industry and presents current and possible future applications. The book also details the history of plasma research and plasma technology. Retained from the first edition, rhyming verses add fun to the explanation of what can be complicated scientific concepts. Accessible to anyone interested in plasma physics, this non-mathematical book is an excellent addition to a well-rounded science collection.
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An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter

Author: N.J Carron

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420012371

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 1102

Identifying where to access data, extracting a needed subset from available resources, and knowing how to interpret the format in which data are presented can be time-consuming tasks for scientists and engineers. By collecting all of this information and providing a background in physics, An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter enables specialists and nonspecialists alike to understand and apply the data. Making modern data more accessible, this book explores the interactions with matter of energetic particles, including photons, electrons, protons, alpha particles, and neutrons. It presents quantities of interest in many applications, such as photon and neutron cross sections, charged particle stopping powers, electron mean ranges, and angular distributions. The book also discusses electron multiple scattering and models for electron mean range against both stopping power and scattering. The author uses numerous graphs throughout the book to illustrate the material and describes the basic physics underlying all processes. The accompanying CD-ROM includes full datasets and large color contour graphs of cross sections, stopping powers, and ranges in all elements at all interesting energies. Compiling information that is scattered throughout the literature, An Introduction to the Passage of Energetic Particles through Matter provides a comprehensive foundation of particle interactions that is of prime importance to many areas of applied physics and supplies an introduction to the massive, invaluable Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) library.
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The Structure of Matter

An Introduction to Modern Physics

Author: Robert W. Christy,Agnar Pytte

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Physics

Page: 545

View: 7633

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Quantum Physics of Light and Matter

A Modern Introduction to Photons, Atoms and Many-Body Systems

Author: Luca Salasnich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319051792

Category: Science

Page: 195

View: 4934

The book gives an introduction to the field quantization (second quantization) of light and matter with applications to atomic physics. The first chapter briefly reviews the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics and the basic notions of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics. The second chapter is devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, while the third chapter shows the consequences of the light field quantization in the description of electromagnetic transitions. In the fourth chapter it is analyzed the spin of the electron, and in particular its derivation from the Dirac equation, while the fifth chapter investigates the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra (Stark and Zeeman effects). The sixth chapter describes the properties of systems composed by many interacting identical particles by introducing the Hartree-Fock variational method, the density functional theory and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Finally, in the seventh chapter it is explained the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e. the Schrodinger field, which gives a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body problems and also atomic quantum optics. At the end of each chapter there are several solved problems which can help the students to put into practice the things they learned.
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Introduction to Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory of Matter

Author: Anatoly I. Burshtein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527618120

Category: Science

Page: 349

View: 9523

Imparts the similarities and differences between ratified and condensed matter, classical and quantum systems as well as real and ideal gases. Presents the quasi-thermodynamic theory of gas-liquid interface and its application for density profile calculation within the van der Waals theory of surface tension. Uses inductive logic to lead readers from observation and facts to personal interpretation and from specific conclusions to general ones.
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An Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Author: W. Noel Cottingham,Derek A. Greenwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521588324

Category: Science

Page: 235

View: 1335

This graduate textbook provides a concise, accessible introduction to the Standard Model of particle physics. Theoretical concepts are developed clearly and carefully throughout the book--from the electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons and quarks to the strong interactions of quarks. Chapters developing the theory are interspersed with chapters describing some of the wealth of experimental data supporting the model. The book assumes only the standard mathematics taught in an undergraduate physics course; more sophisticated mathematical ideas are developed in the text and in appendices. For graduate students in particle physics and physicists working in other fields who are interested in the current understanding of the ultimate constituents of matter, this textbook provides a lucid and up-to-date introduction.
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The Structure of Matter

An Introduction to Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics

Author: Robert M. Turnbull

Publisher: International Ideas

ISBN: N.A

Category: Matter

Page: 266

View: 781

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Physics of Continuous Matter

Exotic and Everyday Phenomena in the Macroscopic World

Author: B. Lautrup

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750307529

Category: Science

Page: 624

View: 1065

Offering a modern approach to this most classical of subjects, Physics of Continuous Matter is first and foremost an introduction to the basic concepts and phenomenology of continuous systems, and the derivations of the equations of continuum mechanics from Newtonian mechanics. Although many examples, particularly in the earlier chapters, are taken from geophysics and astrophysics, the author places the emphasis frimly on generic methods and applications. Each chapter begins with a ‘soft’ introduction, placing the discussion within an everyday context, and the level of difficulty then rises steadily, a pattern which is reflected throughout the text as a whole. The necessary mathematical tools are developed in parallel with the physics on a ‘need-to-know’ basis, an approach that avoids lengthy mathematical preliminaries.
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Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Modern Physics

Author: Carlo Maria Becchi,Massimo D'Elia

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9788847016163

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 2857

These notes are designed as a text book for a course on the Modern Physics Theory for undergraduate students. The purpose is providing a rigorous and self-contained presentation of the simplest theoretical framework using elementary mathematical tools. A number of examples of relevant applications and an appropriate list of exercises and answered questions are also given.
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Classical Physics of Matter

Author: J Bolton

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750307178

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 8549

Classical Physics of Matter explores the properties of matter that can be explained more or less directly in terms of classical physics. Among the topics discussed are the principles of flight and the operation of engines and refrigerators. The discussion introduces ideas such as temperature, heat, and entropy that will take you beyond Newtonian mechanics and into the realm of thermodynamics and statistical physics.
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Extreme States of Matter in Strong Interaction Physics

An Introduction

Author: Helmut Satz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642239072

Category: Science

Page: 239

View: 4527

The thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter has become a profound and challenging area of modern physics, both in theory and in experiment. Statistical quantum chromodynamics, through analytical as well as numerical studies, provides the main theoretical tool, while in experiment, high-energy nuclear collisions are the key for extensive laboratory investigations. The field therefore straddles statistical, particle and nuclear physics, both conceptually and in the methods of investigation used. This course-tested primer addresses above all the many young scientists starting their scientific research in this field, providing them with a general, self-contained introduction that emphasizes in particular the basic concepts and ideas, with the aim of explaining why we do what we do. To achieve this goal, the present text concentrates mainly on equilibrium thermodynamics: first, the fundamental ideas of strong interaction thermodynamics are introduced and then the main concepts and methods used in the study of the physics of complex systems are summarized. Subsequently, simplified phenomenological pictures, leading to critical behavior in hadronic matter and to hadron-quark phase transitions are introduced, followed by elements of finite-temperature lattice QCD leading to the important results obtained in computer simulation studies of the lattice approach. Next, the relation of the resulting critical behavior to symmetry breaking/restoration in QCD is clarified before the text turns to the study of the QCD phase diagram. The presentation of bulk equilibrium thermodynamics is completed by studying the properties of the quark-gluon plasma as new state of strongly interacting matter. The final chapters of the book are devoted to more specific topics which arise when nuclear collisions are considered as a tool for the experimental study of QCD thermodynamics.
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Glassy Materials and Disordered Solids

An Introduction to Their Statistical Mechanics

Author: Kurt Binder,Walter Kob

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814350176

Category: Science

Page: 547

View: 9264

This book gives a pedagogical introduction to the physics of amorphous solids and related disordered condensed matter systems. Important concepts from statistical mechanics such as percolation, random walks, fractals and spin glasses are explained. Using these concepts, the common aspects of these systems are emphasized, and the current understanding of the glass transition and the structure of glasses are concisely reviewed. This second edition includes new material on emerging topics in the field of disordered systems such as gels, driven systems, dynamical heterogeneities, growing length scales etc. as well as an update of the literature in this rapidly developing field.
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Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids

Author: Henri Alloul

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642135651

Category: Science

Page: 618

View: 9316

This textbook sets out to enable readers to understand fundamental aspects underlying quantum macroscopic phenomena in solids, primarily through the modern experimental techniques and results. The classic independent-electrons approach for describing the electronic structure in terms of energy bands helps explain the occurrence of metals, insulators and semiconductors. It is underlined that superconductivity and magnetism can only be understood by taking into account the interactions between electrons. The text recounts the experimental observations that have revealed the main properties of the superconductors and were essential to track its physical origin. While fundamental concepts are underlined, those which are required to describe the high technology applications, present or future, are emphasized as well. Problem sets involve experimental approaches and tools which support a practical understanding of the materials and their behaviour.
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Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics

Author: Duan Feng,Guojun Jin

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812387110

Category: Science

Page: 591

View: 8772

This is volume 1 of two-volume book that presents an excellent, comprehensive exposition of the multi-faceted subjects of modern condensed matter physics, unified within an original and coherent conceptual framework. Traditional subjects such as band theory and lattice dynamics are tightly organized in this framework, while many new developments emerge spontaneously from it. In this volume,? Basic concepts are emphasized; usually they are intuitively introduced, then more precisely formulated, and compared with correlated concepts.? A plethora of new topics, such as quasicrystals, photonic crystals, GMR, TMR, CMR, high Tc superconductors, Bose-Einstein condensation, etc., are presented with sharp physical insights.? Bond and band approaches are discussed in parallel, breaking the barrier between physics and chemistry.? A highly accessible chapter is included on correlated electronic states ? rarely found in an introductory text.? Introductory chapters on tunneling, mesoscopic phenomena, and quantum-confined nanostructures constitute a sound foundation for nanoscience and nanotechnology.? The text is profusely illustrated with about 500 figures.
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Soft Matter Physics

An Introduction

Author: Maurice Kleman,Oleg D. Laverntovich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387217592

Category: Science

Page: 637

View: 6815

The study of "soft matter" materials with complex properties has raised a number of interesting problems in basic physics, biology, and materials science, all of which promise new and important technological applications. After a review of chemical bonds and phase transitions, the authors treat topics such as surface phenomena, stability of colloidal systems, structural properties of polymers, and topological defects. The monograph's emphasis on underlying physical principles offers a coherent treatment of the great variety of research in the field.
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Introduction to Understandable Physics

Author: Will Winn

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1449075770

Category: Education

Page: 308

View: 7312

Will Winn has written {Introduction to Understandable Physics} with the goal of presenting physics concepts in a building-block fashion. In {Volume II} mathematical tools covered in {Volume I} are summarized in an Appendix, as a reference for learning the physics. As {Volume II} builds on the {Mechanics} of {Volume I}, it is expected that the student will have mastered the material of this earlier volume. The present volume begins with a historical review of how the atomic nature of matter was discovered. Then this background is applied in the study of solids, liquids, and gases. Next the kinetic nature of gases is extended to examine heat and temperature concepts for the above states of matter. Following a study of heat transfer modes (conduction, convection, and radiation), thermodynamics is introduced to examine heat engines and the concept of entropy. Next a study of the general nature of waves is appropriate, since a number of wave speeds had already been developed in the preceding examination of mechanics, matter and heat. Finally, these wave concepts are applied to a study of sound, including human response and the nature of music. Near the end of each chapter a [Simple Projects] section suggests experiments and/or field trips that may serve to reinforce the physics covered. Some of the experiments are simple enough for students to explore alone, while others benefit from equipment available to physics instructors. When opportune, the text develops relations that are revisited much later in the text. For example, both Chapters 16 and 17 develop the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law, which is shown to be consistent with the Planck radiation law based on quantum concepts, in {Volume IV} Chapter 29. Also {optional} text sections provide students with a deeper appreciation of the subject matter; however they are not required for continuity. Some of these optional topics can be candidates for term projects.
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