Horizontal Inequalities and Post-Conflict Development

Author: Frances Stewart,R. Venugopal,Arnim Langer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230348629

Category: Political Science

Page: 346

View: 9241

This book evaluates the extent to which post-conflict reconstruction has addressed problems of horizontal inequalities through country case studies on Burundi, Rwanda, Nepal, Peru, Guatemala, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Afghanistan, and four thematic studies on macro-economic policies, privatisation, PRSP's, and employment generation.
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Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict

Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies

Author: F. Stewart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230582729

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 8743

Drawing on econometric evidence and in-depth studies of West Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia, this book explores how horizontal inequalities - ethnic, religious or racial - are a source of violent conflict and how political, economic and cultural status inequalities have contributed. Policies to reverse inequality would reduce these risks.
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Preventing Violent Conflict in Africa

Inequalities, Perceptions and Institutions

Author: Y. Mine,F. Stewart,S. Fukuda-Parr,T. Mkandawire

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113732970X

Category: Political Science

Page: 325

View: 1718

Horizontal inequalities are root causes of violent conflict in Africa. Yet, people take actions not because of statistical data on inequalities, of which they might not be aware, but because of injustices they perceive. This volume analyses the results of original surveys with over 3,000 respondents in African cities and towns, exposing clear discrepancies between objective inequalities and people's subjective perceptions. The contributors examine experiences in country pairs and probe into the reasons why neighbouring countries, sharing common historical traits, sometimes took contrasting pathways of peace and violent conflict. Combining quantitative analysis and qualitative anatomy of historical experiences of conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda, Burundi, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria, the study brings forward a set of policy recommendations for development practitioners. This work further addresses the issue of institutional choice and reveals how sustainable power-sharing and decentralisation contribute to political stability in Africa.
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International Law and New Wars

Author: Christine Chinkin,Mary Kaldor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107171210

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 2268

Examines the difficulties in applying international law to recent armed conflicts known as 'new wars'.
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Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War

Author: Lars-Erik Cederman,Kristian Skrede Gleditsch,Halvard Buhaug

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107017424

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 6130

This book argues that political and economic inequalities following group lines generate grievances that in turn can motivate civil war. Lars-Erik Cederman, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch, and Halvard Buhaug offer a theoretical approach that highlights ethnonationalism and how the relationship between group identities and inequalities are fundamental for successful mobilization to resort to violence. Although previous research highlighted grievances as a key motivation for political violence, contemporary research on civil war has largely dismissed grievances as irrelevant, emphasizing instead the role of opportunities. This book shows that the alleged non-results for grievances in previous research stemmed primarily from atheoretical measures, typically based on individual data. The authors develop new indicators of political and economic exclusion at the group level, and show that these exert strong effects on the risk of civil war. They provide new analyses of the effects of transnational ethnic links and the duration of civil wars, and extended case discussions illustrating causal mechanisms.
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Overcoming the Persistence of Inequality and Poverty

Author: Valpy FitzGerald,Judith Heyer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230306721

Category: Social Science

Page: 301

View: 6220

International experts evaluate new policy directions in economic development and poverty reduction, building on the ideas of a pioneer in the new discipline of Development Studies, Frances Stewart. Combing ideas and evidence on technological change, human development and conflict prevention to address the issue of the persistence of inequality
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Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict

Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies

Author: F. Stewart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230582729

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 2834

Drawing on econometric evidence and in-depth studies of West Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia, this book explores how horizontal inequalities - ethnic, religious or racial - are a source of violent conflict and how political, economic and cultural status inequalities have contributed. Policies to reverse inequality would reduce these risks.
Release

Preventing Violent Conflict in Africa

Inequalities, Perceptions and Institutions

Author: Y. Mine,F. Stewart,S. Fukuda-Parr,T. Mkandawire

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113732970X

Category: Political Science

Page: 325

View: 9887

Horizontal inequalities are root causes of violent conflict in Africa. Yet, people take actions not because of statistical data on inequalities, of which they might not be aware, but because of injustices they perceive. This volume analyses the results of original surveys with over 3,000 respondents in African cities and towns, exposing clear discrepancies between objective inequalities and people's subjective perceptions. The contributors examine experiences in country pairs and probe into the reasons why neighbouring countries, sharing common historical traits, sometimes took contrasting pathways of peace and violent conflict. Combining quantitative analysis and qualitative anatomy of historical experiences of conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda, Burundi, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Nigeria, the study brings forward a set of policy recommendations for development practitioners. This work further addresses the issue of institutional choice and reveals how sustainable power-sharing and decentralisation contribute to political stability in Africa.
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Governance, Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Author: Carl Bruch,Carroll Muffett,Sandra S. Nichols

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136272062

Category: Law

Page: 1160

View: 3852

When the guns are silenced, those who have survived armed conflict need food, water, shelter, the means to earn a living, and the promise of safety and a return to civil order. Meeting these needs while sustaining peace requires more than simply having governmental structures in place; it requires good governance. Natural resources are essential to sustaining people and peace in post-conflict countries, but governance failures often jeopardize such efforts. This book examines the theory, practice, and often surprising realities of post-conflict governance, natural resource management, and peacebuilding in fifty conflict-affected countries and territories. It includes thirty-nine chapters written by more than seventy researchers, diplomats, military personnel, and practitioners from governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The book highlights the mutually reinforcing relationship between natural resource management and good governance. Natural resource management is crucial to rebuilding governance and the rule of law, combating corruption, improving transparency and accountability, engaging disenfranchised populations, and building confidence after conflict. At the same time, good governance is essential for ensuring that natural resource management can meet immediate needs for post-conflict stability and development, while simultaneously laying the foundation for a sustainable peace. Drawing on analyses of the close relationship between governance and natural resource management, the book explores lessons from past conflicts and ongoing reconstruction efforts; illustrates how those lessons may be applied to the formulation and implementation of more effective governance initiatives; and presents an emerging theoretical and practical framework for policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and students. Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in this series address high-value resources, land, water, livelihoods, and assessing and restoring natural resources.
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Understanding Collective Political Violence

Author: Yvan Guichaoua

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230285465

Category: Political Science

Page: 291

View: 5702

Introduction: Individual Drivers of Collective Violence and the Dynamics of Armed Groups-- Y.Guichaoua PART I: JOINING INSURGENCIES: CONTEXTS, BELIEFS AND AGENCY Militarized Youth in Western Cote d'Ivoire: Who are They? Why did They Fight?-- M.C.den Hamer Political Cultures and Tuareg Mobilizations: Rebels of Niger, from Kaocen to the Mouvement des Nigeriens Pour la Justice-- F.Deycard The Mobilization of Children: What's the Difference?-- J.Hart Gendered Patterns of Mobilisation and Recruitment for Political Violence, Experiences from Three Latin American Countries-- L.M.D.Ortega Have Gun, Will Travel: Interpreting the Trajectories of Female Irregular Combatants-- L.Gayer Engendering Armed Militancy in Kashmir: Women as Perpetrators of Violence-- S.Shekhawat Recruitment into Armed Groups in Colombia: A Survey of Demobilized Fighters-- A.M.Arjona & S.Kalyvas PART II: THE DYNAMICS OF INSURGENT GROUPS The Dilemmas of Recruitment: The Colombian Case-- F.G.Sanin Religion versus Ethnicity as a Source of Mobilisation: Are There Differences?-- F.Stewart The Politics of Counter-insurgency: How did the Young Patriots Emerge in Cote d'Ivoire?-- G.Kone Circumstantial Alliances and Loose Loyalties in Rebellion Making: The Case of Tuareg Insurgency in Northern Niger (2007-2009)-- Y.Guichaoua Concluding Remarks-- Y.Guichaoua.
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Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment, and Civil Conflict

Evidence from 55 Developing Countries, 1986-2003

Author: Gudrun Østby

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Civil war

Page: 32

View: 4644

Several studies of civil war have concluded that economic inequality between individuals does not increase the risk of internal armed conflict. This is perhaps not so surprising. Even though an individual may feel frustrated if he is poor compared with other individuals in society, he will not start a rebellion on his own. Civil wars are organized group conflicts, not a matter of individuals randomly committing violence against each other. Hence, we should not neglect the group aspect of human well-being and conflict. Systematic inequalities that coincide with ethnic, religious, or geographical cleavages in a country are often referred to as horizontal inequalities (or inter-group inequalities). Case studies of particular countries as well as some statistical studies have found that such inequalities between identity groups tend to be associated with a higher risk of internal conflict. But the emergence of violent group mobilization in a country with sharp horizontal inequalities may depend on the characteristics of the political regime. For example, in an autocracy, grievances that stem from group inequalities are likely to be large and frequent, but state repression may prevent them from being openly expressed. This paper investigates the relationship between horizontal inequalities, political environment, and civil war in developing countries. Based on national survey data from 55 countries it calculates welfare inequalities between ethnic, religious, and regional groups for each country using indicators such as household assets and educational levels. All the inequality measures, particularly regional inequality, are positively associated with higher risks of conflict outbreak. And it seems that the conflict potential of regional inequality is stronger for pure democratic and intermediate regimes than for pure autocratic regimes. Institutional arrangements also seem to matter.
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Affirmative Action in Plural Societies

International Experiences

Author: Graham Brown,Arnim Langer,Frances Stewart

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137271558

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 7102

Across the developmental spectrum, the prospects and problems of 'affirmative action' are increasingly important issues facing multi-ethnic countries. Drawing on philosophy, economics and sociology, the contributors explore the merits and demerits of affirmative action, and explain why affirmative action may be needed in countries facing large inequalities across ethnic, religious or racial groups. They analyse the origin, nature and consequences of affirmative action in Brazil, South Africa, the United States, Malaysia, Northern Ireland and Nigeria. Evaluating alternatives, they seek to provide guidance on the design of policies in different circumstances, with the aim of reducing horizontal inequalities, while minimising possible negative consequences.
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Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars

Author: Edward Newman,Karl DeRouen, Jr.

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136255788

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 8245

This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic and policy interest upon civil war. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field who discuss the sources, causes, duration, nature and recurrence of civil wars, as well as their political meaning and international impact, the Handbook is organised into five key parts: Part I: Understanding and Explaining Civil Wars: Theoretical and Methodological Debates Part II: The Causes of Civil Wars Part III: The Nature and Impact of Civil Wars Part IV: International Dimensions Part V: Termination and Resolution of Civil Wars Covering a wide range of topics including micro-level issues as well as broader debates, Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars will set a benchmark for future research in the field. This volume will be of much interest to students of civil wars and intrastate conflict, ethnic conflict, political violence, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.
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Inequality and Power

The Economics of Class

Author: Eric A. Schutz

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136811389

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 1145

This book is about the causes and consequences of economic inequality in the advanced market economies of today. It is common that in market systems people choose their own individual economic destinies, but of course the choices people make are importantly determined by the alternatives available to them: unequal opportunity is the critical determinant of economic disparities. This begs the question; from where do the vast inequalities of opportunity arise? This book theorizes that power and social class are the real crux of economic inequality. Most of mainstream economics studiously eschews questions involving social power, preferring to focus instead on "individual choice subject to constraint" in contexts of "well-functioning markets". Yet both "extra-market" power structures and power structures arising from within the market system itself are unavoidably characteristic of real-world market-based economies. The normal working of labor and financial markets engenders an inherent wealth-favoring bias in the distribution of opportunities for occupational choice. But that bias is greatly compounded by the economic, social, political and cultural power structures that constitute the class system. For those power structures work to distribute economic benefit to class elites, and are in turn undergirded by the disparities of wealth they thus help engender. Inequality and Power offers an economic analysis of the power structures constituting that class system: employers’ power over employees; the power of certain businesses over others; professionals’ power over their clients and other employees; cultural power in the media and education systems; and political power in "democratic" government. Schutz argues that a "class analysis" of the trend of increasing economic inequality today is superior to the mainstream economic analysis of that trend. After considering what is wrong with power-based inequality in term of criteria of distributive justice and economic functionality, the book concludes with an outline of various possible correctives. This book should be of interest to students and researchers in economics, sociology, political science and philosophy, as well as anyone interested in the theories of social class.
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From Classrooms to Conflict in Rwanda

Author: Elisabeth King

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107435226

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 6361

This book questions the conventional wisdom that education builds peace by exploring the ways in which ordinary schooling can contribute to intergroup conflict. Based on fieldwork and comparative historical analysis of Rwanda, it argues that from the colonial period to the genocide, schooling was a key instrument of the state in contributing to the construction, awareness, collectivization and inequality of ethnic groups in Rwanda - all factors that underlay conflict. The book further argues that today's post-genocide schools are dangerously replicating past trends. This book is the first to offer an in-depth study of education in Rwanda and to analyze its role in the genesis of conflict. The book demonstrates that to build peace, we cannot simply prescribe more education, but must understand who has access to schools, how schools are set up, and what and how they teach.
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Poverty and Conflict in Ireland

An International Perspective

Author: Paddy Hillyard,Bill Rolston,Mike Tomlinson

Publisher: Combat Poverty Agency

ISBN: 1904541224

Category: Poverty

Page: 214

View: 9219

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Understanding Collective Political Violence

Author: Y. Guichaoua

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230348319

Category: Political Science

Page: 291

View: 8622

Understanding Collective Political Violence offers a unique view on contemporary processes of violent political mobilization across continents: Africa, Latin America, South East Asia and the Middle East. It pays particular attention to unconventional combatants such as women or children and details the drivers of their violent engagement.
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Making Peace Work

The Challenges of Social and Economic Reconstruction

Author: T. Addison,T. Brück

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230595197

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 346

View: 1484

This book provides an insight into some of the main issues that arise in post-conflict economic and social reconstruction, and offers examples of what works, and what does not. It will be of interest to all working on economic and social reconstruction in post-conflict countries, as well as those working on peace and development.
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On the Fault Line

Managing tensions and divisions within societies

Author: Jeffrey Herbst

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 184765813X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 282

View: 5649

Societies in all countries are split by major divisions - or 'faultlines' - caused by differences in race, religion, ethnicity, wealth, class or power. Like geological faultlines, some are plainly evident, whereas others are more concealed and can erupt with little warning. Violence along faultlines within states, from Sudan to Iraq to the Congo, is the spark of much contemporary conflict. It has cost millions of lives in the past twenty years alone. In extreme cases, this violence threatens to tear states apart. Yet some countries such as Canada, South Africa and Northern Ireland, have largely succeeded in managing their faultlines. On the Faultline is based on a unique year-long project by some of the world's leading experts to examine the nature of conflict around these divisions. In a world facing acute environmental, migration and resource challenges that can only exacerbate differences, it is an essential guide to understanding a phenomenon that all countries must grapple with in the 21st century.
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