Humanitarian Crises and Migration

Causes, Consequences and Responses

Author: Susan F. Martin,Sanjula Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135085544

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 6585

Whether it is the stranding of tens of thousands of migrant workers at the Libyan–Tunisian border, or the large-scale displacement triggered by floods in Pakistan and Colombia, hardly a week goes by in which humanitarian crises have not precipitated human movement. While some people move internally, others internationally, some temporarily and others permanently, there are also those who become "trapped" in place, unable to move to greater safety. Responses to these "crisis migrations" are varied and inadequate. Only a fraction of "crisis migrants" are protected by existing international, regional or national law. Even where law exists, practice does not necessarily guarantee safety and security for those who are forced to move or remain trapped. Improvements are desperately needed to ensure more consistent and effective responses. This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This volume is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of "crisis migration," conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Part II presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the ongoing exodus from Somalia, and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Part III focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels. This valuable book brings together previously diffuse research and policy issues under the analytical umbrella of "crisis migration." It lays the foundations for assessing and addressing real challenges to the status quo, and will be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners committed to seeking out improved responses and ensuring the dignity and safety of millions who move in the context of humanitarian crises.
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Humanitarian Crises and Migration

Causes, Consequences and Responses

Author: Susan F. Martin,Sanjula Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135085471

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 7309

Whether it is the stranding of tens of thousands of migrant workers at the Libyan–Tunisian border, or the large-scale displacement triggered by floods in Pakistan and Colombia, hardly a week goes by in which humanitarian crises have not precipitated human movement. While some people move internally, others internationally, some temporarily and others permanently, there are also those who become "trapped" in place, unable to move to greater safety. Responses to these "crisis migrations" are varied and inadequate. Only a fraction of "crisis migrants" are protected by existing international, regional or national law. Even where law exists, practice does not necessarily guarantee safety and security for those who are forced to move or remain trapped. Improvements are desperately needed to ensure more consistent and effective responses. This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This volume is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of "crisis migration," conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Part II presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the ongoing exodus from Somalia, and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Part III focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels. This valuable book brings together previously diffuse research and policy issues under the analytical umbrella of "crisis migration." It lays the foundations for assessing and addressing real challenges to the status quo, and will be of interest to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners committed to seeking out improved responses and ensuring the dignity and safety of millions who move in the context of humanitarian crises.
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Humanitarian Crises and Migration

Causes, Consequences and Responses

Author: Susan Forbes Martin,Sanjula S. Weerasinghe,Abbie Taylor

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415857321

Category: Political Science

Page: 375

View: 1490

"This timely book brings together leading experts from multi-disciplinary backgrounds to reflect on diverse humanitarian crises and to shed light on a series of exploratory questions: In what ways do people move in the face of crisis situations? Why do some people move, while others do not? Where do people move? When do people move, and for how long? What are the challenges and opportunities in providing protection to crisis migrants? How might we formulate appropriate responses and sustainable solutions, and upon what factors should these depend? This book is divided into four parts, with an introductory section outlining the parameters of 'crisis migration', conceptualizing the term and evaluating its utility. This section also explores the legal, policy and institutional architecture upon which current responses are based. Section Two presents a diverse set of case studies, from the earthquake in Haiti and the widespread violence in Mexico, to the on-going exodus from Somalia and environmental degradation in Alaska and the Carteret Islands, among others. Section Three focuses on populations that may be at particular risk, including non-citizens, migrants at sea, those displaced to urban areas, and trapped populations. The concluding section maps the global governance of crisis migration and highlights gaps in current provisions for crisis-related movement across multiple levels"--
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Crisis and Migration

Critical Perspectives

Author: Anna Lindley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136157255

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 224

View: 4218

Crisis and migration have a long association, in popular and policy discourse as well as in social scientific analysis. Despite the emergence of more nuanced and even celebratory accounts of mobility in recent years, there remains a persistent emphasis on migration being either a symptom or a cause of crisis. Moreover, in the context of a recent series of headline-hitting and politically controversial situations, terms like ‘migration crisis’ and ‘crisis migration’ are acquiring increasing currency among policy-makers and academics. Crisis and Migration provides fresh perspectives on this routine association, critically examining a series of politically controversial situations around the world. Drawing on first-hand research into the Arab uprisings, conflict and famine in the Horn of Africa, cartel violence in Latin America, the global economic crisis, and immigration ‘crises’ from East Asia to Southern Africa to Europe, the book’s contributors situate a set of contemporary crises within longer histories of social change and human mobility, showing the importance of treating crisis and migration as contextualised processes, rather than isolated events. By exploring how migration and crisis articulate as lived experiences and political constructs, the book brings migration from the margins to the centre of discussions of social transformation and crisis; illuminates the acute politicisation and diverse spatialisations of crisis–migration relationships; and urges a nuanced, cautious and critical approach to associations of crisis and migration.
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Survival Migration

Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement

Author: Alexander Betts

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801468957

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 7409

International treaties, conventions, and organizations to protect refugees were established in the aftermath of World War II to protect people escaping targeted persecution by their own governments. However, the nature of cross-border displacement has transformed dramatically since then. Such threats as environmental change, food insecurity, and generalized violence force massive numbers of people to flee states that are unable or unwilling to ensure their basic rights, as do conditions in failed and fragile states that make possible human rights deprivations. Because these reasons do not meet the legal understanding of persecution, the victims of these circumstances are not usually recognized as “refugees,” preventing current institutions from ensuring their protection. In this book, Alexander Betts develops the concept of “survival migration” to highlight the crisis in which these people find themselves. Examining flight from three of the most fragile states in Africa—Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Somalia—Betts explains variation in institutional responses across the neighboring host states. There is massive inconsistency. Some survival migrants are offered asylum as refugees; others are rounded up, detained, and deported, often in brutal conditions. The inadequacies of the current refugee regime are a disaster for human rights and gravely threaten international security. In Survival Migration, Betts outlines these failings, illustrates the enormous human suffering that results, and argues strongly for an expansion of protected categories.
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War, Humanitarian Crises, Population Displacement, and Fertility

A Review of Evidence

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,National Research Council,Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration,Kenneth Hill

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165990

Category: Social Science

Page: 46

View: 5003

Fertility and reproductive health issues more broadly have tended to be of low priority in humanitarian crises. Public attention is drawn by information concerning the magnitude of refugee flows, of death tolls, and of numbers of injuries. Reproductive health has been regarded as a longer term issue that could safely be put on the back burner during the crisis phase of an emergency, when issues of providing adequate food, clean water, and shelter, plus treating acute infectious diseases of crowding, take priority. This report reviews what evidence there is concerning the effects of humanitarian crisis on fertility, with a view to identifying common patterns that may exist across settings and be of value in guiding responses to future crises.
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The Consequences of Chaos

Syria s Humanitarian Crisis and the Failure to Protect

Author: Elizabeth G. Ferris,Kemal Kirisci

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815729529

Category: Political Science

Page: 203

View: 2294

The massive dimensions of Syria's refugee crisis—and the search for solutions The civil war in Syria has forced some 10 million people—more than half the country's population—from their homes and communities, creating one of the largest human displacements since the end of World War II. Daily headlines testify to their plight, both within Syria and in the countries to which they have fled. The Consequences of Chaos looks beyond the ever-increasing numbers of Syria's uprooted to consider the long-term economic, political, and social implications of this massive movement of people. Neighboring countries hosting thousands or even millions of refugees, Western governments called upon to provide financial assistance and even new homes for the refugees, regional and international organizations struggling to cope with the demands for food and shelter—all have found the Syria crisis to be overwhelming in its challenges. And the challenges of finding solutions for those displaced by the conflict are likely to continue for years, perhaps even for decades. The Syrian displacement crisis raises fundamental questions about the relationship between action to resolve conflicts and humanitarian aid to assist the victims and demonstrates the limits of humanitarian response, even on a massive scale, to resolve political crises. The increasingly protracted nature of the crisis also raises the need for the international community to think beyond just relief assistance and adopt developmental policies to help refugees become productive members of their host communities.
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Refugee Crisis and Religion

Secularism, Security and Hospitality in Question

Author: Luca Mavelli,Erin Wilson

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield International

ISBN: 9781783488940

Category: Religion

Page: 316

View: 6839

This volume gathers together expertise from academics and practitioners in order to investigate the interconnections and interactions between religion, migration and the refugee regime.
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Migrants, Refugees, and the Media

The New Reality of Open Societies

Author: Sai Felicia Krishna-Hensel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351234641

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 928

The large-scale movements of refugees and economic migrants from conflict zones to more stable societies have resulted in challenges, both for new entrants and their hosts. This fascinating volume brings together a collection of media analyses focused on immigration issues to examine how migration has been represented to the public. Case studies exploring media coverage of migrants and refugees in Europe enable the reader to better understand the complexity of the process through a range of unique and unexplored dimensions of immigration analysis, including strategic framing theory, game structure analysis, migration maps and routes, television narratives, rumour-based communication, and state-bred campaigns. The insights into the perspective of migrants, the general public and policy makers provide innovative methodological and theoretical analysis on population movements which will be of interest to scholars, students, and policy makers working in the fields of migration studies, international relations, peace and security studies, and social and public policy.
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Seeking Refuge

Central American Migration to Mexico, the United States, and Canada

Author: María Cristina García

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520247019

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 3276

Tells the story of the 20th-century Central American migration, and how domestic and foreign policy interests shaped the asylum policies of Mexico, the United States, and Canada.
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Global Migrants, Global Refugees

Problems and Solutions

Author: Aristide R. Zolberg,Peter M. Benda

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571811691

Category: History

Page: 369

View: 7781

Includes statistics.
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South–South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development

Views from the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East

Author: Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135076669

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 168

View: 2483

This ground-breaking book is one of the first to analyse the important phenomenon of South-South educational migration for refugees. It focuses particularly on South-South scholarship programmes in Cuba and Libya, which have granted free education to children, adolescents and young adults from two of the world’s most protracted refugee situations: Sahrawis and Palestinians. Through in-depth multi-sited fieldwork conducted with and about Sahrawi and Palestinian refugee students in Cuba and Libya, and following their return to the desert-based Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria and the urban Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, this highly pertinent study brings refugees’ views and voices to the forefront and sheds a unique light on their understandings of self-sufficiency, humanitarianism and hospitality. It critically assesses the impact of diverse policies designed to maximise self-sufficiency and to reduce both brain drain and ongoing dependency upon Northern aid providers, exploring the extent to which South-South scholarship systems have challenged the power imbalances that typically characterise North to South development models. Finally, this very timely study discusses the impact of the Arab Spring on Libya’s support mechanisms for Sahrawi and Palestinian refugees, and considers the changing nature of Cuba’s educational model in light of major ongoing political, ideological and economic shifts in the island state, asking whether there is a future for such alternative programmes and initiatives. This book will be a valuable resource for students, researchers and practitioners in the areas of migration studies, refugee studies, comparative education, development and humanitarian studies, international relations, and regional studies (Latin America, Middle East, and North Africa).
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Externalizing Migration Management

Europe, North America and the spread of 'remote control' practices

Author: Ruben Zaiotti

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317308298

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 6274

The extension of border controls beyond a country’s territory to regulate the flows of migrants before they arrive has become a popular and highly controversial policy practice. Today, remote control policies are more visible, complex and widespread than ever before, raising various ethical, political and legal issues for the governments promoting them. The book examines the externalization of migration control from an interdisciplinary and comparative perspective, focusing on ‘remote control’ initiatives in Europe and North America, with contributions from the fields of politics, sociology, law, geography, anthropology, and history. This book uses empirically rich analyses and compelling theoretical insights to trace the evolution of ‘remote control’ initiatives and assesses their impact and policy implications. It also explores competing theoretical models that might explain their emergence and diffusion. Individual chapters tackle some of the most puzzling questions underlying remote control policies, such as the reasons why governments adopt these policies and what might be their impact on migrants and other actors involved.
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Islamic Traditions of Refuge in the Crises of Iraq and Syria

Author: Tahir Zaman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137550066

Category: Social Science

Page: 225

View: 5327

This book considers positions refugees take relative to the state, humanitarian actors and faith-based organisations in the humanitarian field. Attention is drawn to refugee agency as they negotiate circumstances of considerable constraint demonstrating relational dimensions of religious practice and experience.
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Population, Migration, and Socioeconomic Outcomes among Island and Mainland Puerto Ricans

La Crisis Boricua

Author: Marie T. Mora,Alberto Dávila,Havidán Rodríguez

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 1498516874

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 242

View: 6202

At the landmark centennial anniversary of the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act, which granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship, the island confronts an unfolding humanitarian crisis initially triggered by an acute economic crisis surging since 2006. Analyzing large datasets such as the American Community Survey and the Puerto Rican Community Survey, this book represents the first comprehensive analysis of the socioeconomic and demographic consequences of “La Crisis Boricua” for Puerto Ricans on the island and mainland, including massive net outmigration from the island on a scale not seen for sixty years; a shrinking and rapidly aging population; a shut-down of high-tech industries; a significant loss in public and private sector jobs; a deteriorating infrastructure; higher sales taxes than any of the states; $74 billion in public debt plus another $49 billion in unfunded pension obligations; and defaults on payments to bondholders. This book also discusses how the socioeconomic and demographic outcomes differ among stateside Puerto Ricans, including recent migrants, in traditional settlement areas such as New York versus those in newer settlement areas such as Florida and Texas. Florida is now home to 1.1 million Puerto Ricans (essentially the same number as those living in New York) and received a full third of the migrants from the island to mainland during this time. Scholars interested in the transition of migrants into their receiving communities (regardless of the Puerto Rican case) will also find this book to be of interest, particularly with respect to the comparative analyses on earnings, the likelihood of being impoverished, and self-employment.
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Forced Migration and Mortality

Author: Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309073340

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 7575

In recent years the number of complex humanitarian emergencies around the world has been steadily increasing. War and political, ethnic, racial, and religious strife continually force people to migrate against their will. These forced migrants create a stream of new challenges for relief workers and policy makers. A better understanding of the characteristics of refugee populations and of the population dynamics of these situations is vital. Improved research and insights can enhance disaster management, refugee camp administration, and repatriation or resettlement programs. Forced Migration and Mortality examines mortality patterns in complex human- itarian emergencies, reviewing the state of knowledge, as well as how patterns may change in the new century. It contains four case studies of mortality in recent emergencies: Rwanda, North Korea, Kosovo, and Cambodia. Because refugees and internally displaced persons are likely to continue to be a significant humanitarian concern for many years, research in this field is critical. This is the first book to comprehensively explore forced migration and mortality and it provides useful material for researchers, policy makers, and relief workers.
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The Securitization of Migration and Refugee Women

Author: Alison Gerard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135982570

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 606

Humanised accounts of restrictions on mobility are rarely the focus of debates on irregular migration. Very little is heard from refugees themselves about why they migrate, their experiences whilst entering the EU or how they navigate reception conditions upon arrival, particularly from a gendered perspective. The Securitization of Migration and Refugee Women fills this gap and explores the journey made by refugee women who have travelled from Somalia to the EU to seek asylum. This book reveals the humanised impact of the securitization of migration, the dominant policy response to irregular migration pursued by governments across the Globe. The Southern EU Member State of Malta finds itself on the frontline of policing and securing Europe’s southern external borders against transnational migrants and preventing migrants’ on-migration to other Member States within the EU. The securitization of migration has been responsible for restricting access to asylum, diluting rights and entitlements to refugee protection, and punishing those who arrive in the EU without valid passports –a visibly racialised and gendered population. The stories of the refugee women interviewed for this research detail the ways in which refugee protection is being eroded, selectively applied and in some cases specifically designed to exclude. In contrast to the majority of migration literature, which has largely focused on the male experience, this book focuses on the experiences of refugee women and aims to contribute to the volume of work dedicated to analysing borders from the perspective of those who cross them. This research strengthens existing criminological literature and has the potential to offer insights to policy makers around the world. It will be of interest to academics and students interested in International Crime and Justice, Securitisation, Refugee Law and Border Control, as well as the general reader.
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Refugee Resettlement

Power, Politics, and Humanitarian Governance

Author: Adèle Garnier,Liliana Lyra Jubilut,Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781785339691

Category: Social Science

Page: 234

View: 2975

Examining resettlement practices worldwide and drawing on contributions from anthropology, law, international relations, social work, political science, and numerous other disciplines, this ground-breaking volume highlights the conflicts between refugees' needs and state practices, and assesses international, regional and national perspectives on resettlement, as well as the bureaucracies and ideologies involved. It offers a detailed understanding of resettlement, from the selection of refugees to their long-term integration in resettling states, and highlights the relevance of a lifespan approach to resettlement analysis.
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Violent Borders

Refugees and the Right to Move

Author: Reece Jones

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1784784729

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 3024

A major new exploration of the refugee crisis, focusing on how borders are formed and policed Forty thousand people died trying to cross international borders in the past decade, with the high-profile deaths along the shores of Europe only accounting for half of the grisly total. Reece Jones argues that these deaths are not exceptional, but rather the result of state attempts to contain populations and control access to resources and opportunities. “We may live in an era of globalization,” he writes, “but much of the world is increasingly focused on limiting the free movement of people.” In Violent Borders, Jones crosses the migrant trails of the world, documenting the billions of dollars spent on border security projects and their dire consequences for countless millions. While the poor are restricted by the lottery of birth to slum dwellings in the aftershocks of decolonization, the wealthy travel without constraint, exploiting pools of cheap labor and lax environmental regulations. With the growth of borders and resource enclosures, the deaths of migrants in search of a better life are intimately connected to climate change, environmental degradation, and the growth of global wealth inequality.
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