Institutions and Ideology

Author: Peter Walgenbach

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 184855866X

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 2573

Contributes to the literature on the sociology of organizations and management, especially to sociological institutionalism. This title covers the empirical areas that range from technology and software development, the brewing industry, custodial facilities to the organization of birthing.
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Hierarchy and Organisation

Toward a General Theory of Hierarchical Social Systems

Author: Thomas Diefenbach

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135013403

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 282

View: 1071

Most people take the conditions they work and live in as a given, believing it to be normal that societies are stratified and that organisations are hierarchical. Many even think that this is the way it should be - and are neither willing nor able to think that it could be otherwise. This book raises the awareness of hierarchy, its complexity and longevity. It focuses on a single but fundamental problem of social systems such as dyads, groups, organisations and whole societies: Why and how does hierarchical social order persist over time? In order to investigate the question, author Thomas Diefenbach develops a general theory of the persistence of hierarchical social order. This theory interrogates the problem of the persistence of hierarchical social order from very different angles, in multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary ways. Even more crucially, it traces the very causes of the phenomenon, the reasons and interests behind hierarchy as well as the various mechanisms which keep it going. This is the first time such a theory is attempted. With the help of the theory developed in this book, it is possible to interrogate systematically, comprehensively and in detail how mindsets and behaviours as well as societal and organisational structures enable the continuation of hierarchy
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The Prism of Science

The Israel Colloquium: Studies in History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Science

Author: Edna Ullmann-Margalit

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400945663

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 7451

This is the second volume of Proceedings of the Israel Colloquium for the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science. At the time that this preface is being written, the fourth annual series of lectures within the framework of the Israel Colloquium is already behind us and the fifth is underway. The Israel Colloquium thus has now not only a future to look forward to but also a past which is a source ,of pride and pleasure for those who take part in this venture. The Israel Colloquium has, I believe, struck roots in the Israeli scientific and intellectual life, while drawing on the ever-increasing readiness of the international scientific and intellectual community for continuous support. As in the first volume, here too the papers presented, taken together, attempt a threefold representation of science and of the scientific activity: the historical, the social, and the systematic. A novel focal point in this volume is the treatment of some case studies illuminating historical, social, and philosophical aspects of medicine. Another center of gravity here is the Eddington Centennial Symposium which was a main event in the Collo quium activity of the 1982-83 series. This is a fitting place for me to report with sorrow the untimely death in the summer of 1984 of Solly G. Cohen, one of Israel's leading scientists, who is among the contributors to this volume.
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The Sociological Turn in Translation and Interpreting Studies

Author: Claudia V. Angelelli

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9027269653

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 140

View: 5768

Increasing attention has been paid to the agency of translators and interpreters, as well as to the social factors that permeate acts of translation and interpreting. In addition, agency and social factors are discussed in more interdisciplinary terms. Currently the focus is not only on translators or interpreters – i.e., the exploration of their inter/intra-social agency and identity construction (or on their activities and the consequences thereof), but also on other phenomena, such as the displacement of texts and people and issues of access and linguicism. The displacement of texts (whether written or oral) across time and space, as well as the geographic displacement of people, has encouraged researchers in Translation and Interpreting Studies to consider issues related to translation and interpreting through the lens of the Sociology of Language, Sociolinguistics, and Historiography. Researchers have employed a myriad of theoretical and methodological lenses borrowed from other disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Therefore, the interdisciplinarity of Translation and Interpreting Studies is more evident now than ever before. This volume, originally published as a special issue of Translation and Interpreting Studies (issue 7:2, 2012), is a perfect example of such interdisciplinarity, reflecting the shift that has occurred in Translation and Interpreting Studies around the world over the last 30 years.
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Models of Management

Work, Authority, and Organization in a Comparative Perspective

Author: Mauro F. Guillén

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226310367

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 424

View: 1910

In this book, Mauro F. Guillén explores differing historical patterns in the adoption of the three major models of organizational management: scientific management, human relations, and structural analysis. Moving beyond Reinhard Bendix's classic Work and Authority, Models of Management takes a fresh look at how managers have used these models in four countries during the twentieth century. Guillén's study of two liberal-democratic societies (the United States and Great Britain) and two corporatist societies (Germany and Spain) reveals significant differences in the way managerial elites and firms have adopted the three models. His data show that ideas themselves—independent of material interests and technology—can cause organizational change. Throughout the book, contrasts between modernist-technocratic and liberal-humanist mentalities, as well as between Protestant and Catholic religious backgrounds, emerge as decisive factors in determining managerial ideology and practice. In addition to analyzing management methods in organizations, Guillén explores larger issues: the interaction among managerial, government, and labor elites; the impact of the state and the professions on managerial behavior; and the role that managers play in modern societies.
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Multilingual Encounters in Europe's Institutional Spaces

Author: Johann W. Unger,Michal Krzyzanowski,Ruth Wodak

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441144846

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 4222

Multilingual encounters have been commonplace in many types of institutions, and have become an essential part of supranational institutions such as the EU since their inception. This volume explores and discusses different ways of researching the discursive dimension of these encounters, and critically examines their relevance to policy, politics and society as a whole. This includes institutions at the local, regional and supranational level. Multilingualism in institutions is currently often seen as an obstacle rather than an opportunity, at least with respect to European public and private spheres. The volume asks: - exactly how is multilingualism conceptualized and talked about in different institutions? - how do different institutions 'deal' with multilingualism, both internally and externally? - what are the policy making rules and challenges for the future for various institutions with respect to multilingualism?
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The Black Power Movement and American Social Work

Author: Joyce M. Bell

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231538014

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 9282

The Black Power movement has often been portrayed in history and popular culture as the quintessential "bad boy" of modern black movement-making in America. Yet this impression misses the full extent of Black Power's contributions to U.S. society, especially in regard to black professionals in social work. Relying on extensive archival research and oral history interviews, Joyce M. Bell follows two groups of black social workers in the 1960s and 1970s as they mobilized Black Power ideas, strategies, and tactics to change their national professional associations. Comparing black dissenters within the National Federation of Settlements (NFS), who fought for concessions from within their organization, and those within the National Conference on Social Welfare (NCSW), who ultimately adopted a separatist strategy, she shows how the Black Power influence was central to the creation and rise of black professional associations. She also provides a nuanced approach to studying race-based movements and offers a framework for understanding the role of social movements in shaping the non-state organizations of civil society.
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The Origins of World War Two

The Debate Continues

Author: Robert Boyce,Joseph A. Maiolo

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137206306

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 5965

No issue in modern history has been more intensively studied, or subject to wider interpretation, than the origins of the Second World War. A conflict involving three - arguably four - major aggressor Powers, operating simultaneously but largely separately on two continents, inevitably raises complex theories and debates. Each participating power has its own history, and each one must take account of various influences upon the behaviour of its soldiers and statesmen. His wide-ranging collection of original essays, each by an international expert in their field, covers all aspects of the subject and highlights the controversy that continues to characterise current thinking on the origins of the war. Going beyond the usual Eurocentric approach, Part I examines the roles of all seven of the Great Powers (including Japan and the USA), as well as the parts played by several of the lesser Powers, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland and China. Part II contains chapters which explore key themes that cannot be fully understood within the context of any single country. These themes include the role of ideology, propaganda, intelligence, armaments, economics, diplomacy, the neutral states, peace movements, and the social science approach to war. Written in clear, jargon-free prose, together these essays provide a comprehensive single-volume text for students and teachers, and are essential reading for all with an interest in the debates surrounding the causes of World War Two.
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International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy

Institutional Independence in the International Legal Order

Author: Richard Collins,Nigel D. White

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136806059

Category: Law

Page: 446

View: 3739

International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy is an exploratory text looking at the idea of intergovernmental organizations as autonomous international actors. In the context of concerns over the accountability of powerful international actors exercising increasing levels of legal and political authority, in areas as diverse as education, health, financial markets and international security, the book comes at a crucial time. Including contributions from leading scholars in the fields of international law, politics and governance, it addresses themes of institutional autonomy in international law and governance from a range of theoretical and subject-specific contexts. The collection looks internally at aspects of the institutional law of international organizations and the workings of specific regimes and institutions, as well as externally at the proliferation of autonomous organizations in the international legal order as a whole. Although primarily a legal text, the book takes a broad, thematic and inter-disciplinary approach. In this respect, International Organizations and the Idea of Autonomy offers an excellent resource for both practitioners and students undertaking courses of advanced study in international law, the law of international organizations, global governance, as well as aspects of international relations and organization.
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Materialist Feminism

A Reader in Class, Difference, and Women's Lives

Author: Rosemary Hennessy,Chrys Ingraham

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415916332

Category: Political Science

Page: 430

View: 454

During the 1980s, capitalism triumphantly secured its global reach, anti-communist ideologies hammered home socialism's inherent failure, the New Left increasingly moved into the professional middle class--and many of feminism's earlier priorities were marginalized. "Identity politics", often formulated in terms of social reconstructionism or multiculturalism, has increasingly suppressed materialist feminism's systematic perspective, replacing it with discourse analysis or cultural politics. Materialist Feminism: A Reader argues against the retreat to multiculturalism for keeping invisible the material links among the explosion of meaning-making practices in highly industrialized social sectors, the exploitation of women's labor, and the appropriation of women's bodies that continues to undergird the scramble for profits and state power in multinational capitalism.
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The Globalization and Development Reader

Perspectives on Development and Global Change

Author: J. Timmons Roberts,Amy Bellone Hite,Nitsan Chorev

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118735382

Category: Political Science

Page: 632

View: 5009

This revised and updated second edition of The Globalizationand Development Reader builds on the considerable success of afirst edition that has been used around the world. It combinesselected readings and editorial material to provide a coherent textwith global coverage, reflecting new theoretical and empiricaldevelopments. Main text and core reference for students and professionalsstudying the processes of social change and development in“third world” countries. Carefully excerpted materialsfacilitate the understanding of classic and contemporarywritings Second edition includes 33 essential readings, including 21 newselections New pieces cover the impact of the recession in the globalNorth, global inequality and uneven development, gender,international migration, the role of cities, agriculture and on thegovernance of pharmaceuticals and climate change politics Increased coverage of China and India help to provide genuinelyglobal coverage, and for a student readership the materials havebeen subject to a higher degree of editing in the new edition Includes a general introduction to the field, and short,insightful section introductions to each reading New readings include selections by Alexander Gershenkron, AliceAmsden, Amartya Sen, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Cecile Jackson, DaniRodrik, David Harvey, Greta Krippner, Kathryn Sikkink, LeslieSklair, Margaret E. Keck, Michael Burawoy, Nitsan Chorev, OscarLewis, Patrick Bond, Peter Evans, Philip McMichael, Pranab Bardhan,Ruth Pearson, Sarah Babb, Saskia Sassen, and Steve Radelet
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The Democracy Makers

Human Rights and the Politics of Global Order

Author: Nicolas Guilhot

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504195

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 6240

Has the international movement for democracy and human rights gone from being a weapon against power to part of the arsenal of power itself? Nicolas Guilhot explores this question in his penetrating look at how the U.S. government, the World Bank, political scientists, NGOs, think tanks, and various international organizations have appropriated the movement for democracy and human rights to export neoliberal policies throughout the world. His work charts the various symbolic, ideological, and political meanings that have developed around human rights and democracy movements. Guilhot suggests that these shifting meanings reflect the transformation of a progressive, emancipatory movement into an industry, dominated by "experts," ensconced in positions of power. Guilhot's story begins in the 1950s when U.S. foreign policy experts promoted human rights and democracy as part of a "democratic international" to fight the spread of communism. Later, the unlikely convergence of anti-Stalinist leftists and the nascent neoconservative movement found a place in the Reagan administration. These "State Department Socialists," as they were known, created policies and organizations that provided financial and technical expertise to democratic movements, but also supported authoritarian, anti-communist regimes, particularly in Latin America. Guilhot also traces the intellectual and social trajectories of key academics, policymakers, and institutions, including Seymour M. Lipset, Jeane Kirkpatrick, the "Chicago Boys," including Milton Friedman, the National Endowment for Democracy, and the Ford Foundation. He examines the ways in which various individuals, or "double agents," were able to occupy pivotal positions at the junction of academe, national, and international institutions, and activist movements. He also pays particular attention to the role of the social sciences in transforming the old anti-Communist crusades into respectable international organizations that promoted progressive and democratic ideals, but did not threaten the strategic and economic goals of Western governments and businesses. Guilhot's purpose is not to disqualify democracy promotion as a conspiratorial activity. Rather he offers new perspectives on the roles of various transnational human rights institutions and the policies they promote. Ultimately, his work proposes a new model for understanding the international politics of legitimate democratic order and the relation between popular resistance to globalization and the "Washington Consensus."
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Finance: The Discreet Regulator

How Financial Activities Shape and Transform the World

Author: I. Huault,C. Richard

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137033606

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 916

The financial sector is the talk of the global village. This book highlights that, before asserting that the institutions of the financial sector deserve to be regulated, one should consider that these very institutions are themselves the discreet regulators of the markets where their activity takes place.
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Shaping health policy

Case study methods and analysis

Author: Mark Exworthy,Stephen Peckham

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447306198

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 7162

This collection examines the role that case-studies play in understanding and explaining British health policy. Overall, the chapters cover the key health policy literatures in terms of the policy process, analytical frameworks and some of the seminal moments of the NHS. They have been written by leading health policy researchers in sociology, social policy, management and organisation studies. The collection explores and promotes the case-study as an under-used method and thereby encourages a more reflective approach to policy learning by practitioners and academics. The book will appeal to under-graduates, post-graduates and academics in social policy, public management and health services research.
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The New Art History

A Critical Introduction

Author: Jonathan Harris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134582501

Category: Art

Page: 320

View: 8345

The New Art History provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamental changes which have occurred in both the institutions and practice of art history over the last thirty years. Jonathan Harris examines and accounts for the new approaches to the study of art which have been grouped loosely under the term 'the new art history'. He distinguishes between these and earlier forms of 'radical' or 'critical' analysis, explores the influence of other disciplines and traditions on art history, and relates art historical ideas and values to social change. Structured around an examination of key texts by major contemporary critics, including Tim Clarke, Griselda Pollock, Fred Orton, Albert Boime, Alan Wallach and Laura Mulvey, each chapter discusses a key moment in the discipline of art history, tracing the development and interaction of Marxist, feminist and psychoanalytic critical theories. Individual chapters include: * Capitalist Modernity, the Nation-State and Visual Representation * Feminism, Art, and Art History * Subjects, Identities and Visual Ideology * Structures and Meanings in Art and Society * The Representation of Sexuality
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Managing Nonprofit Organizations in a Policy World

Author: Shannon K Vaughan,Shelly Arsenault,Michelle Arsneault

Publisher: CQ Press

ISBN: 1452240051

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 413

View: 5225

In explicitly tying the policy realm to management skills, this book sheds new light on how nonprofit managers can better navigate policymaking and regulatory contexts to effectively lead their organizations.
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Networks in the Russian Market Economy

Author: M. Lonkila

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230294936

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 2559

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. This book examines the significance of networks among the firms operative in the contemporary Russian software industry in the St. Petersburg region.
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Metaphor and Dialectic in Managing Diversity

Author: C. Schwabenland

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137022671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 3673

Metaphor and dialectic are modes of thinking that influence the ways in which we identify what we have in common with others, how we differ and how we manage this diversity to achieve organizational goals. This book explores how we can become more aware of these unconscious processes and challenge stereotypes.
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From Communists to Foreign Capitalists

The Social Foundations of Foreign Direct Investment in Postsocialist Europe

Author: Nina Bandelj

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400841259

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 5011

From Communists to Foreign Capitalists explores the intersections of two momentous changes in the late twentieth century: the fall of Communism and the rise of globalization. Delving into the economic change that accompanied these shifts in central and Eastern Europe, Nina Bandelj presents a pioneering sociological treatment of the process of foreign direct investment (FDI). She demonstrates how both investors and hosts rely on social networks, institutions, politics, and cultural understandings to make decisions about investment, employing practical rather than rational economic strategies to deal with the true uncertainty that plagues the postsocialist environment. The book explores how eleven postsocialist countries address the very idea of FDI as an integral part of their market transition. The inflows of foreign capital after the collapse of Communism resulted not from the withdrawal of states from the economy, as is commonly expected, but rather from the active involvement of postsocialist states in institutionalizing and legitimizing FDI. Using a wide array of data sources, and combining a macro-level account of national variation in the liberalization to foreign capital with a micro-level account of FDI transactions in the decade following the collapse of Communism in 1989, the book reveals how social forces not only constrain economic transformations but also make them possible. From Communists to Foreign Capitalists is a welcome addition to the growing literature on the social processes that shape economic life.
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Service-Learning Essentials

Questions, Answers, and Lessons Learned

Author: Barbara Jacoby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118944011

Category: Education

Page: 352

View: 8601

Service-Learning Essentials is the resource youneed to help you develop high-quality service-learning experiencesfor college students. Written by one of the field's leading expertsand sponsored by Campus Compact, the book is the definitive work onthis high-impact educational practice. Service-learning has beenidentified by the Association of American Colleges and Universitiesas having been widely tested and shown to be beneficial to collegestudents from a wide variety of backgrounds. Organized in an accessible question-and-answer format, the bookresponds clearly and completely to the most common questions andconcerns about service-learning. Each chapter addresses issuesrelated to individual practice as well as to the collective work ofstarting and developing a service-learning center or program, withexamples drawn from a variety of disciplines, situations, andinstitutional types. The questions range from basic to advanced andthe answers cover both the fundamentals and complexities ofservice-learning. Topics include: Determining what service-learning opportunities institutionsshould offer How to engage students in critical reflection in academiccourses and in cocurricular experiences Best practices for developing and sustaining mutuallybeneficial campus-community partnerships Integrating service-learning into the curriculum in alldisciplines and at all levels, as well as various areas of studentlife outside the classroom Assessing service-learning programs and outcomes The dilemmas of service-learning in the context of power andprivilege The future of service-learning in online and rapidlyglobalizing environments Service-learning has virtually limitless potential to enablecolleges and universities to meet their goals for student learningwhile making unique contributions to addressing unmet local,national, and global needs. However, in order to realize thesebenefits, service-learning must be thoughtfully designed andcarefully implemented. This easy-to-use volume contains everythingfaculty, leaders, and staff members need to know aboutservice-learning to enhance communities, improve higher educationinstitutions, and educate the next generation of citizens,scholars, and leaders.
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