Gender and International Migration in Europe

Employment, Welfare and Politics

Author: Eleonore Kofman,Annie Phizacklea,Parvati Raghuram,Rosemary Sales

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113470528X

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 3682

Gender and International Migration in Europe is a unique work which introduces a gender dimension into theories of contemporary migrations. As the European Union seeks to extend equal opportunities, increasingly restrictionist immigration policies and the persistence of racism, deny autonomy and choice to migrant women. This work demonstrates how processes of globalisation and change in state policies on employment and welfare have maintained a demand for diverse forms of gendered immigration. The authors examine state and European Union policies of immigration control, family reunion, refugees and the management of immigrant and ethnic minority communities. Most importantly this work considers the opportunities created for political activity by migrant women and the extent to which they are able to influence and participate in mainstream policy-making. This volume will be essential reading for anyone involved in or interested in modern European immigration policy.
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Gender and Migration in 21st Century Europe

Author: Samantha Currie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131713060X

Category: Law

Page: 264

View: 5242

Providing interdisciplinary and empirically grounded insights into the issues surrounding gender and migration into and within Europe, this work presents a comprehensive and critical overview of the historical, legal, policy and cultural framework underpinning different types of European migration. Analysing the impact of migration on women's careers, the impact of migration on family life and gender perspectives on forced migration, the authors also examine the consequences of EU enlargement for women's migration opportunities and practices, as well as the impact of new regulatory mechanisms at EU level in addressing issues of forced migration and cross-national family breakdown. Recent interdisciplinary research also offers a new insight into the issue of skilled migration and the gendering of previously male-dominated sectors of the labour market.
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Gender and International Migration

Author: Katharine M. Donato,Donna Gabaccia

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448472

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 1614

In 2006, the United Nations reported on the “feminization” of migration, noting that the number of female migrants had doubled over the last five decades. Likewise, global awareness of issues like human trafficking and the exploitation of immigrant domestic workers has increased attention to the gender makeup of migrants. But are women really more likely to migrate today than they were in earlier times? In Gender and International Migration, sociologist and demographer Katharine Donato and historian Donna Gabaccia evaluate the historical evidence to show that women have been a significant part of migration flows for centuries. The first scholarly analysis of gender and migration over the centuries, Gender and International Migration demonstrates that variation in the gender composition of migration reflect not only the movements of women relative to men, but larger shifts in immigration policies and gender relations in the changing global economy. While most research has focused on women migrants after 1960, Donato and Gabaccia begin their analysis with the fifteenth century, when European colonization and the transatlantic slave trade led to large-scale forced migration, including the transport of prisoners and indentured servants to the Americas and Australia from Africa and Europe. Contrary to the popular conception that most of these migrants were male, the authors show that a significant portion were women. The gender composition of migrants was driven by regional labor markets and local beliefs of the sending countries. For example, while coastal ports of western Africa traded mostly male slaves to Europeans, most slaves exiting east Africa for the Middle East were women due to this region’s demand for female reproductive labor. Donato and Gabaccia show how the changing immigration policies of receiving countries affect the gender composition of global migration. Nineteenth-century immigration restrictions based on race, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States, limited male labor migration. But as these policies were replaced by regulated migration based on categories such as employment and marriage, the balance of men and women became more equal – both in large immigrant-receiving nations such as the United States, Canada, and Israel, and in nations with small immigrant populations such as South Africa, the Philippines, and Argentina. The gender composition of today’s migrants reflects a much stronger demand for female labor than in the past. The authors conclude that gender imbalance in migration is most likely to occur when coercive systems of labor recruitment exist, whether in the slave trade of the early modern era or in recent guest-worker programs. Using methods and insights from history, gender studies, demography, and other social sciences, Gender and International Migration shows that feminization is better characterized as a gradual and ongoing shift toward gender balance in migrant populations worldwide. This groundbreaking demographic and historical analysis provides an important foundation for future migration research.
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Gender and Migration in Southern Europe

Women on the Move

Author: Floya Anthias,Gabriella Lazaridis

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9781859732311

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 4389

The important role women play in the process of migration to the Western bloc -- and in particular to Southern Europe where they often find jobs in the domestic service, tourist or sex industries -- has been increasingly recognized. This timely book provides essential new insights into the forms of migration and the impact of gender relations on the migration and accommodation process, and also raises general conceptual issues about ways of understanding migration in a global context. At a time when all the member states of the European Union have called for a reduction in immigration in response to its steady growth, the urgency of the topic is apparent. Contributors examine the possible legal, social and economic problems that increased immigration may produce, including: female migration and its relation to changing gender relations in the country of migration; different forms of exclusion faced by male and female migrants; working conditions and status; migrant networks; and women's role in reproducing and maintaining ethnic culture. This book will be essential reading for courses in migration, nationalism, Mediterranean and area studies, gender studies and a range of social science courses. It will also be of use to policy makers and those interested in European developments.
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Gender, Family, and Adaptation of Migrants in Europe

A Life Course Perspective

Author: Ionela Vlase,Bogdan Voicu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319766570

Category: Social Science

Page: 241

View: 1234

This volume documents the life uncertainties revealed by migrants’ biographies. For international migrants, life journeys are less conventional or patterned, while their family, work, and educational trajectories are simultaneously more fragmented and intermingled. The authors discuss the challenges faced by migrants and returnees when trying to make sense of their life courses after years of experience in other countries with different age norms and cultural values. The book also examines the ways to reconcile competing cultural expectations of both origin and destination societies regarding the timing of transitions between roles to provide a meaningful account of their life courses. Migration is, itself, a major life event, with profound implications for the pursuit of migrants’ life goals, organization of family life, and personal networks, and it can affect, to a considerable degree, their subjective well-being. Chapter 9 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
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Gender and Ethnicity in Contemporary Europe

Author: Jacqueline Andall

Publisher: Berg Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 7371

Contemporary Europe is in the midst of a cultural and social crisis. Debates over how European societies should respond to their changing ethnic profile lie at the heart of this crisis, whilst the issues raised have been given sharper focus by nationalist political parties espousing an anti-immigration agenda. This book examines the relationship between gender and ethnicity in Europe, viewed from within an immigration framework. To date, much of the research on Europe has treated gender and ethnicity in isolation. The contributors to this collection rectify this. They make the links between these two areas thus giving ethnic minority women greater visibility within the European context. They consider the relationship between gender and ethnicity from a number of thematic perspectives including the feminization of migration, political mobilization by ethnic minority women, women and Islam and the formation of identity. The case studies examine Islamic cultures in Italy, Turkish identity in Germany, the political experience of South Asian women in the UK, migrant women in Spain, challenges to the social reputation of Muslim women in the Netherlands, evolving perceptions in Post-Communist Russia and political activism in France. The book also considers white women's identity and questions whether or not a service caste, drawn from contemporary migrant women, is emerging in today's Europe. Throughout, we learn about the new and different forms of 'Europeanness' that these women are forging.
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Gender and Migration in Italy

A Multilayered Perspective

Author: Dr Elisa Olivito

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472455770

Category: Law

Page: 240

View: 8229

Recent migratory flows to Europe have brought about considerable changes in many countries. Italy in particular offers a unique point of view, since it is possible to observe not only the way migration has changed specific features of the country, but also how it is intertwined with gender relations. Considering both the type of migration that has affected Italy and the consequent measures adopted by the Government, a variety of distinctive elements may be seen. By providing a broad and more complete picture of the Italian perspective on gender and migration, this book makes a valuable contribution to the wider debate. The contributions consider the problematic linkage between gender and migration, as well as analyse particular aspects including Italian colonial past, domestic work, self-determination, access to social services, second-generation migrant women, family law, multiculturalism and religious symbols. Taking an empirical and theoretical approach, the volume underlines both the multifaceted problems affecting migrant women in Italy and the way in which questions raised in other countries are introduced and redefined by Italian scholarship. The book presents a valuable resource for researchers, academics and policy-makers working in the areas of migration and gender studies.
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Gender and Insecurity (2003): Migrant Women in Europe

Author: Jane Freedman

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351773178

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 8025

This title was first published in 2003. Migration is a phenomenon which is at the heart of global politics and, within the EU, governments are continually trying to reinforce their controls of migration. These controls, designed to increase the security of European populations may, however, have the adverse effect of increasing the insecurity of migrants. This is particularly true for the many women who migrate to Europe and find themselves in insecure positions because of their lack of independent legal status, the difficulty of access to adequate health and social security provision and their particular vulnerability to both domestic and institutional forms of violence. They are often in economically weak positions, either unemployed or in badly paid part-time or domestic jobs with no forms of social protection. Gender and Insecurity addresses these various forms of insecurity and details ways in which they might be addressed. Further, it looks at the ways in which immigrant women have themselves tried to fight against these insecurities through their own political mobilisation.
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Gender, Generations and the Family in International Migration

Author: Albert Kraler,Eleonore Kofman,Martin Kohli,Camille Schmoll

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9089642854

Category: Political Science

Page: 394

View: 9164

"Family-related migration is moving to the centre of political debates on migration, integration and multiculturalism in Europe. It is also more and more leading to lively academic interest in the family dimensions of international migration. At the same time, strands of research on family migrations and migrant families remain separate from--and sometimes ignorant of--each other. This volume seeks to bridge the disciplinary divides. Fifteen chapters come up with a number of common themes. Collectively, the authors address the need to better understand the diversity of family-related migration and its resulting family forms and practices, to question, if not counter, simplistic assumptions about migrant families in public discourses, to study family migration from a mix of disciplinary perspectives at various levels and via different methodological approaches and to acknowledge the state's role in shaping family-related migration, practices and lives"--Rear cover.
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Transnational Families, Migration and Gender

Moroccan and Filipino Women in Bologna and Barcelona

Author: Elisabetta Zontini

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845458052

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 5582

By linking the experiences of immigrant families with the increased reliance on cheap and flexible workers for care and domestic work in Southern Europe, this study documents the lived experiences of neglected actors of globalization - migrant women - as well as the transformations of Western families more generally. However, while describing in detail the structural and cultural contexts within which these women have to operate, the book questions dominant paradigms about women as passive victims of patriarchal structures and brings out instead their agency and the creative ways in which they take control of their lives in often difficult circumstances. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork and interviews, the author offers a valuable dual comparison between two Southern European countries on the one hand and between two migrant groups, one Christian and one Muslim, on the other, thus bringing to light unique detailed data on migration decision-making, settlement and on the multiple ways in which different women cope with the consequences of their transnational lives.
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Gender and Immigration

Author: Debra L. DeLaet

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814747329

Category: Political Science

Page: 218

View: 3201

Women and men migrate across international boundaries at roughly the same rate. Yet most scholarship assumes that international migration results primarily from the labor migration of male workers. When international female migration is acknowledged, the focus is almost exclusively on women in the low-wage labor sector of the global economy. Gender and Immigration challenges this outlook by examining the diverse and complex ways in which women in a variety of occupational and social categories experience international relocation. Written by experts and policymakers in the field, the timely essays collected here explore whether international migration provides women with opportunities for liberation from the subordinate gender roles of their countries of origin. Or, do migrant women face both traditional and new forms of subordination and discrimination in their host societies? Exploring the experiences of a broad range of women, from "unskilled" workers on the U.S.-Mexican border and Filipino mail-order brides to Indian-American motel owners, Asian businesswomen, and Russian immigrants to Israel, Gender and Immigration offers a much-needed corrective to the long-standing invisibility of women in international migration research.
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Immigrant Women Workers in the Neoliberal Age

Author: Nilda Flores-Gonzalez,Anna Romina Guevarra,Maura Toro-Morn,Grace Chang

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252094824

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 2708

To date, most research on immigrant women and labor forces has focused on the participation of immigrant women on formal labor markets. In this study, contributors focus on informal economies such as health care, domestic work, street vending, and the garment industry, where displaced and undocumented women are more likely to work. Because such informal labor markets are unregulated, many of these workers face abusive working conditions that are not reported for fear of job loss or deportation. In examining the complex dynamics of how immigrant women navigate political and economic uncertainties, this collection highlights the important role of citizenship status in defining immigrant women's opportunities, wages, and labor conditions. Contributors are Pallavi Banerjee, Grace Chang, Margaret M. Chin, Jennifer Jihye Chun, Héctor R. Cordero-Guzmán, Emir Estrada, Lucy Fisher, Nilda Flores-González, Ruth Gomberg-Munoz, Anna Romina Guevarra, Shobha Hamal Gurung, Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo, María de la Luz Ibarra, Miliann Kang, George Lipsitz, Lolita Andrada Lledo, Lorena Muñoz, Bandana Purkayastha, Mary Romero, Young Shin, Michelle Téllez, and Maura Toro-Morn.
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Paradoxes of Integration: Female Migrants in Europe

Author: Floya Anthias,Maria Kontos,Mirjana Morokvasic-Müller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400748426

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 9384

This timely and innovative book analyses the lives of new female migrants in the EU with a focus on the labour market, domestic work, care work and prostitution in particular. It provides a comparative analysis embracing eleven European countries from Northern (UK, Germany, Sweden, France), Southern (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus) and Eastern Europe (Poland, Slovenia), i.e. old and new immigration countries as well as old and new market economies. It maps labour market trends, welfare policies, migration laws, patterns of employment, and the working and social conditions of female migrants in different sectors of the labour market, formal and informal. It is particularly concerned with the strategies women use to counter the disadvantages they face. It analyses the ways in which gender hierarchies are intertwined with other social relations of power, providing a gendered and intersectional perspective, drawing on the biographies of migrant women. The book highlights policy relevant issues and tries to uncover some of the contradictory assumptions relating to integration which it treats as a highly normative and problematic concept. It reframes integration in terms of greater equalisation and democratisation (entailed in the parameters of access, participation and belonging), pointing to its transnational and intersectional dimensions.
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Gender and Time Use in a Global Context

The Economics of Employment and Unpaid Labor

Author: Rachel Connelly,Ebru Kongar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137568372

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 505

View: 9400

This edited volume uses a feminist approach to explore the economic implications of the complex interrelationship between gender and time use. Household composition, sexuality, migration patterns, income levels, and race/ethnicity are all considered as important factors that interact with gender and time use patterns. The book is split in two sections: The macroeconomic portion explores cutting edge issues such as time poverty and its relationship to income poverty, and the macroeconomic effects of recession and austerity; while the microeconomic section studies topics such as differences by age, activity sequencing, and subjective well-being of time spent. The chapters also examine a range of age groups, from the labor of school-age children to elderly caregivers, and analyze time use in Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Finland, India, Korea, South Africa, Tanzania, Turkey, and the United States. Each chapter provides a substantial introduction to the academic literature of its focus and is written to be revealing to researchers and accessible to students and policymakers.
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Women and Gender in Postwar Europe

From Cold War to European Union

Author: Joanna Regulska,Bonnie G. Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136454802

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7011

Women and Gender in Postwar Europe charts the experiences of women across Europe from 1945 to the present day. Europe at the end of World War II was a sorry testimony to the human condition; awash in corpses, the infrastructure devastated, food and fuel in such short supply. From Soviet Union to the United Kingdom and Ireland the vast majority of citizens on whom survival depended, in the postwar years, were women. This book charts the involvement of women in postwar reconstruction through the Cold War and post Cold-War years with chapters on the economic, social, and political dynamism that characterized Europe from the 1950s onwards, and goes on to look at the woman’s place in a rebuilt Europe that was both more prosperous and as tension-filled as before. The chapters both look at broad trends across both eastern and western Europe; such as the horrific aftermath of World War II, but also present individual case studies that illustrate those broad trends in the historical development of women’s lives and gender roles. The case studies show difference and diversity across Europe whilst also setting the experience of women in a particular country within the broader historical issues and trends, in such topics as work, professionalization, sexuality, consumerism, migration, and activism. The introduction and conclusion provide an overview that integrates the chapters into the more general history of this important period. This will be an essential resource for students of women and gender studies and for post 1945 courses.
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The Securitization of Migration and Refugee Women

Author: Alison Gerard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135982570

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 9610

Humanised accounts of restrictions on mobility are rarely the focus of debates on irregular migration. Very little is heard from refugees themselves about why they migrate, their experiences whilst entering the EU or how they navigate reception conditions upon arrival, particularly from a gendered perspective. The Securitization of Migration and Refugee Women fills this gap and explores the journey made by refugee women who have travelled from Somalia to the EU to seek asylum. This book reveals the humanised impact of the securitization of migration, the dominant policy response to irregular migration pursued by governments across the Globe. The Southern EU Member State of Malta finds itself on the frontline of policing and securing Europe’s southern external borders against transnational migrants and preventing migrants’ on-migration to other Member States within the EU. The securitization of migration has been responsible for restricting access to asylum, diluting rights and entitlements to refugee protection, and punishing those who arrive in the EU without valid passports –a visibly racialised and gendered population. The stories of the refugee women interviewed for this research detail the ways in which refugee protection is being eroded, selectively applied and in some cases specifically designed to exclude. In contrast to the majority of migration literature, which has largely focused on the male experience, this book focuses on the experiences of refugee women and aims to contribute to the volume of work dedicated to analysing borders from the perspective of those who cross them. This research strengthens existing criminological literature and has the potential to offer insights to policy makers around the world. It will be of interest to academics and students interested in International Crime and Justice, Securitisation, Refugee Law and Border Control, as well as the general reader.
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Migration and Domestic Work

A European Perspective on a Global Theme

Author: Helma Lutz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317096436

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 9598

Domestic work has become highly relevant on a local and global scale. Until a decade ago, domestic workers were rare in European households; today they can be found working for middle-class families and single people, for double or single parents as well as for the elderly. Performing the three C's - cleaning, caring and cooking - domestic workers offer their woman power on a global market which Europe has become part of. This global market is now considered the largest labour market for women world wide and it has triggered the feminization of migration. This volume brings together contributions by European and US based researchers to look at the connection between migration and domestic work on an empirical and theoretical level. The contributors elaborate on the phenomenon of 'domestic work' in late modern societies by discussing different methodological and theoretical approaches in an interdisciplinary setting. The volume also looks at the gendered aspects of domestic work; it asks why the re-introduction of domestic workers in European households has become so popular and will argue that this phenomenon is challenging gender theories. This is a timely book and will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of migration, gender and European studies.
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Migration and Religion in Europe

Comparative Perspectives on South Asian Experiences

Author: Ester Gallo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317096371

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 1588

Religious practices and their transformation are crucial elements of migrants' identities and are increasingly politicized by national governments in the light of perceived threats to national identity. As new immigrant flows shape religious pluralism in Europe, longstanding relations between the State and Church are challenged, together with majority-faith traditions and societies’ ways of representing and perceiving themselves. With attention to variations according to national setting, this volume explores the process of reformulating religious identities and practices amongst South Asian 'communities' in European contexts, Presenting a wide range of ethnographies, including studies of Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Islam amongst migrant communities in contexts as diverse as Norway, Italy, the UK, France and Portugal, Migration and Religion in Europe sheds light on the meaning of religious practices to diasporic communities. It examines the manner in which such practices can be used by migrants and local societies to produce distance or proximity, as well as their political significance in various 'host' nations. Offering insights into the affirmation of national identities and cultures and the implications of this for governance and political discourse within Europe, this book will appeal to scholars with interests in anthropology, religion and society, migration, transnationalism and gender.
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A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Author: Jane Freedman,Zeynep Kivilcim,Nurcan Özgür Baklac?o?lu

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315529637

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 1201

The refugee crisis that began in 2015 has seen thousands of refugees attempting to reach Europe, principally from Syria. The dangers and difficulties of this journey have been highlighted in the media, as have the political disagreements within Europe over the way to deal with the problem. However, despite the increasing number of women making this journey, there has been little or no analysis of women’s experiences or of the particular difficulties and dangers they may face. A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis examines women’s experience at all stages of forced migration, from the conflict in Syria, to refugee camps in Lebanon or Turkey, on the journey to the European Union and on arrival in an EU member state. The book deals with women’s experiences, the changing nature of gender relations during forced migration, gendered representations of refugees, and the ways in which EU policies may impact differently on men and women. The book provides a nuanced and complex assessment of the refugee crisis, and shows the importance of analysing differences within the refugee population. Students and scholars of development studies, gender studies, security studies, politics and middle eastern studies will find this book an important guide to the evolving crisis.
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