Inconsistent Geometry

Author: Chris Mortensen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848900226

Category: Mathematics

Page: 174

View: 7780

The Theory of Inconsistency has a long lineage, stretching back to Herakleitos, Hegel and Marx. In the late twentieth-century, it was placed on a rigorous footing with the discovery of paraconsistent logic and inconsistent mathematics. Paraconsistent logics, many of which are now known, are "inconsistency tolerant," that is, they lack the rule of Boolean logic that a contradiction implies every proposition. When this constricting rule was seen to be arbitrary, inconsistent mathematical structures were free to be described. This book continues the development of inconsistent mathematics by taking up inconsistent geometry, hitherto largely undeveloped. It has two main goals. First, various geometrical structures are shown to deliver models for paraconsistent logics. Second, the "impossible pictures" of Reutersvaard, Escher, the Penroses and others are addressed. The idea is to derive inconsistent mathematical descriptions of the content of impossible pictures, so as to explain rigorously how they can be impossible and yet classifiable into several basic types. The book will be of interest to logicians, mathematicians, philosophers, psychologists, cognitive scientists, and artists interested in impossible images. It contains a gallery of previously-unseen coloured images, which illustrates the possibilities available in representing impossible geometrical shapes. Chris Mortensen is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Adelaide. He is the author of Inconsistent Mathrmatics (Kluwer 1995), and many articles in the Theory of Inconsistency.
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Pluralism in Mathematics: A New Position in Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Michèle Friend

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400770588

Category: Science

Page: 291

View: 2399

This book is about philosophy, mathematics and logic, giving a philosophical account of Pluralism which is a family of positions in the philosophy of mathematics. There are four parts to this book, beginning with a look at motivations for Pluralism by way of Realism, Maddy’s Naturalism, Shapiro’s Structuralism and Formalism. In the second part of this book the author covers: the philosophical presentation of Pluralism; using a formal theory of logic metaphorically; rigour and proof for the Pluralist; and mathematical fixtures. In the third part the author goes on to focus on the transcendental presentation of Pluralism, and in part four looks at applications of Pluralism, such as a Pluralist approach to proof in mathematics and how Pluralism works in regard to together-inconsistent philosophies of mathematics. The book finishes with suggestions for further Pluralist enquiry. In this work the author takes a deeply radical approach in developing a new position that will either convert readers, or act as a strong warning to treat the word ‘pluralism’ with care.
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Foundations of Logical Consequence

Author: Colin R. Caret,Ole T. Hjortland

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198715692

Category: Consequentia (Logic)

Page: 357

View: 2084

This volume presents new work on a central issue in the philosophy of logic. Leading figures in the field offer ground-breaking insights into topics including the nature of logical consequence; the relation between logic and inference; the relativity of logic; and the structural properties of the consequence relation.
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The Metaphysics of Logic

Author: Penelope Rush

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107039649

Category: Mathematics

Page: 278

View: 3847

This wide-ranging collection of essays explores the nature of logic and the key issues and debates in the metaphysics of logic.
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Varieties of Logic

Author: Stewart Shapiro

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191025518

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 2335

Logical pluralism is the view that different logics are equally appropriate, or equally correct. Logical relativism is a pluralism according to which validity and logical consequence are relative to something. In Varieties of Logic, Stewart Shapiro develops several ways in which one can be a pluralist or relativist about logic. One of these is an extended argument that words and phrases like 'valid' and 'logical consequence' are polysemous or, perhaps better, are cluster concepts. The notions can be sharpened in various ways. This explains away the 'debates' in the literature between inferentialists and advocates of a truth-conditional, model-theoretic approach, and between those who advocate higher-order logic and those who insist that logic is first-order. A significant kind of pluralism flows from an orientation toward mathematics that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century, and continues to dominate the field today. The theme is that consistency is the only legitimate criterion for a theory. Logical pluralism arises when one considers a number of interesting and important mathematical theories that invoke a non-classical logic, and are rendered inconsistent, and trivial, if classical logic is imposed. So validity is relative to a theory or structure. The perspective raises a host of important questions about meaning. The most significant of these concern the semantic content of logical terminology, words like 'or', 'not', and 'for all', as they occur in rigorous mathematical deduction. Does the intuitionistic 'not', for example, have the same meaning as its classical counterpart? Shapiro examines the major arguments on the issue, on both sides, and finds them all wanting. He then articulates and defends a thesis that the question of meaning-shift is itself context-sensitive and, indeed, interest-relative. He relates the issue to some prominent considerations concerning open texture, vagueness, and verbal disputes. Logic is ubiquitous. Whenever there is deductive reasoning, there is logic. So there are questions about logical pluralism that are analogous to standard questions about global relativism. The most pressing of these concerns foundational studies, wherein one compares theories, sometimes with different logics, and where one figures out what follows from what in a given logic. Shapiro shows that the issues are not problematic, and that is usually easy to keep track of the logic being used and the one mentioned.
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Inconsistent Mathematics

Author: C.E. Mortensen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401584532

Category: Mathematics

Page: 158

View: 4277

without a properly developed inconsistent calculus based on infinitesimals, then in consistent claims from the history of the calculus might well simply be symptoms of confusion. This is addressed in Chapter 5. It is further argued that mathematics has a certain primacy over logic, in that paraconsistent or relevant logics have to be based on inconsistent mathematics. If the latter turns out to be reasonably rich then paraconsistentism is vindicated; while if inconsistent mathematics has seri ous restriytions then the case for being interested in inconsistency-tolerant logics is weakened. (On such restrictions, see this chapter, section 3. ) It must be conceded that fault-tolerant computer programming (e. g. Chapter 8) finds a substantial and important use for paraconsistent logics, albeit with an epistemological motivation (see this chapter, section 3). But even here it should be noted that if inconsistent mathematics turned out to be functionally impoverished then so would inconsistent databases. 2. Summary In Chapter 2, Meyer's results on relevant arithmetic are set out, and his view that they have a bearing on G8del's incompleteness theorems is discussed. Model theory for nonclassical logics is also set out so as to be able to show that the inconsistency of inconsistent theories can be controlled or limited, but in this book model theory is kept in the background as much as possible. This is then used to study the functional properties of various equational number theories.
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Inconsistency Robustness

Author: Carl Hewitt,John Woods

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781848901599

Category: Computers

Page: 614

View: 4670

Inconsistency robustness is information system performance in the face of continually pervasive inconsistencies---a shift from the previously dominant paradigms of inconsistency denial and inconsistency elimination attempting to sweep them under the rug. Inconsistency robustness is a both an observed phenomenon and a desired feature: Inconsistency Robustness is an observed phenomenon because large information-systems are required to operate in an environment of pervasive inconsistency. Inconsistency Robustness is a desired feature because we need to improve the performance of large information system. This volume has revised versions of refereed articles and panel summaries from the first two International Symposia on Inconsistency Robustness conducted under the auspices of the International Society for Inconsistency Robustness (iRobust http: //irobust.org). The articles are broadly based on theory and practice, addressing fundamental issues in inconsistency robustness. The field of Inconsistency Robustness aims to provide practical rigorous foundations for computer information systems dealing with pervasively inconsistent information."
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Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

Including a Generalisation of Logical Processes in Their Application to Complex Inferences

Author: John Neville Keynes

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic

Page: 414

View: 615

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Philosophy of Logic

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080466637

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1218

View: 7189

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter
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Logic For Dummies

Author: Mark Zegarelli

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118053079

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 9969

Logic concepts are more mainstream than you may realize. There’s logic every place you look and in almost everything you do, from deciding which shirt to buy to asking your boss for a raise, and even to watching television, where themes of such shows as CSI and Numbers incorporate a variety of logistical studies. Logic For Dummies explains a vast array of logical concepts and processes in easy-to-understand language that make everything clear to you, whether you’re a college student of a student of life. You’ll find out about: Formal Logic Syllogisms Constructing proofs and refutations Propositional and predicate logic Modal and fuzzy logic Symbolic logic Deductive and inductive reasoning Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.
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The Legacy of Mario Pieri in Geometry and Arithmetic

Author: Elena Anne Marchisotto,James T. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817646035

Category: Mathematics

Page: 494

View: 4352

This book is the first in a series of three volumes that comprehensively examine Mario Pieri’s life, mathematical work and influence. The book introduces readers to Pieri’s career and his studies in foundations, from both historical and modern viewpoints. Included in this volume are the first English translations, along with analyses, of two of his most important axiomatizations — one in arithmetic and one in geometry. The book combines an engaging exposition, little-known historical notes, exhaustive references and an excellent index. And yet the book requires no specialized experience in mathematical logic or the foundations of geometry.
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New Directions in Paraconsistent Logic

5th WCP, Kolkata, India, February 2014

Author: Jean-Yves Beziau,Mihir Chakraborty,Soma Dutta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 8132227190

Category: Mathematics

Page: 552

View: 4260

The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.
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Probability Theory

The Logic of Science

Author: E. T. Jaynes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139435167

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6748

The standard rules of probability can be interpreted as uniquely valid principles in logic. In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. It contains many exercises and problems, and is suitable for use as a textbook on graduate level courses involving data analysis. The material is aimed at readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at an advanced undergraduate level or higher. The book will be of interest to scientists working in any area where inference from incomplete information is necessary.
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Models and Ultraproducts

An Introduction

Author: John Lane Bell,A. B. Slomson

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486449793

Category: Mathematics

Page: 322

View: 874

In this text for first-year graduate students, the authors provide an elementary exposition of some of the basic concepts of model theory--focusing particularly on the ultraproduct construction and the areas in which it is most useful. The book, which assumes only that its readers are acquainted with the rudiments of set theory, starts by developing the notions of Boolean algebra, propositional calculus, and predicate calculus. Model theory proper begins in the fourth chapter, followed by an introduction to ultraproduct construction, which includes a detailed look at its theoretic properties. An overview of elementary equivalence provides algebraic descriptions of the elementary classes. Discussions of completeness follow, along with surveys of the work of Jónsson and of Morley and Vaught on homogeneous universal models, and the results of Keisler in connection with the notion of a saturated structure. Additional topics include classical results of Gödel and Skolem, and extensions of classical first-order logic in terms of generalized quantifiers and infinitary languages. Numerous exercises appear throughout the text.
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Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems

Author: Guanrong Chen,Trung Tat Pham

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420039818

Category: Mathematics

Page: 328

View: 7261

In the early 1970s, fuzzy systems and fuzzy control theories added a new dimension to control systems engineering. From its beginnings as mostly heuristic and somewhat ad hoc, more recent and rigorous approaches to fuzzy control theory have helped make it an integral part of modern control theory and produced many exciting results. Yesterday's "art" of building a working fuzzy controller has turned into today's "science" of systematic design. To keep pace with and further advance the rapidly developing field of applied control technologies, engineers, both present and future, need some systematic training in the analytic theory and rigorous design of fuzzy control systems. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems provides that training by introducing a rigorous and complete fundamental theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, and then building a practical theory for automatic control of uncertain and ill-modeled systems encountered in many engineering applications. The authors proceed through basic fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy systems theory and conclude with an exploration of some industrial application examples. Almost entirely self-contained, Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems establishes a strong foundation for designing and analyzing fuzzy control systems under uncertain and irregular conditions. Mastering its contents gives students a clear understanding of fuzzy control systems theory that prepares them for deeper and broader studies and for many practical challenges faced in modern industry.
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The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought

Author: Jean-Yves Béziau,Gianfranco Basti

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 331945062X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 337

View: 2517

This is a collection of new investigations and discoveries on the theory of opposition (square, hexagon, octagon, polyhedra of opposition) by the best specialists from all over the world. The papers range from historical considerations to new mathematical developments of the theory of opposition including applications to theology, theory of argumentation and metalogic.
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Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood

Paths Toward Excellence and Equity

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Committee on Early Childhood Mathematics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309147439

Category: Education

Page: 398

View: 5975

Early childhood mathematics is vitally important for young children's present and future educational success. Research demonstrates that virtually all young children have the capability to learn and become competent in mathematics. Furthermore, young children enjoy their early informal experiences with mathematics. Unfortunately, many children's potential in mathematics is not fully realized, especially those children who are economically disadvantaged. This is due, in part, to a lack of opportunities to learn mathematics in early childhood settings or through everyday experiences in the home and in their communities. Improvements in early childhood mathematics education can provide young children with the foundation for school success. Relying on a comprehensive review of the research, Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood lays out the critical areas that should be the focus of young children's early mathematics education, explores the extent to which they are currently being incorporated in early childhood settings, and identifies the changes needed to improve the quality of mathematics experiences for young children. This book serves as a call to action to improve the state of early childhood mathematics. It will be especially useful for policy makers and practitioners-those who work directly with children and their families in shaping the policies that affect the education of young children.
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Uncertainty Treatment Using Paraconsistent Logic

Introducing Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Networks

Author: João Inácio da Silva Filho,Germano Lambert Torres,Jair Minoro Abe

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607505576

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 311

View: 6638

The aim of the KBIES series is to report on the tremendous range of applications arising out of investigations into intelligent systems, coupled with the latest generic research that makes these applications possible. The series provides a leading resource for researchers, engineers, managers and all others concerned with this area of research, or wanting to know more about it.
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Good Math

A Geek's Guide to the Beauty of Numbers, Logic, and Computation

Author: Mark C. Chu-Carroll

Publisher: Pragmatic Bookshelf

ISBN: 168050360X

Category: Computers

Page: 282

View: 7428

Mathematics is beautiful--and it can be fun and exciting as well as practical. Good Math is your guide to some of the most intriguing topics from two thousand years of mathematics: from Egyptian fractions to Turing machines; from the real meaning of numbers to proof trees, group symmetry, and mechanical computation. If you've ever wondered what lay beyond the proofs you struggled to complete in high school geometry, or what limits the capabilities of computer on your desk, this is the book for you. Why do Roman numerals persist? How do we know that some infinities are larger than others? And how can we know for certain a program will ever finish? In this fast-paced tour of modern and not-so-modern math, computer scientist Mark Chu-Carroll explores some of the greatest breakthroughs and disappointments of more than two thousand years of mathematical thought. There is joy and beauty in mathematics, and in more than two dozen essays drawn from his popular "Good Math" blog, you'll find concepts, proofs, and examples that are often surprising, counterintuitive, or just plain weird. Mark begins his journey with the basics of numbers, with an entertaining trip through the integers and the natural, rational, irrational, and transcendental numbers. The voyage continues with a look at some of the oddest numbers in mathematics, including zero, the golden ratio, imaginary numbers, Roman numerals, and Egyptian and continuing fractions. After a deep dive into modern logic, including an introduction to linear logic and the logic-savvy Prolog language, the trip concludes with a tour of modern set theory and the advances and paradoxes of modern mechanical computing. If your high school or college math courses left you grasping for the inner meaning behind the numbers, Mark's book will both entertain and enlighten you.
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