Author: Simon Mays
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
View: 1263The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.
Human Bones and Archaeology
Author: Tony Waldron
Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited
View: 1451In explaining just what the archaeologist can reliably deduce about past societies from the study of bones and other human remains, Dr Waldron carefully avoids over-technical jargon. At the same time, however he does not over-simplify: he points out that too many previous studies have been based on insufficiently rigorous clinical and epidemiological methods.
Author: Tim D. White,Pieter A. Folkens
View: 7588Building on the success of their previous book, White and Folkens' The Human Bone Manual is intended for use outside the laboratory and classroom, by professional forensic scientists, anthropologists and researchers. The compact volume includes all the key information needed for identification purposes, including hundreds of photographs designed to show a maximum amount of anatomical information. Features more than 500 color photographs and illustrations in a portable format; most in 1:1 ratio Provides multiple views of every bone in the human body Includes tips on identifying any human bone or tooth Incorporates up-to-date references for further study
In Archaeology and Forensic Science
Author: Margaret Cox,Simon Mays
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
View: 9876This advanced textbook provides the reader with an up-to-date account of recent developments and future potential in the study of human skeletons from both an archaeological and forensic context. It is well-illustrated, comprehensive in its coverage and is divided into six sections for ease of reference, encompassing such areas as palaeodemography, juvenile health and growth, disease and trauma, normal skeletal variation, biochemical and microscopic analyses and facial reconstruction. Each chapter is written by a recognised specialist in the field, and includes in-depth discussion of the reliability of methods, with appropriate references, and current and future research directions. It is essential reading for all students undertaking osteology as part of their studies and will also prove a valuable reference for forensic scientists, both in the field and the laboratory.
Author: Donald J. Ortner
Publisher: Academic Press
View: 1992Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations
Archeology and the First Colonization of Western North America
Author: E. James Dixon
Publisher: UNM Press
View: 6076This revolutionary archeological synthesis argues an alternative model of the earliest human population of North America. E. James Dixon dispels the stereotype of big-game hunters following mammoths across the Bering Land Bridge and paints a vivid picture of marine mammal hunters, fishers, and general foragers colonizing the New World. Applying contemporary scientific methods and drawing on new archeological discoveries, he advances evidence indicating that humans first reached the Americas using water craft along the deglaciated Northwest Coast about 13,500 years ago, some 2,000 years before the first Clovis hunters. Dixon's rigorous evaluation of the oldest North American archeological sites and human remains offers well-reasoned hypotheses about the physical characteristics, lives, and relationships of the First Americans. His crisply written analysis of scientific exploration is essential reading for scholars, students, and general readers.
The Curious Afterlife of the Red Lady of Paviland
Author: Marianne Sommer
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Business & Economics
View: 6291When ochre-stained bones were unearthed by William Buckland in a Welsh cave in 1823, they raised many unsettling questions regarding their origin, and inspired the casting and recasting of the character who became known as the Red Lady. Her biography reflects the personal, professional, and national ambitions of those who studied her, and echoes the era in which each bit of research was conducted. In telling her story, Sommer reveals how paleoanthropology has emerged as an international, interdisciplinary, and thoroughly modern science.
Author: Barbara A. Purdy
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Social Science
View: 6862Waterlogged archaeological sites in Florida contain tools, art objects, dietary items, human skeletal remains, and glimpses of past environments that do not survive the ravages of time at typical terrestrial sites. Unfortunately, archaeological wet sites are invisible since their preservation depends upon their entombment in oxygen-free, organic deposits. As a result, they are often destroyed accidentally during draining, dredging, and development projects. These sites and the objects they contain are an important part of Florida's heritage. They provide an opportunity to learn how the state's earliest residents used available resources to make their lives more comfortable and how they expressed themselves artistically. Without the wood carvings from water-saturated sites, it would be easy to think of early Floridians as culturally impoverished because Florida does not have stone suitable for creating sculptures. This book compiles in one volume detailed accounts of such famous sites as Key Marco, Little Salt Spring, Windover, Ft. Center, and others. The book discusses wet site environments and explains the kinds of physical, chemical, and structural components required to ensure that the proper conditions for site formation are present and prevail through time. The book also talks about how to preserve artifacts that have been entombed in anaerobic deposits and the importance of classes of objects, such as wooden carvings, dietary items, human skeletal remains, to our better understanding of past cultures. Until now this information has been scattered in obscure documents and articles, thus diminishing its importance. Our ancestors may not have been Indians, but they contributed to the state's heritage for more than 10,000 years. Once disturbed by ambitious dredging and draining projects, their story is gone forever; it cannot be transplanted to another location.
Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
Category: Social Science
View: 546Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.
Author: David R. Begun
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
View: 6928A Companion to Paleoanthropology presents a compendium of readings from leading scholars in the field that define our current knowledge of the major discoveries and developments in human origins and human evolution, tracing the fossil record from primate and hominid origins to the dispersal of modern humans across the globe. Represents an accessible state-of-the-art summary of the entire field of paleoanthropology, with an overview of hominid taxonomy Features articles on the key discoveries in ape and human evolution, in cranial, postcranial and brain evolution, growth and development Surveys the breadth of the paleontological record from primate origins to modern humans Highlights the unique methods and techniques of paleoanthropology, including dating and ecological methods, and use of living primate date to reconstruct behavior in fossil apes and humans
Author: Carlo Beltrame
Publisher: All’Insegna del Giglio
View: 1975Archeologia dei relitti postmedievali / Archaeology of Post-Medieval Shipwrecks, a cura di Carlo Beltrame Il volume, che raccoglie undici contributi di archeologi marittimi di molti paesi, ha l’obiettivo di accendere i riflettori sulle enormi potenzialità dei relitti di età storica, mettendo a confronto, da un lato, approcci diversi (di ambito mediterraneo ma anche statunitense, australiano e nord europeo), dall’altro, contesti archeologici con caratteristiche altrettanto diverse per l’ambiente di giacitura e per l’impiego civile o militare dell’imbarcazione. Gli studi, diacronici ma incentrati sul Cinquecento e sull’Ottocento, coprono le varie sfaccettature dell’indagine storica dei relitti di età postmedievale quali la costruzione navale, il commercio e la vita di bordo, ma anche aspetti di tipo squisitamente metodologico quali l’archeologia sperimentale navale. Si tratta di una novità assoluta per l’editoria scientifica italiana in cui questo particolare, ma molto promettente, ambito della ricerca archeologica non aveva ancora trovato adeguato spazio.
Author: Richard G. Klein,Kathryn Cruz-Uribe
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Category: Social Science
View: 7222In growing numbers, archeologists are specializing in the analysis of excavated animal bones as clues to the environment and behavior of ancient peoples. This pathbreaking work provides a detailed discussion of the outstanding issues and methods of bone studies that will interest zooarcheologists as well as paleontologists who focus on reconstructing ecologies from bones. Because large samples of bones from archeological sites require tedious and time-consuming analysis, the authors also offer a set of computer programs that will greatly simplify the bone specialist's job. After setting forth the interpretive framework that governs their use of numbers in faunal analysis, Richard G. Klein and Kathryn Cruz-Uribe survey various measures of taxonomic abundance, review methods for estimating the sex and age composition of a fossil species sample, and then give examples to show how these measures and sex/age profiles can provide useful information about the past. In the second part of their book, the authors present the computer programs used to calculate and analyze each numerical measure or count discussed in the earlier chapters. These elegant and original programs, written in BASIC, can easily be used by anyone with a microcomputer or with access to large mainframe computers.
Author: Sabrina C. Agarwal,Bonnie A. Glencross
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
View: 8587Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world
Author: Michael W. Warren,Heather A. Walsh-Haney,Laurel Freas
Publisher: CRC Press
View: 7504Presenting a rare glimpse into the various laboratories that involve forensic anthropology, The Forensic Anthropology Laboratory reveals the ways in which anthropologists document, process, and collect data for academic research and practical and legal applications, including time of death, trauma analyses, and the identification of unknown human remains. Drawing from a wide range of sources, the book begins with detailed descriptions of how body donations are received and processed. It includes extraordinary photos documenting the steps taken to ensure that each body part is tracked from the moment it is received through the decomposition and skeletonization processes. Dr. David Hunt, of the Smithsonian Institution, discusses destructive analysis, diagnostic imaging, casting, and all types of anthroposcopic and anthropometric data collection methods. The book also compares the duties of full-time forensic anthropologists in a medical examiner’s office with their academic counterparts, discussing staffing, physical plant concerns, field recovery procedures, and laboratory processing. It stresses the variety of required skills, including fingerprinting and other trace evidence procedures, and highlights casework examples from FACES, illustrating the technology used to establish identifications through facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, and age progression. Using examples from the World Trade Center, Hurricane Katrina, and the Asian Tsunami disasters, the book examines the roles of forensic anthropologists and pathologists as mass fatality responders. It discusses practical issues and explains how and where the mobile disaster morgue can be used, including morgue floor plans and equipment. A one-of-a-kind survey of a variety of forensic anthropology laboratories, the editors provide an insider’s view of functioning laboratories as reported by some of the most respected and prolific anthropologists in clinical, research, and academic settings.