Humanitarian Crises and Migration

Causes, Consequences and Responses

Author: Susan F. Martin,Sanjula Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135085544

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 5764

Whether it is the stranding of tens of thousands of migrant workers at the Libyan–Tunisian border, or the large-scale displacement triggered by floods in Pakistan and Colombia, hardly a week goes by in which humanitarian crises have not precipitated human movement. While some people move internally, others internationally, some temporarily and others permanently, there are also those who become "trapped" in place, unable to move to greater safety. Responses to these "crisis migrations" are varied and inadequate. Only a fraction of "crisis migrants" are protected by existing international, regional or national law. Even where law exists, practice does not necessarily guarantee safety and security for those who are forced to move or remain trapped. Improvements are desperately needed to ensure more consistent and effective responses. This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This volume is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of "crisis migration," conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Part II presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the ongoing exodus from Somalia, and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Part III focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels. This valuable book brings together previously diffuse research and policy issues under the analytical umbrella of "crisis migration." It lays the foundations for assessing and addressing real challenges to the status quo, and will be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners committed to seeking out improved responses and ensuring the dignity and safety of millions who move in the context of humanitarian crises.
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The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies

Author: Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh,Gil Loescher,Katy Long,Nando Sigona

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645885

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 9769

Refugee and Forced Migration Studies has grown from being a concern of a relatively small number of scholars and policy researchers in the 1980s to a global field of interest with thousands of students worldwide studying displacement either from traditional disciplinary perspectives or as a core component of newer programmes across the Humanities and Social and Political Sciences. Today the field encompasses both rigorous academic research which may or may not ultimately inform policy and practice, as well as action-research focused on advocating in favour of refugees' needs and rights. This authoritative Handbook critically evaluates the birth and development of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, and analyses the key contemporary and future challenges faced by academics and practitioners working with and for forcibly displaced populations around the world. The 52 state-of-the-art chapters, written by leading academics, practitioners, and policymakers working in universities, research centres, think tanks, NGOs and international organizations, provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge overview of the key intellectual, political, social and institutional challenges arising from mass displacement in the world today. The chapters vividly illustrate the vibrant and engaging debates that characterize this rapidly expanding field of research and practice.
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Der siebte Mensch

Eine Geschichte über Migration und Arbeit in Europa

Author: John Berger,Jean Mohr

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104901619

Category: Fiction

Page: 256

View: 8253

Der Klassiker zu Migration und Arbeit in Europa - so aktuell wie nie. Jetzt neu auflegt im FISCHER Taschenbuch! ›Der siebte Mensch‹ untersucht die Situation der Migranten und Wanderarbeiter – in Text und Bild, mit Geschichten und Erzählungen. Es war das erste Buch, das John Berger gemeinsam mit Jean Mohr ganz den Erfahrungen und Folgen der Migration widmete – und es ist wie ›Sehen‹ längst ein Klassiker der Moderne. Die Neuausgabe erscheint mit einem aktuellen Vorwort von John Berger. John Berger, der große europäische Erzähler und Essayist, feiert im November 2016 seinen 90. Geburtstag. Seine Essays zu Kunst und Fotografie sind aus der Ästhetik des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht mehr wegzudenken. Meisterhaft finden seine Erzählungen und Romane eine sinnliche Antwort auf die Frage, wie wir heute leben. »Es gibt niemals genug von John Berger!« Tilda Swinton
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Basic Human Rights and the Humanitarian Crises in Sub-Saharan Africa

Ethical Reflections

Author: Gabriel Andrew Msoka

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630878693

Category: Religion

Page: 200

View: 7882

For decades, post-independence Africa has been marked by conflicts, violence, and civil wars leading to a displacement of civilian populations and numerous humanitarian crises. For example, the Somali war, the 1994 Rwandan genocide, and the Darfur conflict in Western Sudan illustrate this phenomenon. In these situations, protecting the basic human rights of security, subsistence, the liberties of social participation, and the physical movement of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)--particularly women, children, and young people--has been seen as inadequate. This book offers the following: a systematic presentation of the nature and scope of the crises; an evaluative description of the achievements and failures of governments, organizations, and the international community in responding to the crises; a critical analysis of the rationale for such an inadequate response; and a philosophical and theological study of basic human rights that seeks to redress these failures by envisioning an appropriate response and a lasting solution to the conflicts, displacement, and humanitarian crises in Sub-Saharan Africa.
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Humanitarianism and Mass Migration

Confronting the World Crisis

Author: N.A

Publisher: University of California Press

ISBN: 0520297148

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 8290

The world is witnessing a rapid rise in the number of victims of human trafficking and of migrants—voluntary and involuntary, internal and international, authorized and unauthorized. In the first two decades of this century alone, more than 65 million people have been forced to escape home into the unknown. The slow-motion disintegration of failing states with feeble institutions, war and terror, demographic imbalances, unchecked climate change, and cataclysmic environmental disruptions have contributed to the catastrophic migrations that are placing millions of human beings at grave risk. Humanitarianism and Mass Migration fills a scholarly gap by examining the uncharted contours of mass migration. Exceptionally curated, it contains contributions from Jacqueline Bhabha, Richard Mollica, Irina Bokova, Pedro Noguera, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, James A. Banks, Mary Waters, and many others. The volume’s interdisciplinary and comparative approach showcases new research that reveals how current structures of health, mental health, and education are anachronistic and out of touch with the new cartographies of mass migrations. Envisioning a hopeful and realistic future, this book provides clear and concrete recommendations for what must be done to mine the inherent agency, cultural resources, resilience, and capacity for self-healing that will help forcefully displaced populations.
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Supporting Local Health Care in a Chronic Crisis

Management and Financing Approaches in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,National Research Council,Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309180672

Category: Medical

Page: 104

View: 5916

Providing medical support to the local population during a chronic crisis is difficult. The crisis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which is characterized by high excess mortality, ongoing armed violence, mass forced displacement, interference by neighboring countries, resource exploitation, asset stripping, and the virtual absence of the state, has led to great poverty and a dearth of funds for the support of the health system. International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have stepped in to address the dire humanitarian situation. This study looks at four organizations that support local health care in the eastern DRC: the International Rescue Committee (IRC), Malteser, Medical Emergency Relief International (Merlin), and the Association Régionale d'Approvisionnement en Médicaments Essentiels (ASRAMES). The study makes a comparison of the management and financing approaches of these four organizations by collecting and comparing qualitative and quantitative data on their interaction with the (remaining) local health providers and the local population. Specific objectives of the study are: 1. To identify which management and financing approaches, including the setting of fees, are used by the four NGOs supporting healthcare in the eastern DRC. 2. To determine how these financing approaches affect utilization rates in the health zones supported by the four NGOs. 3. To assess how these utilization rates compare with donor and humanitarian standards. 4. To determine at what level fees must be set to allow for cost recovery or cost sharing in health facilities. 5. To identify the managerial problems confronting the four NGOs. Many epidemiological and public health studies focus on the interaction between health providers and target groups. Supporting Local Health Care in a Chronic Crisis: Management and Financing Approaches in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo concentrates more on how the relationship between the supporting NGOs and the local health system actually develops. In addition, a common aspect of many of the epidemiological and public health studies is the search for an optimal, or at least appropriate, management and financing approach.
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War, Humanitarian Crises, Population Displacement, and Fertility

A Review of Evidence

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,National Research Council,Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration,Kenneth Hill

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165990

Category: Social Science

Page: 46

View: 4293

Fertility and reproductive health issues more broadly have tended to be of low priority in humanitarian crises. Public attention is drawn by information concerning the magnitude of refugee flows, of death tolls, and of numbers of injuries. Reproductive health has been regarded as a longer term issue that could safely be put on the back burner during the crisis phase of an emergency, when issues of providing adequate food, clean water, and shelter, plus treating acute infectious diseases of crowding, take priority. This report reviews what evidence there is concerning the effects of humanitarian crisis on fertility, with a view to identifying common patterns that may exist across settings and be of value in guiding responses to future crises.
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Crisis and Migration

Critical Perspectives

Author: Anna Lindley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136157263

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 212

View: 6636

Crisis and migration have a long association, in popular and policy discourse as well as in social scientific analysis. Despite the emergence of more nuanced and even celebratory accounts of mobility in recent years, there remains a persistent emphasis on migration being either a symptom or a cause of crisis. Moreover, in the context of a recent series of headline-hitting and politically controversial situations, terms like ‘migration crisis’ and ‘crisis migration’ are acquiring increasing currency among policy-makers and academics. Crisis and Migration provides fresh perspectives on this routine association, critically examining a series of politically controversial situations around the world. Drawing on first-hand research into the Arab uprisings, conflict and famine in the Horn of Africa, cartel violence in Latin America, the global economic crisis, and immigration ‘crises’ from East Asia to Southern Africa to Europe, the book’s contributors situate a set of contemporary crises within longer histories of social change and human mobility, showing the importance of treating crisis and migration as contextualised processes, rather than isolated events. By exploring how migration and crisis articulate as lived experiences and political constructs, the book brings migration from the margins to the centre of discussions of social transformation and crisis; illuminates the acute politicisation and diverse spatialisations of crisis–migration relationships; and urges a nuanced, cautious and critical approach to associations of crisis and migration.
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Demography of Refugee and Forced Migration

Author: Graeme Hugo,Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi,Ellen Percy Kraly

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319671472

Category: Social Science

Page: 317

View: 1320

This authoritative and comprehensive edited volume presents current research on how demography can contribute to generating scientific knowledge and evidence concerning refugees and forced migration, developing evidence based policy recommendations on protection for forced migrants and reception of refugees, and revealing the determinants and consequences of migration for origin and destination regions and communities. Refugee and other forced migrations have increased substantially in scale, complexity and diversity in recent decades. These changes challenge traditional approaches in response to refugee and other forced migration situations, and protection of refugees. Demography has an important contribution to make in this analytic space. While other disciplines (especially anthropology, law, geography, political science and international relations) have made major contributions to refugee and forced migration studies, demography has been less present with most research focusing on issues of refugee mortality and morbidity. This book specifies the range of topics for which a demographic approach is highly appropriate, and identifies findings of demographic research which can contribute to ever more effective policy making in this important arena of human welfare and international policy.
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Dominanzkultur

Texte zu Fremdheit und Macht

Author: Birgit Rommelspacher

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Dominance (Psychology)

Page: 219

View: 5642

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Ethnologie und Soziale Arbeit

Fremde Disziplinen, gemeinsame Fragen?

Author: Magnus Treiber,Nicolas Grießmeier,Christian Heider

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3863882539

Category: Education

Page: 274

View: 3374

Nach Jahren des gegenseitigen Desinteresses besinnen sich Ethnologie und Soziale Arbeit wieder mehr und mehr auf ihre gemeinsamen Themen und Ursprünge. Die AutorInnen fragen, wie die beiden Disziplinen gemeinsam solche Probleme lösen könnten, für die oftmals kulturell „Andere“ verantwortlich gemacht werden. Trotz gemeinsamer Ursprünge in der frühen Stadtforschung war das Verhältnis von Ethnologie und Sozialer Arbeit lange von Desinteresse geprägt, lagen doch Selbstverständnis, Aufgaben, Methoden und Einsatzorte weit auseinander. Heute jedoch ist die Ethnologie vom Zwang zur Exotik und die Soziale Arbeit aus einseitiger Abhängigkeit von Soziologie und Pädagogik befreit. Eine zusammengerückte Welt stellt nicht nur die klassische akademische Arbeitsteilung in Frage, sondern beansprucht von beiden Disziplinen auch praktische Probleme zu lösen, für die kulturell „Andere“ verantwortlich gemacht werden. Grund genug also, sich (wieder) für einander zu interessieren. Zwar kennt die Ethnologie keinen unmittelbaren Handlungsauftrag, während die Soziale Arbeit sich primär als Handlungswissenschaft versteht. Dennoch: VertreterInnen beider Disziplinen äußern ein grundsätzliches Interesse daran, Ausgangslage und Lebensumstände ihrer meist benachteiligten Bezugsgruppen zu verbessern sowie die Bedingungen für Asymmetrien und Abhängigkeiten zu benennen und anzugehen. Theorie wird im konkreten Angesicht menschlichen Handelns, sozialer Ungleichheit und globaler Bezüge gebildet; beide Fächer sind so gleichermaßen durch das existentielle Erfahren und Erleben ihrer Akteure, als auch durch notwendig aufgeworfene Fragen des richtigen Handelns geprägt.Die AutorInnen diskutieren Fragen der Methode, geteilter Arbeitsbereiche, Ausbildung und Institutionalisierung sowie Ethik und Handeln über disziplinäre und nationale Grenzen hinweg. Sie richten sich an Wissenschaft und Berufspraxis beider Fächer.
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Cross Border Migrant Organizations in Comparative Perspective

Author: L. Pries,Z. Sezgin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137035110

Category: Social Science

Page: 324

View: 6585

This book analyzes the aims, activities and structures of cross border migrant organizations in four European countries of arrival and seven countries of origin, exploring different patterns of cross-border resource mobilization and coordination.
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Migration

Author: Michael Samers,Michael Collyer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135195048

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 536

Migration is an advanced, yet accessible, introduction to migration and immigration in a global context. It offers a critical, multi-disciplinary approach to the subject, borrowing from human geography, political science, social anthropology and sociology. However, unlike other broad volumes on the subject, it emphasizes a theoretical and conceptual approach to the study of migration. Specifically, Migration adopts a unique geographical approach by employing spatial concepts such as place, scale, and territory. Using these spatial concepts, the author argues that most studies of migration begin with either an undue emphasis on nation-states as a lens on migration or on the contrary rely on exaggerated notions of trans-nationalism. Migration neither neglects the importance of nation states nor the significance of transnationalism, but it focuses on how local contexts matter to migration. The book covers such topics as migration categories, the explanation of different forms of migration, migration and employment, the geopolitics of migration and immigration and citizenship, rights, and belonging. This text is not simply an encyclopaedic overview of migration theories, trends and facts; rather, it is designed to have lasting intellectual value by providing particular arguments in each theme-based chapter. While it advocates certain arguments, it is also clearly written in an engaging and accessible manner for an undergraduate audience. Its clear structure is complemented by a combination of pedagogical features, such as case-study boxes, summary questions at the end of each chapter and a glossary. The book is designed for courses and modules on migration and immigration at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels and both students and academics will find it exceptionally useful.
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The Global Migration Crisis

Challenge to States and to Human Rights

Author: Myron Weiner

Publisher: Harpercollins College Division

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 253

View: 9001

8. The moral crisis
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Migrant Smuggling

Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe

Author: A. Triandafyllidou,Thanos Maroukis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 023036991X

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 4762

This books explores the phenomenon of irregular migration, notably the organization and role of migrant smuggling networks in aiding irregular migration from Asia and Africa to Europe. It also discusses how migration control policies in southern European countries shape the migrant smuggling phenomenon and the smuggling 'business'.
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Humanitarian Crises

The Medical and Public Health Response

Author: Jennifer Leaning,Susan M. Briggs,Lincoln C. Chen

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674155152

Category: Medical

Page: 379

View: 3403

Since the late 1980s the international relief community has seen its resources and personnel stressed beyond capacity by humanitarian crises - large-scale man made catastrophes such as the conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Chechnya, Zaire, Kosovo and elsewhere. Covering topics ranging from emergency public health measures to the psychological trauma of relief workers, this volume presents both a seasoned assessment of current practice and proposals for improving operational efforts in the future. The discussion also raises important questions relating to the definition and direction of the overall humanitarian mission.
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Demographic Assessment Techniques in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies

Summary of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council,Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309084970

Category: Social Science

Page: 34

View: 4234

The Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration was established by the Committee on Population of the National Research Council in 1999. The roundtable is composed of experts from academia, government, philanthropy, and international organizations. The roundtable's purpose is to serve as an interdisciplinary, nonpartisan focal point for taking stock of what is known about demographic patterns in refugee situations, to apply this knowledge base to assist both policy makers and relief workers, and to stimulate new directions for innovation and scientific inquiry in this growing field of study. The roundtable meets yearly and has also organized a series of workshops (held concurrently with roundtable meetings) on some of the specific aspects of the demography of refugee and refugee-like situations, including mortality patterns, demographic assessment techniques, and research ethics in complex humanitarian emergencies. This report to the Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration is a summary of one such workshop, which was held on September 20-21, 2000, under the aupices of the Committee on Population. The purpose of this meeting was to address a basic problem faced by all humanitarian relief agencies in an emergency: how to count the numbers of displaced persons and assess their general well-being. Workshop participants examined different methods for estimating refugee populations and their mortality rates, whether mortality was due to disease and malnutrition or human rights abuses. Demographic Assessment Techniques in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Summary of a Workshop explores the applicability of various methods in different types of emergency settings, how to improve existing methodologies and develop new ones, and the difficulties encountered by personnel in the field, including security, logistics, and access to a population.
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Transcultural Cities

Border-Crossing and Placemaking

Author: Jeffrey Hou

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135122040

Category: Architecture

Page: 336

View: 4417

Transcultural Cities uses a framework of transcultural placemaking, cross-disciplinary inquiry and transnational focus to examine a collection of case studies around the world, presented by a multidisciplinary group of scholars and activists in architecture, urban planning, urban studies, art, environmental psychology, geography, political science, and social work. The book addresses the intercultural exchanges as well as the cultural trans-formation that takes place in urban spaces. In doing so, it views cultures not in isolation from each other in today’s diverse urban environments, but as mutually influenced, constituted and transformed. In cities and regions around the globe, migrations of people have continued to shape the makeup and making of neighborhoods, districts, and communities. For instance, in North America, new immigrants have revitalized many of the decaying urban landscapes, creating renewed cultural ambiance and economic networks that transcend borders. In Richmond, BC Canada, an Asian night market has become a major cultural event that draws visitors throughout the region and across the US and Canadian border. Across the Pacific, foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong transform the deserted office district in Central on weekends into a carnivalesque site. While contributing to the multicultural vibes in cities, migration and movements have also resulted in tensions, competition, and clashes of cultures between different ethnic communities, old-timers, newcomers, employees and employers, individuals and institutions. In Transcultural Cities Jeffrey Hou and a cross-disciplinary team of authors argue for a more critical and open approach that sees today’s cities, urban places, and placemaking as vehicles for cross-cultural understanding.
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Performing Global Networks

Author: Karen Fricker,Ronit Lentin

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443807036

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 8297

Networks are everywhere: from migrant organisations to information technology, from business to social movements, from international governance to global non-governmental organisations, from theatrical collectives to fan clubs, from memory sites to narrative circles. The portmanteau terms networks, and more specifically, global networks, seem to have become the mots du jour in contemporary cultural and social studies. But what cultural, social and political work do global networks accomplish: what is the work of these networks? This path-breaking collection follows Graeme Thompson’s rallying cry for a clearer analytical approach to the ways in which networks are ‘enacted, assembled, conducted, and performed.’ In its thirteen chapters, scholars from a variety of fields – sociology, theatre and performance studies, peace studies, history, and musicology – as well as social and cultural activists, explore the multiple meanings of global networks and performance.
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Community Practice Skills

Local to Global Perspectives

Author: Dorothy N Gamble,Marie Weil

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231520921

Category: Social Science

Page: 496

View: 2318

Dorothy N. Gamble and Marie Weil differentiate among a range of intervention methods to provide a comprehensive and effective guide to working with communities. Presenting eight distinct models grounded in current practice and targeted toward specific goals, Gamble and Weil take an unusually inclusive step, combining their own extensive experience with numerous case and practice examples from talented practitioners in international and domestic settings. The authors open with a discussion of the theories for community work and the values of social justice and human rights, concerns that have guided the work of activists from Jane Addams and Martin Luther King Jr. to Cesar Chavez, Wangari Maathai, and Vandana Shiva. They survey the concepts, knowledge, and perspectives influencing community practice and evaluation strategies. Descriptions of eight practice models follow, incorporating real-life case examples from many parts of the world and demonstrating multiple applications for each model as well as the primary roles, competencies, and skills used by the practitioner. Complexities and variations encourage readers to determine, through comparative analysis, which model at which time best fits the goals of a community group or organization, given the context, culture, social, economic, and environmental issues and opportunities for change. An accompanying workbook stressing empowerment strategies and skills development is also available from Columbia University Press.
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