Instrumental Reasoning and Systems Methodology

An Epistemology of the Applied and Social Sciences

Author: Richard Mattessich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401094314

Category: Social Science

Page: 396

View: 7385

This book has been written primarily for the applied and social scientist and student who longs for an integrated picture of the foundations on which his research must ultimately rest; but hopefully the book may also serve philosophers interested in applied disciplines and in systems methodology. If integration was the major motto, the need for a method ology, appropriate to the teleological peculiarities of all applied sciences, was the main impetus behind the conception of the present work. This need I felt a long time ago in my own area of analytical and empirical research in accounting theory and management science; later I had the opportunity to teach, for almost a decade, graduate seminars in Methodology which offered particular insight into the methodological needs of students of such applied disciplines as business administration, education, engineering, infor matics, etc. Out of this effort grew the present book which among other things tries, on one side, to illuminate the difference and relationship between methods of cognition and methods of decision and on the other, to sketch a framework suitable for depicting means-end relationships in a holistic setting. I believe that a systems methodology which incorporates recent endeavours of deontic logic, decision theory, information economics and related areas would be eminently suited to break the ground for such a future framework. Yet systems theory has two major shortcomings which might prevent it from evolving into the desired methodology of applied science.
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Praxiological Studies

Polish Contributions to the Science of Efficient Action

Author: Wojciech Gasparski,Tadeusz Pszczolowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400969430

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 6747

Noting in this connection that KotarbiIiski's assumptions were proved true many years later, and that increasingly representatives of various scientific disciplines have come to observe paradigms of efficiency which had often tended to be ignored; empirical studies involving a large concentration of personnel, financial resources and equipment are now guided by the principles of efficiency and economy. In his second paper Kotarbiriski referred to Alfred Espinas, the French philosopher and sociologist, and to other authors who repre sented the praxiological viewpoint, together with that of the general systems approach. KotarbiIiski was the first to accept a theory more general than praxiology, which he termed the theory of complexes. He considered one of its representatives to be A. Bogdanov (1873-1928), the Marxist theorist and author of Tectology. A General Theory of Organization (first written in Russian, published in the German language version as Allgemeine Organizationslehre in the 1920's, and recently translated into English in Canada). KotarbiIiski also realized that he was not the only praxiologist, that even the name of the dis cipline had been used earlier by various authors not aware of the work of others.
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Monographic Series

Author: Library of Congress

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Monographic series

Page: N.A

View: 3613

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Utility, Probability, and Human Decision Making

Selected Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Research Conference, Rome, 3–6 September, 1973

Author: Dirk Wendt,C.A. Vlek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027706034

Category: Social Science

Page: 432

View: 7997

Human decision making involves problems which are being studied with increasing interest and sophistication. They range from controversial political decisions via individual consumer decisions to such simple tasks as signal discriminations. Although it would seem that decisions have to do with choices among available actions of any kind, there is general agreement that decision making research should pertain to choice prob lems which cannot be solved without a predecisional stage of finding choice alternatives, weighing evidence, and judging values. The ultimate objective of scientific research on decision making is two-fold: (a) to develop a theoretically sound technology for the optimal solution of decision problems, and (b) to formulate a descriptive theory of human decision making. The latter may, in tum, protect decision makers from being caught in the traps of their own limitations and biases. Recently, in decision making research the strong emphasis on well defined laboratory tasks is decreasing in favour of more realistic studies in various practical settings. This may well have been caused by a growing awareness of the fact that decision-behaviour is strongly determined by situational factors, which makes it necessary to look into processes of interaction between the decision maker and the relevant task environ ment. Almost inevitably there is a parallel shift of interest towards problems of utility measurement and the evaluation of consequences.
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Subject Catalog

Author: Library of Congress

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 5349

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Rationality, Rules, and Structure

Author: Julian Nida-Rümelin,Wolfgang Spohn,W. Spohn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792363262

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

View: 7462

It is an obvious fact that human agency is constrained and structured by many kinds of rules: rules that are constitutive for communication, morality, persons, and society, and juridical rules. So the question is: what roles are played by social rules and the structural traits of human agency in rational decision making? What bearing does this have on the theory of practical rationality? These issues can only be discussed within an interdisciplinary setting, with researchers drawn from philosophy, decision theory and the economic and social sciences. The problem is of profound, fundamental concern to the social scientist and has attracted a great deal of intellectual effort. Contributors include distinguished researchers in their respective fields and the book thus presents state-of-the-art theory. It can also be used as a textbook in advanced philosophy, economics and social science classes.
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Contributions to a Philosophy of Technology

Studies in the Structure of Thinking in the Technological Sciences

Author: F. Rapp

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401021821

Category: Philosophy

Page: 229

View: 422

The highly sophisticated techniques of modern engineering are normally conceived of in practical terms. Corresponding to the instrumental function of technology, they are designed to direct the forces of nature according to human purposes. Yet, as soon as the realm of mere skills is exceeded, the intended useful results can only be achieved through planned and preconceived action processes involving the deliberately considered application of well designed tools and devices. This is to say that in all complex cases theoretical reasoning becomes an indispensable means to accomplish the pragmatic technological aims. Hence the abstracting from the actual concrete function of technology opens the way to concentrate attention on the general conceptual framework involved. If this approach is adopted the relevant knowledge and the procedures applied clearly exhibit a logic of their own. This point of view leads to a methodological and even an epistemological analysis of the theoretical structure and the specific methods of procedure characteristic of modern technology. Investigations of this kind, that can be described as belonging to an ana lytical philosophy of technology, form the topic of this anthology. The type of research in question here is closely akin to that of the philosophy of science. But it is an astonishing fact that the commonly accepted and carefully investigated philosophy of science has not yet found its counterpart in an established philosophy of technology.
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ABPR

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 3606

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National Union Catalog

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Catalogs, Union

Page: N.A

View: 313

Includes entries for maps and atlases.
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Verkörperungen

Author: André Blum,John Krois,Hans-Jörg Rheinberger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3050062541

Category: Art

Page: 265

View: 2936

Dem Paradigma der verkörperten Kognition zufolge bilden die Bewegungen eines Körpers die Voraussetzung dafür, dass sich intelligentes Verhalten entwickeln kann. Auch Affekte und weitere somatische Dimensionen bestärken die kognitionswissenschaftliche Grundannahme, dass Intelligenz verkörpert ist. Neben diesem Begriff des ,embodiment' existieren jedoch zahlreiche andere Bedeutungen von ,Verkörperung'. So kann mit diesem Begriff gemeint sein, eine Idee oder Eigenschaft zu personifizieren oder ein Abstraktum zu konkretisieren, wie etwa die Fleischwerdung Gottes, das Spielen einer Rolle oder das Tragen einer Maske. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes diskutieren den Begriff der Verkörperung daher interdisziplinär. Sie reichen von der Neurophysiologie über die Epistemologie bis zur Kunstgeschichte und zu den Literatur- und Theaterwissenschaften.
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Theologie und Kosmologie

Geschichte und Erwartungen für das gegenwärtige Gespräch

Author: Jürgen Hübner,Ion-Olimpiu Stamatescu,Dieter Weber

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161484759

Category: Religion

Page: 519

View: 9028

English summary: In antiquity, during the era of the early church and in the Middle Ages, religion and cosmology were closely connected. The changing world view in the 16th century caused a dissociation: science and religion parted ways. Nevertheless religion does exist next to science, and religious faith implies a relationship to the world. In view of the discoveries made by current astrophysical cosmology and present-day theology, new points of contact have come to light, which result logically in a discussion about attitudes towards life in today's world. The articles in this volume provide insights into this development from the history of religion, art and the sciences, from astrophysics and systematic theology. The so-called anthropic principle is dealt with separately. German description: Die moderne astrophysikalische Erforschung des Weltalls, insbesondere der Einsatz von Raumsonden, erweitert unser Weltbild mit standig zunehmender Beschleunigung. Unterschiedliche Hypothesen und Theorien uber die Geschichte des Universums fordern auch zu weltanschaulichen Auseinandersetzungen heraus. Diese Diskussion ist nicht neu: Kosmologie und Religion waren von der Antike bis zum Mittelalter und der Renaissance eng miteinander verbunden. Der Ubergang vom geozentrischen, ptolemaischen Weltbild zum offenen Universum der Moderne bedeutete einen Bruch fur die Lebensorientierung in der Welt: an die Stelle des geordneten Kosmos trat der Blick ins Unendliche. Der Mensch muss sich mit Hilfe der Vernunft neu einrichten. Naturwissenschaftliche Methoden allein reichen dafur offenbar nicht aus; die Dimension der Religion und des Glaubens gehort dazu. An Hand charakteristischer Beispiele aus der Religions-, Kunst- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte und der Diskussion des gegenwartigen Erkenntnisstandes der Astrophysik wird in diesem Band schlaglichtartig beleuchtet, wie naturkundliches Interesse und religioser, insbesondere christlicher Glaube miteinander ins Gesprach und wie Naturwissenschaft und Theologie in eine Verhaltnisbestimmung zueinander gebracht werden konnen. Die Diskussion um das so genannte %quot;Anthropische Prinzip wird in ihren vielfaltigen Verastelungen gesondert vorgestellt.
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Theorie der Unbildung

Die Irrtümer der Wissensgesellschaft

Author: Konrad Paul Liessmann

Publisher: Paul Zsolnay Verlag

ISBN: 3552056254

Category: Education

Page: 176

View: 4551

Was weiß die Wissensgesellschaft? Wer wird Millionär? Wirklich derjenige, der am meisten weiß? Wissen und Bildung sind, so heißt es, die wichtigsten Ressourcen des rohstoffarmen Europa. Debatten um mangelnde Qualität von Schulen und Studienbedingungen - Stichwort Pisa! - haben dennoch heute die Titelseiten erobert. In seinem hochaktuellen Buch entlarvt der Wiener Philosoph Konrad Paul Liessmann vieles, was unter dem Titel Wissensgesellschaft propagiert wird, als rhetorische Geste: Weniger um die Idee von Bildung gehe es dabei, als um handfeste politische und ökonomische Interessen. Eine fesselnde Streitschrift wider den Ungeist der Zeit.
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