Global Intelligence Oversight

Governing Security in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Zachary K. Goldman,Samuel J. Rascoff

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190458097

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 3909

In a world that is increasingly unstable, intelligence services like the American CIA and the United Kingdom's MI6 exist to deliver security. Whether the challenge involves terrorism, cyber-security, or the renewed specter of great power conflict, intelligence agencies mitigate threats and provide decisional advantage to national leaders. But empowered intelligence services require adequate supervision and oversight, which must be about more than the narrow (if still precarious) task of ensuring the legality of covert operations and surveillance activities. Global Intelligence Oversight is a comparative investigation of how democratic countries can govern their intelligence services so that they are effective, but operate within frameworks that are acceptable to their people in an interconnected world. The book demonstrates how the institutions that oversee intelligence agencies participate in the protection of national security while safeguarding civil liberties, balancing among competing national interests, and building public trust in inherently secret activities. It does so by analyzing the role of courts and independent oversight bodies as they operate in countries with robust constitutional frameworks and powerful intelligence services. The book also illuminates a new transnational oversight dynamic that is shaping and constraining security services in new ways. It describes how global technology companies and litigation in transnational forums constitute a new form of oversight whose contours are still undefined. As rapid changes in technology bring the world closer together, these forces will complement their more traditional counterparts in ensuring that intelligence activities remain effective, legitimate, and sustainable.
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Intelligence Oversight in the Twenty-First Century

Accountability in a Changing World

Author: Ian Leigh,Njord Wegge

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351188771

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 7857

This book examines how key developments in international relations in recent years have affected intelligence agencies and their oversight. Since the turn of the millennium, intelligence agencies have been operating in a tense and rapidly changing security environment. This book addresses the impact of three factors on intelligence oversight: the growth of more complex terror threats, such as those caused by the rise of Islamic State; the colder East-West climate following Russia’s intervention in Ukraine and annexation of Crimea; and new challenges relating to the large-scale intelligence collection and intrusive surveillance practices revealed by Edward Snowden. This volume evaluates the impact these factors have had on security and intelligence services in a range of countries, together with the challenges that they present for intelligence oversight bodies to adapt in response. With chapters surveying developments in Norway, Romania, the UK, Belgium, France, the USA, Canada and Germany, the coverage is varied, wide and up-to-date. This book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, security studies and International Relations.
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Bulk Collection

Systematic Government Access to Private-Sector Data

Author: Fred H. Cate,James X. Dempsey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190685522

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 2798

This book is the culmination of nearly six years of research initiated by Fred Cate and Jim Dempsey to examine national practices and laws regarding systematic government access to personal information held by private-sector companies. Leading an effort sponsored by The Privacy Projects, they commissioned a series of country reports, asking national experts to uncover what they could about government demands on telecommunications providers and other private-sector companies to disclose bulk information about their customers. Their initial research found disturbing indications of systematic access in countries around the world. These data collection programs, often undertaken in the name of national security, were cloaked in secrecy and largely immune from oversight, posing serious threats to personal privacy. After the Snowden leaks confirmed these initial findings, the project morphed into something more ambitious: an effort to explore what should be the rules for government access to private-sector data, and how companies should respond to government demands for access. This book contains twelve updated country reports plus eleven analytic chapters that present descriptive and normative frameworks for assessing national surveillance laws, survey evolving international law and human rights principles applicable to government surveillance, and describe oversight mechanisms. It also explores the concept of accountability and the role of encryption in shaping the surveillance debate. Cate and Dempsey conclude by offering recommendations for both governments and industry.
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The Image of the Enemy

Intelligence Analysis of Adversaries since 1945

Author: Paul Maddrell

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626162409

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 3643

Intelligence agencies spend huge sums of money to collect and analyze vast quantities of national security data for their political leaders. How well is this intelligence analyzed, how often is it acted on by policymakers, and does it have a positive or negative effect on decision making? Drawing on declassified documents, interviews with intelligence veterans and policymakers, and other sources, The Image of the Enemy breaks new ground as it examines how seven countries analyzed and used intelligence to shape their understanding of their main adversary. The cases in the book include the Soviet Union's analysis of the United States (and vice versa), East Germany's analysis of West Germany (and vice versa), British intelligence in the early years of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, Israeli intelligence about the Palestinians, Pakistani intelligence on India, and US intelligence about Islamist terrorists. These rivalries provide rich case studies for scholars and offer today’s analysts and policymakers the opportunity to closely evaluate past successes and failures in intelligence analysis and the best ways to give information support to policymakers. Using these lessons from the past, they can move forward to improve analysis of current adversaries and future threats.
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The End of Intelligence

Espionage and State Power in the Information Age

Author: David Tucker

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804792690

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 7595

Using espionage as a test case, The End of Intelligence criticizes claims that the recent information revolution has weakened the state, revolutionized warfare, and changed the balance of power between states and non-state actors—and it assesses the potential for realizing any hopes we might have for reforming intelligence and espionage. Examining espionage, counterintelligence, and covert action, the book argues that, contrary to prevailing views, the information revolution is increasing the power of states relative to non-state actors and threatening privacy more than secrecy. Arguing that intelligence organizations may be taken as the paradigmatic organizations of the information age, author David Tucker shows the limits of information gathering and analysis even in these organizations, where failures at self-knowledge point to broader limits on human knowledge—even in our supposed age of transparency. He argues that, in this complex context, both intuitive judgment and morality remain as important as ever and undervalued by those arguing for the transformative effects of information. This book will challenge what we think we know about the power of information and the state, and about the likely twenty-first century fate of secrecy and privacy.
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The UN Security Council and Domestic Actors

Distance in international law

Author: Machiko Kanetake

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317511298

Category: Law

Page: 238

View: 5679

This book analyses the exercise of authority by the UN Security Council and its subsidiary organs over individuals. The UN Security Council was created in 1945 as an outcome of World War II under the predominant assumption that it exercises its authority against states. Under this assumption, the UN Security Council and those individuals were ‘distanced’ by the presence of member states that intermediate between the Security Council’s international commands and those individuals that are subject to member states’ domestic law. However, in practice, the UN Security Council’s exercise of authority has incrementally removed the presence of state intermediaries and reduced the Security Council’s distance to individuals. This book demonstrates that this phenomenon has increased the relevance of domestic law in developing the international normative frameworks governing the UN Security Council and its subsidiary organs in safeguarding the rights, obligations, and interests of those affected individuals. This book presents how the UN Security Council’s exercise of authority has been received at the domestic level, and what would be the international implications of the Security Council’s extensive encounter with the actors who primarily reside in a domestic legal order.
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National Intelligence Systems

Current Research and Future Prospects

Author: Gregory F. Treverton,Wilhelm Agrell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139488732

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3978

A series of investigations, especially in Great Britain and the United States, have focused attention on the performance of national intelligence services. At the same time, terrorism and a broad span of trans-national security challenges has highlighted the crucial role of intelligence. This book takes stock of the underlying intellectual sub-structure of intelligence. For intelligence, as for other areas of policy, serious intellectual inquiry is the basis for improving the performance of real-world institutions. The volume explores intelligence from an intellectual perspective, not an organizational one. Instead the book identifies themes that run through these applications, such as the lack of comprehensive theories, the unclear relations between providers and users of intelligence, and the predominance of bureaucratic organizations driven by collection. A key element is the development, or rather non-development, of intelligence toward an established set of methods and standards and, above all, an ongoing scientific discourse.
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Returned

Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation

Author: Deborah Boehm

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962214

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 4165

Returned follows transnational Mexicans as they experience the alienation and unpredictability of deportation, tracing the particular ways that U.S. immigration policies and state removals affect families. Deportation—an emergent global order of social injustice—reaches far beyond the individual deportee, as family members with diverse U.S. immigration statuses, including U.S. citizens, also return after deportation or migrate for the first time. The book includes accounts of displacement, struggle, suffering, and profound loss but also of resilience, flexibility, and imaginings of what may come. Returned tells the story of the chaos, and design, of deportation and its aftermath.
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Defend the Realm

The Authorized History of MI5

Author: Christopher Andrew

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780307272911

Category: Political Science

Page: 1056

View: 6987

For over 100 years, the agents of MI5 have defended Britain against enemy subversion. Their work has remained shrouded in secrecy—until now. This first-ever authorized account reveals the British Security Service as never before: its inner workings, its clandestine operations, its failures and its triumphs. From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Near and Distant Neighbors

A New History of Soviet Intelligence

Author: Jonathan Haslam

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 0374710406

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 2117

A revelatory and pathbreaking account of the highly secretive world of the Soviet intelligence services A uniquely comprehensive and rich account of the Soviet intelligence services, Jonathan Haslam's Near and Distant Neighbors charts the labyrinthine story of Soviet intelligence from the October Revolution to the end of the Cold War. Previous histories have focused on the KGB, leaving military intelligence and the special service—which specialized in codes and ciphers—lurking in the shadows. Drawing on previously neglected Russian sources, Haslam reveals how both were in fact crucial to the survival of the Soviet state. This was especially true after Stalin's death in 1953, as the Cold War heated up and dedicated Communist agents the regime had relied upon—Klaus Fuchs, the Rosenbergs, Donald Maclean—were betrayed. In the wake of these failures, Khrushchev and his successors discarded ideological recruitment in favor of blackmail and bribery. The tactical turn was so successful that we can draw only one conclusion: the West ultimately triumphed despite, not because of, the espionage war. In bringing to light the obscure inhabitants of an undercover intelligence world, Haslam offers a surprising and unprecedented portrayal of Soviet success that is not only fascinating but also essential to understanding Vladimir Putin's power today.
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Inter-organizational Relations in International Security

Cooperation and Competition

Author: Stephen Aris,Aglaya Snetkov,Andreas Wenger

Publisher: CSS Studies in Security and International Relations

ISBN: 9781138059498

Category: Intergovernmental cooperation

Page: 304

View: 8118

This book examines the politics of the relationships between multilateral organizations that have come to play a major role in contemporary efforts to manage international security. Drawing on concepts developed in Organizational Studies, the book starts from the assumption that inter-organizational relationships are the product of contested politics. Politics that may be either more cooperative or more competitive, but which always contains elements of both. This volume focuses on inter-organizational relations emanating from, through and towards the regional scale. The proliferation in the number of regional multilateral organizations in recent decades and their growing claims to represent effective and legitimate frameworks to address security threats and issues has been widely noted. The book is organized into four sections, covering all aspects of the inter-organizational relationships in which regional multilateral organizations are involved: global-regional, intra-regional, inter-regional, and multi-scalar. Each chapter addresses a distinct case study of inter-organizational relations (bilateral, trilateral or wider network), and examines the politics shaping these relations. This book will be of much interest to students of international security, international organisations, global governance and area studies, more generally.
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The Defence of the Realm

The Authorized History of MI5

Author: Christopher Andrew

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0718197445

Category: History

Page: 1072

View: 6732

To mark the centenary of its foundation, the British Security Service, MI5, opened its archives to an independent historian. The Defence of the Realm, the book which results, is an unprecedented publication, It reveals the precise role of the Service in twentieth-century British history, from its foundation by Captain Kell of the British Army in October 1909 to root out 'the spies of the Kaiser' up to its present role in countering Islamic terrorism. It describes the distinctive ethos of MI5, how the organization has been managed, its relationship with the government, where it has triumphed and where it has failed. In all of this, no restriction has been placed on the judgements made by the author. The book also casts new light on many events and periods in British history, showing for example that though well-placed sources MI5 was probably the pre-war department with the best understanding of Hitler's objectives, and had a remarkable willingness to speak truth to power; how it was so astonishingly successful in turning German agents during the Second World War; and that it had much greater roles than has hitherto been realized during the end of the Empire and in responding to the recurrent fears of successive governments (both Conservative and Labour) and or Cold War Communist subversion. It has new information about the Profumo affair and its aftermath, about the 'Magnificent Five' and about a range of formerly unconfirmed Soviet contacts. It reveals that though MI5 had a file on Harold Wilson it did not plot against him, and it describes what really happened during the failed IRA attack in Gibraltar in March 1988.
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Who Guards the Guardians and How

Democratic Civil-Military Relations

Author: Thomas C. Bruneau,Scott D. Tollefson

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9780292783409

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5376

The continued spread of democracy into the twenty-first century has seen two-thirds of the almost two hundred independent countries of the world adopting this model. In these newer democracies, one of the biggest challenges has been to establish the proper balance between the civilian and military sectors. A fundamental question of power must be addressed—who guards the guardians and how? In this volume of essays, contributors associated with the Center for Civil-Military Relations in Monterey, California, offer firsthand observations about civil-military relations in a broad range of regions including Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Despite diversity among the consolidating democracies of the world, their civil-military problems and solutions are similar—soldiers and statesmen must achieve a deeper understanding of one another, and be motivated to interact in a mutually beneficial way. The unifying theme of this collection is the creation and development of the institutions whereby democratically elected civilians achieve and exercise power over those who hold a monopoly on the use of force within a society, while ensuring that the state has sufficient and qualified armed forces to defend itself against internal and external aggressors. Although these essays address a wide variety of institutions and situations, they each stress a necessity for balance between democratic civilian control and military effectiveness.
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Congress and Policy Making in the 21st Century

Author: Jeffery A. Jenkins,Eric M. Patashnik

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110712638X

Category: Political Science

Page: 350

View: 1151

Leading political scientists analyze how Congress tackles - and fails to tackle - national challenges, from health care to immigration.
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The Future Security Environment in the Middle East

Conflict, Stability, and Political Change

Author: Nora Bensahel,Daniel Byman

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 083303619X

Category: Political Science

Page: 365

View: 1508

This report identifies several important trends that are shaping regional security. It examines traditional security concerns, such as energy security and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, as well as newer challenges posed by political reform, economic reform, civil-military relations, leadership change, and the information revolution. The report concludes by identifying the implications of these trends for U.S. foreign policy.
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The 9/11 Commission Report

Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

Author: N.A

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 0160891809

Category: Political Science

Page: 587

View: 426

This edition has been designated as the only official U.S. Government edition of the 9-11 Commission’s Final Report. It provides a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks. It also includes recommendations designed to guard against future attacks.
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Intergovernmental Management for the 21st Century

Author: Timothy J. Conlan,Paul L. Posner

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815703631

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 9060

America's complex system of multi-layered government faces new challenges as a result of rapidly changing economic, technological, and demographic trends. An aging population, economic globalization, and homeland security concerns are among the powerful factors testing the system's capacity and flexibility. Major policy challenges and responses are now overwhelmingly intergovernmental in nature, and as a result, the fortunes of all levels of government are more intertwined and interdependent than ever before. This volume, cosponsored by the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), defines an agenda for improving the performance of America's intergovernmental system. The early chapters present the current state of practice in intergovernmental relations, including discussion of trends toward centralization, devolution, and other power-sharing arrangements. The fiscal underpinnings of the system are analyzed, along with the long-term implications of current trends in financing at all levels. The authors identify the principal tools used to define intergovernmental management–grants, mandates, preemptions—in discussing emerging models and best practices in the design and management of those tools. In tergovernmental Management for the 21st Century applies these crosscutting themes to critical policy areas where intergovernmental management and cooperation are essential, such as homeland security, education, welfare, health care, and the environment. It concludes with an authoritative assessment of the system's capacity to govern, oversee, and improve. Contributors include Jocelyn Johnston (American University), Shelley Metzenbaum (University of Maryland), Richard Nathan (SUNY at Albany), Barry Rabe (University of Michigan), Beryl Radin (American University), Alice Rivlin (Brookings Institution), Ray Sheppach (National Governors Association), Frank Shafroth (George Mason University), Troy Smith (BYU–Hawaii), Carl Stenberg (University of North Carolina), Carol Weissert (Florida State University), Charles Wise (Indiana University), and Kenneth Wong (Brown University).
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AFIO's Guide to the Study of Intelligence

Author: Peter C. Oleson,Stewart A. Baker,Joshua M. Bart,Eleni C. Braat,James B. Bruce,Ronald L. Burgess, Jr.,Stephen H. Campbell,David L. Charney,Robert M. Clark,Jonathan D. Clemente,Elbridge Colby,José Medina González Dávila,Lawrence D. Dietz,Robert E. Dupré,Huw Dylan,Thomas Fingar,Rowena Rege Fischer,Jennifer H. Fisher,Carl W. Ford, Jr.,Michael Fredholm,Arthur E. Gerringer,Tobias T. Gibson,Edward J. Glantz,Jan Goldman,Michael S. Goodman,Karl O. Haigler,Philippe Hayez,Jan P. Herring,G. Philip Hughes,John Alan Irvin,Stéphane J. Lefebvre,Jeremy Jez Littlewood,Mark M. Lowenthal,N. John MacGaffin, 3rd,Stephen Patrick Marrin,Hedwige Regnault de Maulmin,Robert A. McDonald,John J. McGonagle, Jr.,Edward F. Mickolus,Robert A. Mirabello,Philip Mudd,William M. Nolte,Robert A. Norton,Stefania Paladini,Mirielle M. Petitjean,Samuel Eugene Poteat,Douglas R. Price,Robert W. Pringle,Edward Mozley Roche,Frederick W. Rustmann, Jr.,Ernesto J. Sanchez,John R. Sano,Florian Schaurer,Rose Mary Sheldon,Robert Anthony Smith,Thomas R. Spencer, Jr.,William C. Spracher,James E. Steiner,Jan Störger,Mark E. Stout,Michael J. Sulick,John F. Sullivan,Adam D. M. Svendsen,Michelle K. Van Cleave,Carl Anthony Wege,Gary E. Weir,Douglas L. Wheeler,Jon A. Wiant

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780997527308

Category:

Page: 788

View: 547

The goal of the Guide to the Study of Intelligence is to help instructors teach about the field of intelligence. This includes... undergraduate and graduate professors of History, Political Science, International Relations, Security Studies, and related topics, especially those with no or limited professional experience in the field. The assumption is that none of the... instructors is an expert in the topic of intelligence. Even those who are former practitioners are likely to have only a limited knowledge of the very broad field of intelligence, as most spend their careers in one or two agencies at most and may have focused only on collection or analysis of intelligence or support to those activities."In each of the articles the intent is to identify the important learning points for students and the materials that an instructor can use to teach. This includes books, articles, and websites..."
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Education and Ethics in the Life Sciences

Strengthening the Prohibition of Biological Weapons

Author: Brian Rappert

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921666390

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 9361

At the start of the twenty-first century, warnings have been raised in some quarters about how - by intent or by mishap - advances in biotechnology and related fields could aid the spread of disease. Science academics, medical organisations, governments, security analysts, and others are among those that have sought to raise concern. EDUCATION AND ETHICS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES examines a variety of attempts to bring greater awareness to security concerns associated with the life sciences. It identifies lessons from practical initiatives across a wide range of national contexts as well as more general reflections about education and ethics. The eighteen contributors bring together perspectives from a diverse range of fields - including politics, virology, sociology, ethics, security studies, microbiology, and medicine - as well as their experiences in universities, think tanks and government. In offering their assessment about what must be done and by whom, each chapter addresses a host of challenging practical and conceptual questions. EDUCATION AND ETHICS IN THE LIFE SCIENCES will be of interest to those planning and undertaking training activities in other areas. In asking how education and ethics are being made to matter in an emerging area of social unease, it will also be of interest to those with more general concerns about professional conduct.
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The Return of History

Conflict, Migration, and Geopolitics in the Twenty-First Century

Author: Jennifer Welsh

Publisher: House of Anansi

ISBN: 1487001312

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 3463

#1 National Bestseller Part of the CBC Massey Lectures Series In 1989, as the Berlin Wall crumbled and the Cold War dissipated, the American political commentator Francis Fukuyama wrote a famous essay, entitled “The End of History.” Fukuyama argued that the demise of confrontation between Communism and capitalism, and the expansion of Western liberal democracy, signalled the endpoint of humanity’s sociocultural and political evolution, the waning of traditional power politics, and the path toward a more peaceful world. At the heart of his thesis was the audaciously optimistic idea of “progress” in history. But a quarter of a century after Fukuyama’s bold prediction about transcending the struggles of the past, history has returned. The twenty-first century has not seen unfettered progress toward peace and a single form of government, but the reappearance of trends and practices many believed had been erased: arbitrary executions, attempts to annihilate ethnic and religious minorities, the starvation of besieged populations, invasion and annexation of territory, and the mass movement of refugees and displaced persons. It has also witnessed cracks and cleavages within Western liberal democracies, particularly as a result of deepening economic inequality — at levels not seen since the end of the nineteenth century. The Return of History both illustrates and explains this return of history. But it also demonstrates how the reappearance of acts deemed “barbaric” or “medieval” has a modern twist. Above all, it argues that the return of history should encourage us all to remember that our own liberal democratic society was not inevitable and that we must all, as individual citizens, take a more active role in its preservation and growth.
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