Godel's Disjunction

The Scope and Limits of Mathematical Knowledge

Author: Leon Horsten,Philip Welch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198759592

Category:

Page: 288

View: 8387

The logician Kurt Godel in 1951 established a disjunctive thesis about the scope and limits of mathematical knowledge: either the mathematical mind is not equivalent to a Turing machine (i.e., a computer), or there are absolutely undecidable mathematical problems. In the second half of the twentieth century, attempts have been made to arrive at a stronger conclusion. In particular, arguments have been produced by the philosopher J.R. Lucas and by the physicist and mathematician Roger Penrose that intend to show that the mathematical mind is more powerful than any computer. These arguments, and counterarguments to them, have not convinced the logical and philosophical community. The reason for this is an insufficiency if rigour in the debate. The contributions in this volume move the debate forward by formulating rigorous frameworks and formally spelling out and evaluating arguments that bear on Godel's disjunction in these frameworks. The contributions in this volume have been written by world leading experts in the field.
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Gödel's Disjunction

The scope and limits of mathematical knowledge

Author: Leon Horsten,Philip Welch

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191077690

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 1933

The logician Kurt Gödel in 1951 established a disjunctive thesis about the scope and limits of mathematical knowledge: either the mathematical mind is not equivalent to a Turing machine (i.e., a computer), or there are absolutely undecidable mathematical problems. In the second half of the twentieth century, attempts have been made to arrive at a stronger conclusion. In particular, arguments have been produced by the philosopher J.R. Lucas and by the physicist and mathematician Roger Penrose that intend to show that the mathematical mind is more powerful than any computer. These arguments, and counterarguments to them, have not convinced the logical and philosophical community. The reason for this is an insufficiency if rigour in the debate. The contributions in this volume move the debate forward by formulating rigorous frameworks and formally spelling out and evaluating arguments that bear on Gödel's disjunction in these frameworks. The contributions in this volume have been written by world leading experts in the field.
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Physical Perspectives on Computation, Computational Perspectives on Physics

Author: Michael E. Cuffaro,Samuel C. Fletcher

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316767396

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9874

Although computation and the science of physical systems would appear to be unrelated, there are a number of ways in which computational and physical concepts can be brought together in ways that illuminate both. This volume examines fundamental questions which connect scholars from both disciplines: is the universe a computer? Can a universal computing machine simulate every physical process? What is the source of the computational power of quantum computers? Are computational approaches to solving physical problems and paradoxes always fruitful? Contributors from multiple perspectives reflecting the diversity of thought regarding these interconnections address many of the most important developments and debates within this exciting area of research. Both a reference to the state of the art and a valuable and accessible entry to interdisciplinary work, the volume will interest researchers and students working in physics, computer science, and philosophy of science and mathematics.
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Interpreting Godel

Critical Essays

Author: Juliette Kennedy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107002664

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8175

In this groundbreaking volume, leading philosophers and mathematicians explore Kurt Gödel's work on the foundations and philosophy of mathematics.
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Model Building in Mathematical Programming

Author: H. Paul Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118506189

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 432

View: 6345

The 5th edition of Model Building in Mathematical Programming discusses the general principles of model building in mathematical programming and demonstrates how they can be applied by using several simplified but practical problems from widely different contexts. Suggested formulations and solutions are given together with some computational experience to give the reader a feel for the computational difficulty of solving that particular type of model. Furthermore, this book illustrates the scope and limitations of mathematical programming, and shows how it can be applied to real situations. By emphasizing the importance of the building and interpreting of models rather than the solution process, the author attempts to fill a gap left by the many works which concentrate on the algorithmic side of the subject. In this article, H.P. Williams explains his original motivation and objectives in writing the book, how it has been modified and updated over the years, what is new in this edition and why it has maintained its relevance and popularity over the years: http://www.statisticsviews.com/details/feature/4566481/Model-Building-in-Mathematical-Programming-published-in-fifth-edition.html
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The Seduction of Curves

The Lines of Beauty That Connect Mathematics, Art, and the Nude

Author: Allan McRobie

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691175330

Category: Art

Page: 168

View: 9190

In this large-format book, lavishly illustrated in color throughout, Allan McRobie takes the reader on an alluring exploration of the beautiful curves that shape our world--from our bodies to Salvador Dalí's paintings and the space-time fabric of the universe itself. The book focuses on seven curves--the fold, cusp, swallowtail, and butterfly, plus the hyperbolic, elliptical, and parabolic "umbilics"--and describes the surprising origins of their taxonomy in the catastrophe theory of mathematician René Thom.
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Mathematics for Computer Science

Author: Eric Lehman,F. Thomson Leighton,Albert R. Meyer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789888407064

Category:

Page: 979

View: 1224

This book covers elementary discrete mathematics for computer science and engineering. It emphasizes mathematical definitions and proofs as well as applicable methods. Topics include formal logic notation, proof methods; induction, well-ordering; sets, relations; elementary graph theory; integer congruences; asymptotic notation and growth of functions; permutations and combinations, counting principles; discrete probability. Further selected topics may also be covered, such as recursive definition and structural induction; state machines and invariants; recurrences; generating functions.
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The Influence of Computers and Informatics on Mathematics and Its Teaching

Proceedings From a Symposium Held in Strasbourg, France in March 1985 and Sponsored by the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction

Author: R. F. Churchhouse

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521311892

Category: Computers

Page: 155

View: 528

First published in 1986, the first ICMI study is concerned with the influence of computers and computer science on mathematics and its teaching in the last years of school and at tertiary level. In particular, it explores the way the computer has influenced mathematics itself and the way in which mathematicians work, likely influences on the curriculum of high-school and undergraduate students, and the way in which the computer can be used to improve mathematics teaching and learning. The book comprises a report of the meeting held in Strasbourg in March 1985, plus several papers contributed to that meeting.
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The Century Dictionary

An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language

Author: William Dwight Whitney

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Page: 7076

View: 2743

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Logic and Structure

Author: Dirk van Dalen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662029626

Category: Mathematics

Page: 220

View: 4067

New corrected printing of a well-established text on logic at the introductory level.
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Probability Theory

The Logic of Science

Author: E. T. Jaynes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139435167

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 3529

The standard rules of probability can be interpreted as uniquely valid principles in logic. In this book, E. T. Jaynes dispels the imaginary distinction between 'probability theory' and 'statistical inference', leaving a logical unity and simplicity, which provides greater technical power and flexibility in applications. This book goes beyond the conventional mathematics of probability theory, viewing the subject in a wider context. New results are discussed, along with applications of probability theory to a wide variety of problems in physics, mathematics, economics, chemistry and biology. It contains many exercises and problems, and is suitable for use as a textbook on graduate level courses involving data analysis. The material is aimed at readers who are already familiar with applied mathematics at an advanced undergraduate level or higher. The book will be of interest to scientists working in any area where inference from incomplete information is necessary.
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Principia Mathematica

Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: N.A

View: 9529

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Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition

Author: Elliott Mendelson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482237784

Category: Mathematics

Page: 513

View: 5690

The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing. The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in the new edition for historical considerations. The text also offers historical perspectives and many new exercises of varying difficulty, which motivate and lead students to an in-depth, practical understanding of the material.
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How to Prove It

A Structured Approach

Author: Daniel J. Velleman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139450972

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 8824

Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.
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Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Writings

Author: Charles S. Peirce

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253004691

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 8519

The philosophy of mathematics plays a vital role in the mature philosophy of Charles S. Peirce. Peirce received rigorous mathematical training from his father and his philosophy carries on in decidedly mathematical and symbolic veins. For Peirce, math was a philosophical tool and many of his most productive ideas rest firmly on the foundation of mathematical principles. This volume collects Peirce's most important writings on the subject, many appearing in print for the first time. Peirce's determination to understand matter, the cosmos, and "the grand design" of the universe remain relevant for contemporary students of science, technology, and symbolic logic.
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Understanding Machine Learning

From Theory to Algorithms

Author: Shai Shalev-Shwartz,Shai Ben-David

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107057132

Category: Computers

Page: 409

View: 928

Introduces machine learning and its algorithmic paradigms, explaining the principles behind automated learning approaches and the considerations underlying their usage.
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