Groundwater Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Author: Howard S. Wheater,Simon A. Mathias,Xin Li

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139489720

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9270

Arid and semi-arid regions face major challenges in the management of scarce freshwater resources under pressures of population, economic development, climate change, pollution and over-abstraction. Groundwater is commonly the most important water resource in these areas. Groundwater models are widely used globally to understand groundwater systems and to guide decisions on management. However, the hydrology of arid and semi-arid areas is very different from that of humid regions, and there is little guidance on the special challenges of groundwater modelling for these areas. This book brings together the experience of internationally leading experts to fill a gap in the scientific and technical literature. It introduces state-of-the-art methods for modelling groundwater resources, illustrated with a wide-ranging set of illustrative examples from around the world. The book is valuable for researchers, practitioners in developed and developing countries, and graduate students in hydrology, hydrogeology, water resources management, environmental engineering and geography.
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Hydrological Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Author: Howard Wheater,Soroosh Sorooshian,K. D. Sharma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468081

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 1417

Arid and semi-arid regions are defined as areas where water is at its most scarce. The hydrological regime in these areas is extreme and highly variable, and they face great pressures to deliver and manage freshwater resources. However, there is no guidance on the decision support tools that are needed to underpin flood and water resource management in arid areas. UNESCO initiated the Global network for Water and Development Information for arid lands (GWADI), and arranged a workshop of the world's leading experts to discuss these issues. This book presents chapters from contributors to the workshop, and includes case studies from the world's major arid regions to demonstrate model applications, and web links to tutorials and state of the art modelling software. This volume is a valuable reference for researchers and engineers working on the water resources of arid and semi-arid regions.
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Hydrogeology of Arid Environments

Proceedings

Author: Randolf Rausch,Christoph Schüth,Thomas Himmelsbach

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783443010706

Category: Arid regions

Page: 283

View: 5892

In arid and semi-arid regions groundwater is often the only natural resource for water supply. Therefore, stakeholders face great challenges in managing this resource in a responsible way. The problem is further amplified by population growth, increase in agricultural, industrial and municipal water consumption, and the threat of climate change. Therefore, an optimal use and management of the scarce groundwater resources is imperative. A precondition for this is a sound understanding of the particularities of the hydrogeology of arid and semi-arid regions as well as a proper knowledge of the water budget, water resources in storage, and water quality. This book summarizes the results of the conference "Hydrogeology of Arid Environments", which was held in March 2012 in Hannover (Germany). It gives an overview about current research on this topic with examples from arid and semi-arid areas from all over the world. The book is intended for scientists, engineers, hydrologists, hydrogeologists, and political decision makers interested in the water resources of arid and semi-arid environments.
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Engineering Hydrology of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

Author: Mostafa M. Soliman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439815577

Category: Science

Page: 411

View: 7410

The natural scarcity of water in arid and semiarid regions, aggravated by man-made factors, makes it difficult to achieve a reliable water resources supply. Communities in these areas pay the price for thousands of years of water manipulation. Presenting important insight into the complexities of arid region hydrology, Engineering Hydrology of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions explores the key components for formulating and implementing integrated management approaches in catchment (wadi) systems. The book introduces the engineering hydrology of arid and semi-arid regions, covering meteorological processes and hydrology. The author discusses precipitation and precipitation losses, catchment characteristics, and runoff estimation methods. He also examines streamflow measurements and hydrographs, flood routing, and groundwater hydrology, including the basic equations of groundwater flow and analytic solutions describing flow aquifers, pumping tests, and salt water intrusion. Building on this foundation, the book then delineates sediment yield in watersheds and streams and the design of hydraulic structures for protection and management of water resources systems. It includes case studies, conversion tables, and modeling software. During the last two decades, research efforts and networking have enhanced the state of knowledge about arid and semi-arid areas, especially watershed and catchment systems. Pulling this information together into a comprehensive resource, this book provides a better understanding of wadi hydrology, capacity-building processes, water education and training, and institutional development. This understanding can then be used to select the appropriate tools to support water management and optimize the sustainable use of water resources. "When the well is dry, we learn the worth of water" — Benjamin Franklin
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Hydrology of Mediterranean and Semiarid Regions

Papers Selected for the International Conference on Hydrology of the Mediterranean and Semi-Arid Regions, Held in Montpellier, France from 1 to 4 April 2003

Author: Eric Servat

Publisher: International Assn of Hydrological Sciences

ISBN: 9781901502121

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 498

View: 3471

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Estimation of Natural Groundwater Recharge

Author: I. Simmers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401577803

Category: Science

Page: 510

View: 2760

In view of the rapidly expanding urban, industrial and agri cultural water requirements in many areas and the normally associated critical unreliability of surface water supplies in arid and semi-arid zones, groundwater exploration and use is of fundamental importance for logical economic development. Two interrelated facets should be evident in all such groundwater projects : (a) definition of groundwater recharge mechanisms and characteristics for identified geological formations, in order to determine whether exploitation in the long-term involves 'mining' of an es sentially 'fossil' resource or withdrawal from a dynamic supply. A solution to this aspect is essential for development of a re source management policy: (b) determination of recharge variability in time and space to thus enable determination of total aquifer input and to quantify such practical aspects as 'minimum risk' waste disposal locations and artificial recharge potential via (e.g.) devegetation or engi neering works. However, current international developments relating to natural recharge indicate the following 'problems' ; no single comprehensive estimation technique can yet be iden tified from the spectrum of methods available; all are reported to give suspect results.
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Integrated Urban Water Management

Arid and Semi-arid Regions

Author: Larry W. Mays

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9789231040610

Category: Arid regions

Page: 186

View: 7442

The report examines the integrated management of water resources in urban settings, focusing on issues specific to arid and semi-arid regions. The urban water management system is considered here as two integrated processes: water supply management and water excess management. The first six chapters provide an overview of the various aspects of IUWM in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on water supply technologies, such as artificial recharge, water transfers, desalination, and rainwater harvesting. Water excess management is examined in the context of both stormwater management and floodplain management. Case studies from developed and developing countries are presented in order to emphasize the various needs and challenges of water management in urban environments in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. These case studies include: Mexico City, Mexico; Tucson, Arizona; Awash River Basin, Ethiopia; China; and Cairo, Egypt.
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Integrated Urban Water Management: Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

UNESCO-IHP

Author: Larry Mays

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203895444

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 3635

The Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) is an emerging approach to managing the entire urban water cycle in an integrated way, which is key to achieving the sustainability of urban water resources and services. The IUWM incorporates: the systematic consideration of the various dimensions of water, including surface and groundwater resources, quality and quantity issues; the implication that while water is a system it is also a component which interacts with other systems; and the interrelationships between water and social and economic development. Integrated Urban Water Management: Arid and Semi-Arid Regions – the outcome of UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme project on the topic – examines the integrated management of water resources in urban settings, focusing on issues specific to arid and semi-arid regions and on what make them different from other regions. The urban water management system is considered herein as two integrated major entities; water supply management and water excess management. The first six chapters provide an overview of the various aspects of IUWM in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on water supply technologies, such as artificial recharge, water transfers, desalination, and harvesting of rainfall. Water excess management is examined in the context of both the stormwater management system and the floodplain management system. Case studies from developed and developing countries are presented in order to emphasize the various needs and challenges of water management in urban environments in arid and semi-arid regions around the world.
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Wadi Hydrology

Author: Zekai Sen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420061550

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 9438

The literature of hydrology abounds with texts on the hydrological and water resource problems in humid regions. However, this is not the case for the arid or semi arid regions. The situation is exemplified by the fact a concrete definition for the term “wadi”, as accepted by UNESCO for describing these areas, is difficult to find. Arguably the first book devoted entirely to examining this important resource, Wadi Hydrology presents methodologies for sustainable management of wadis and their water resources. Through unique physical approaches, field cases, sample interpretations, and various applications to different models, this book provides an in-depth understanding of these systems that illustrates the efficiency of harnessing water from wadis. The author compiles the most up-to-date information on arid region hydrology, including specific techniques for hydrological calculations and desertification assessments, and includes examples and solved problems in each chapter.
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Floods in a Changing Climate

Hydrologic Modeling

Author: P. P. Mujumdar,D. Nagesh Kumar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107018765

Category: Science

Page: 177

View: 9819

Provides unique synthesis of various modeling methodologies used to aid planning and operational decision making, for academic researchers and professionals.
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Floods in a Changing Climate

Inundation Modelling

Author: Giuliano Di Baldassarre

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107018757

Category: Science

Page: 105

View: 5458

Provides modelling tools to create hazard predictions for floodplains, based on state-of-the-art remote sensing data, for academic researchers and professionals.
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Climate Change Effects on Groundwater Resources

A Global Synthesis of Findings and Recommendations

Author: Holger Treidel,Jose Luis Martin-Bordes,Jason J. Gurdak

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203120760

Category: Nature

Page: 414

View: 2644

Climate change is expected to modify the hydrological cycle and affect freshwater resources. Groundwater is a critical source of fresh drinking water for almost half of the world’s population and it also supplies irrigated agriculture. Groundwater is also important in sustaining streams, lakes, wetlands, and associated ecosystems. But despite this, knowledge about the impact of climate change on groundwater quantity and quality is limited. Direct impacts of climate change on natural processes (groundwater recharge, discharge, storage, saltwater intrusion, biogeochemical reactions, chemical fate and transport) may be exacerbated by human activities (indirect impacts). Increased groundwater abstraction, for example, may be needed in areas with unsustainable or contaminated surface water resources caused by droughts and floods. Climate change effects on groundwater resources are, therefore, closely linked to other global change drivers, including population growth, urbanization and land-use change, coupled with other socio-economic and political trends. Groundwater response to global changes is a complex function that depends on climate change and variability, topography, aquifer characteristics, vegetation dynamics, and human activities. This volume contains case studies from diverse aquifer systems, scientific methods, and climatic settings that have been conducted globally under the framework of the UNESCO-IHP project Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC). This book presents a current and global synthesis of scientific findings and policy recommendations for scientists, water managers and policy makers towards adaptive management of groundwater sustainability under future climate change and variability.
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Household Livelihoods in Semi-arid Regions: Options and Constraints

Author: B.M. Campbell,S. Jeffrey,W. Kozanayi,M. Luckert,M. Mutamba,C. Zindi

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: 9798764781

Category: Arid regions

Page: 153

View: 7619

The study sites. Methods. The wealth index and its variation. Human, financial, physical and natural capital - the essets available to households. Households productive activities - the generation of cash and subsistence gross income. Exploring household strategies. Net income and poverty. Temporal changes in livelihood strategies. Modelling livelihood change. Making a difference.
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Floods in a Changing Climate

Inundation Modelling

Author: Giuliano Di Baldassarre

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139851632

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8430

Flood inundation models enable us to make hazard predictions for floodplains, mitigating increasing flood fatalities and losses. This book provides an understanding of hydraulic modelling and floodplain dynamics, with a key focus on state-of-the-art remote sensing data, and methods to estimate and communicate uncertainty. Academic researchers in the fields of hydrology, climate change, environmental science and natural hazards, and professionals and policy-makers working in flood risk mitigation, hydraulic engineering and remote sensing will find this an invaluable resource. This volume is the third in a collection of four books on flood disaster management theory and practice within the context of anthropogenic climate change. The others are: Floods in a Changing Climate: Extreme Precipitation by Ramesh Teegavarapu, Floods in a Changing Climate: Hydrological Modeling by P. P. Mujumdar and D. Nagesh Kumar and Floods in a Changing Climate: Risk Management by Slodoban Simonović.
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Water Ecosystem Services

Author: Julia Martin-Ortega

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107100372

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 175

View: 3713

This book uses ecosystem services-based approaches to address major global and regional water challenges, for researchers, students, and policy makers.
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Groundwater Dynamics in Hard Rock Aquifers

Sustainable Management and Optimal Monitoring Network Design

Author: Shakeel Ahmed,Ramaswamy Jayakumar,Abdin Salih

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140206540X

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 1077

This book contains the results and findings of the advanced research carried out in a pilot area with a thorough investigation of the structure and functioning of an aquifer in a granitic formation. It characterizes the hard rock aquifer system and examines its properties and behavior as well as systematically details the geophysical, geological and remote sensing applications to conceptualize such an aquifer system.
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Groundwater Vulnerability

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster

Author: Vyacheslav Shestopalov,Alexander Bohuslavsky,Volodymir Bublias

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118962206

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 136

View: 7740

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) disaster that occurred in Ukraine on April 26, 1986, was one of the most devastating in human history. Using this as a case study, the AGU monograph Groundwater Vulnerability: Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster is devoted to the problem of groundwater vulnerability, where the results of long-term field and modeling investigations of radionuclide transport in soil and groundwater, within the Ukrainian part of the Dnieper River basin (Kyiv region of Ukraine), are discussed. The authors provide a comprehensive review of existing literature on the assessment of groundwater vulnerability and then describe an improved methodology, which is developed based on integration of the methods of hydrogeological zonation and modeling of anomalously fast migration of radioactive contaminants from the land surface toward groundwater. This volume also includes the evaluation of the effect of preferential and episodic flow on transport of radionuclides toward the aquifers and risk assessment of groundwater vulnerability, which can further assist future researchers in developing remediation technologies for improving drinking water quality. Further, this volume sheds light on the consequences of groundwater contamination from nuclear disasters and assists with assessing the risks associated with contamination and developing effective remediation technologies. Volume highlights include discussions of the following: - Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster - Novel analytical results of the 25-year investigations of groundwater contamination caused by Chernobyl-born radionuclides - The wealth of data on different modes of radioactive transport in the atmosphere, water, and soils, and along the food chains - The hydrogeological and physico-chemical processes and factors in groundwater contaminated zones - The applicability of commonly used methods of the evaluation of groundwater vulnerability - A unique method of fluid dynamics that involves an anomalously fast migration of contaminants through zones of preferential flow from the land surface toward groundwater - Building confidence in the assessment of migration pathways of radionuclides in the biosphere - Assessment and prediction of the consequences of the nuclear accident, which can shed light on protection from global nuclear accidents - Analogue information for different nuclear waste disposal and environmental projects around the world
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Water Resources in Arid Areas: The Way Forward

Author: Osman Abdalla,Anvar Kacimov,Mingjie Chen,Ali Al-Maktoumi,Talal Al-Hosni,Ian Clark

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319518569

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 521

View: 6353

This book presents the most recent innovations, trends, concerns and practical challenges, and solutions in the field of water resources for arid areas. It gathers outstanding contributions presented at the International Water Conference on Water Resources in Arid Areas (IWC 2016), which was held in Muscat, Oman in March 2016. The individual papers discuss challenges and solutions to alleviate water resource scarcity in arid areas, including water resources management, the introduction of modern irrigation systems, natural groundwater recharge, construction of dams for artificial recharge, use of treated wastewater, and desalination technologies. As such, the book provides a platform for the exchange of recent advances in water resources science and research, which are essential to improving the critical water situation
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Estimating Groundwater Recharge

Author: Richard W. Healy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491393

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 3571

Understanding groundwater recharge is essential for successful management of water resources and modeling fluid and contaminant transport within the subsurface. This book provides a critical evaluation of the theory and assumptions that underlie methods for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Detailed explanations of the methods are provided - allowing readers to apply many of the techniques themselves without needing to consult additional references. Numerous practical examples highlight benefits and limitations of each method. Approximately 900 references allow advanced practitioners to pursue additional information on any method. For the first time, theoretical and practical considerations for selecting and applying methods for estimating groundwater recharge are covered in a single volume with uniform presentation. Hydrogeologists, water-resource specialists, civil and agricultural engineers, earth and environmental scientists and agronomists will benefit from this informative and practical book. It can serve as the primary text for a graduate-level course on groundwater recharge or as an adjunct text for courses on groundwater hydrology or hydrogeology. For the benefit of students and instructors, problem sets of varying difficulty are available at http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GW_Unsat/Recharge_Book/
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