Foundations of the Formal Sciences V

Infinite Games

Author: Stefan Bold,B Loewe,T Rasch

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987758

Category: Computers

Page: 351

View: 1376

Infinity can feature in games in various forms: we can play games of infinite length, with infinitely many players, or allow for infinitely many moves or strategies. Games of infinite length have been thoroughly investigated by mathematicians and have played a central role in mathematical logic. However, their applications go far beyond mathematics: they feature prominently in theoretical computer science, philosophical Gedankenexperiments, as limit cases in economical applications, and in many other applications. The conference Foundations of the Formal Sciences V focused on games of infinite length, but was very opn to include other notions of infinity in games as well.

Automata, Logics, and Infinite Games

A Guide to Current Research

Author: Erich Grädel,Wolfgang Thomas,Thomas Wilke

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540363874

Category: Computers

Page: 392

View: 8396

A central aim and ever-lasting dream of computer science is to put the development of hardware and software systems on a mathematical basis which is both firm and practical. Such a scientific foundation is needed especially for the construction of reactive programs, like communication protocols or control systems. For the construction and analysis of reactive systems an elegant and powerful theory has been developed based on automata theory, logical systems for the specification of nonterminating behavior, and infinite two-person games. The 19 chapters presented in this multi-author monograph give a consolidated overview of the research results achieved in the theory of automata, logics, and infinite games during the past 10 years. Special emphasis is placed on coherent style, complete coverage of all relevant topics, motivation, examples, justification of constructions, and exercises.

Combinatorial Set Theory

With a Gentle Introduction to Forcing

Author: Lorenz J. Halbeisen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781447121732

Category: Mathematics

Page: 456

View: 5201

This book provides a self-contained introduction to modern set theory and also opens up some more advanced areas of current research in this field. The first part offers an overview of classical set theory wherein the focus lies on the axiom of choice and Ramsey theory. In the second part, the sophisticated technique of forcing, originally developed by Paul Cohen, is explained in great detail. With this technique, one can show that certain statements, like the continuum hypothesis, are neither provable nor disprovable from the axioms of set theory. In the last part, some topics of classical set theory are revisited and further developed in the light of forcing. The notes at the end of each chapter put the results in a historical context, and the numerous related results and the extensive list of references lead the reader to the frontier of research. This book will appeal to all mathematicians interested in the foundations of mathematics, but will be of particular use to graduates in this field.

Language, Culture, Computation: Computing - Theory and Technology

Essays Dedicated to Yaacov Choueka on the Occasion of His 75 Birthday

Author: Nachum Dershowitz,Ephraim Nissan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364245321X

Category: Computers

Page: 604

View: 679

This Festschrift volume is published in Honor of Yaacov Choueka on the occasion of this 75th birthday. The present three-volumes liber amicorum, several years in gestation, honours this outstanding Israeli computer scientist and is dedicated to him and to his scientific endeavours. Yaacov's research has had a major impact not only within the walls of academia, but also in the daily life of lay users of such technology that originated from his research. An especially amazing aspect of the temporal span of his scholarly work is that half a century after his influential research from the early 1960s, a project in which he is currently involved is proving to be a sensation, as will become apparent from what follows. Yaacov Choueka began his research career in the theory of computer science, dealing with basic questions regarding the relation between mathematical logic and automata theory. From formal languages, Yaacov moved to natural languages. He was a founder of natural-language processing in Israel, developing numerous tools for Hebrew. He is best known for his primary role, together with Aviezri Fraenkel, in the development of the Responsa Project, one of the earliest fulltext retrieval systems in the world. More recently, he has headed the Friedberg Genizah Project, which is bringing the treasures of the Cairo Genizah into the Digital Age. This first part of the three-volume set covers a range of topics in computer science. The papers are grouped in topical sections on: the jubilaris: Yaacov and his oeuvre; theory of computation; science computing and tools for engineering; information retrieval.

Logical Foundations of Computer Science

International Symposium, LFCS 2013, San Diego, CA, USA, January 6-8, 2013. Proceedings

Author: Sergei Artemov,Anil Nerode

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642357229

Category: Mathematics

Page: 415

View: 4647

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Symposium on Logical Foundations of Computer Science, LFCS 2013, held in San Diego, CA, USA in January 2013. The volume presents 29 revised refereed papers carefully selected by the program committee. The scope of the Symposium is broad and includes constructive mathematics and type theory; logic, automata and automatic structures; computability and randomness; logical foundations of programming; logical aspects of computational complexity; logic programming and constraints; automated deduction and interactive theorem proving; logical methods in protocol and program verification; logical methods in program specification and extraction; domain theory logic; logical foundations of database theory; equational logic and term rewriting; lambda and combinatory calculi; categorical logic and topological semantics; linear logic; epistemic and temporal logics; intelligent and multiple agent system logics; logics of proof and justification; nonmonotonic reasoning; logic in game theory and social software; logic of hybrid systems; distributed system logics; mathematical fuzzy logic; system design logics; and other logics in computer science.

The Principles of Mathematics Revisited

Author: Jaakko Hintikka

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521624985

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 8091

This book, written by one of philosophy's pre-eminent logicians, argues that many of the basic assumptions common to logic, philosophy of mathematics and metaphysics are in need of change. It is therefore a book of critical importance to logical theory. Jaakko Hintikka proposes a new basic first-order logic and uses it to explore the foundations of mathematics. This new logic enables logicians to express on the first-order level such concepts as equicardinality, infinity, and truth in the same language. The famous impossibility results by Gödel and Tarski that have dominated the field for the last sixty years turn out to be much less significant than has been thought. All of ordinary mathematics can in principle be done on this first-order level, thus dispensing with the existence of sets and other higher-order entities.

Finite and Infinite Games

Author: James Carse

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1451657293

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 7167

“There are at least two kinds of games,” states James Carse as he begins this extraordinary book. “One could be called finite; the other infinite.” Finite games are the familiar contests of everyday life; they are played in order to be won, which is when they end. But infinite games are more mysterious. Their object is not winning, but ensuring the continuation of play. The rules may change, the boundaries may change, even the participants may change—as long as the game is never allowed to come to an end. What are infinite games? How do they affect the ways we play our finite games? What are we doing when we play—finitely or infinitely? And how can infinite games affect the ways in which we live our lives? Carse explores these questions with stunning elegance, teasing out of his distinctions a universe of observation and insight, noting where and why and how we play, finitely and infinitely. He surveys our world—from the finite games of the playing field and playing board to the infinite games found in culture and religion—leaving all we think we know illuminated and transformed. Along the way, Carse finds new ways of understanding everything from how an actress portrays a role, to how we engage in sex, from the nature of evil, to the nature of science. Finite games, he shows, may offer wealth and status, power and glory. But infinite games offer something far more subtle and far grander. Carse has written a book rich in insight and aphorism. Already an international literary event, Finite and Infinite Games is certain to be argued about and celebrated for years to come. Reading it is the first step in learning to play the infinite game.

Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science

Selected Papers from 1951 to 1969

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940173173X

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 8874

The twenty-three papers collected in tbis volume represent an important part of my published work up to the date of this volume. I have not arranged the paper chronologically, but under four main headings. Part I contains five papers on methodology concerned with models and measurement in the sciences. This part also contains the first paper I published, 'A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities', in Portugaliae Mathematica in 1951. Part 11 also is concerned with methodology and ineludes six papers on probability and utility. It is not always easy to separate papers on probability and utility from papers on measurement, because of the elose connection between the two subjects, but Artieles 6 and 8, even though they have elose relations to measurement, seem more properly to belong in Part 11, because they are concerned with substantive questions about probability and utility. The last two parts are concerned with the foundations of physics and the foundations of psychology. I have used the term foundations rather than philosophy, because the papers are mainly concerned with specific axiomatic formulations for particular parts of physics or of psychology, and it seems to me that the termfoundations more appropriately describes such constructive axiomatic ventures. Part 111 contains four papers on the foundations of physics. The first paper deals with foundations of special relativity and the last three with the role ofprobability in quantum mechanics.

FSTTCS 2007: Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science

27th International Conference, New Delhi, India, December 12-14, 2007, Proceedings

Author: V. Arvind,Sanjiva Prasad

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540770496

Category: Computers

Page: 558

View: 9396

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 27th International Conference on the Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, FSTTCS 2007, held in New Delhi, India, in December 2007. The 40 revised full papers presented together with five invited papers were carefully reviewed. They provide original research results in fundamental aspects of computer science and reports from the frontline of software technology and theoretical computer science.

Studies in Logic and Probability

Author: George Boole

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486488268

Category: Mathematics

Page: 500

View: 2407

Authoritative account of the development of Boole's ideas in logic and probability theory ranges from The Mathematical Analysis of Logic to the end of his career. The Laws of Thought formed the most systematic statement of Boole's theories; this volume contains incomplete studies intended for a follow-up volume. 1952 edition.

Second-order Quantifier Elimination

Foundations, Computational Aspects and Applications

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,Renate A. Schmidt,Andrzej Szałas

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781904987567

Category: Computers

Page: 308

View: 9211

In recent years there has been an increasing use of logical methods and significant new developments have been spawned in several areas of computer science, ranging from artificial intelligence and software engineering to agent-based systems and the semantic web. In the investigation and application of logical methods there is a tension between: * the need for a representational language strong enough to express domain knowledge of a particular application, and the need for a logical formalism general enough to unify several reasoning facilities relevant to the application, on the one hand, and * the need to enable computationally feasible reasoning facilities, on the other hand. Second-order logics are very expressive and allow us to represent domain knowledge with ease, but there is a high price to pay for the expressiveness. Most second-order logics are incomplete and highly undecidable. It is the quantifiers which bind relation symbols that make second-order logics computationally unfriendly. It is therefore desirable to eliminate these second-order quantifiers, when this is mathematically possible; and often it is. If second-order quantifiers are eliminable we want to know under which conditions, we want to understand the principles and we want to develop methods for second-order quantifier elimination. This book provides the first comprehensive, systematic and uniform account of the state-of-the-art of second-order quantifier elimination in classical and non-classical logics. It covers the foundations, it discusses in detail existing second-order quantifier elimination methods, and it presents numerous examples of applications and non-standard uses in different areas. These include: * classical and non-classical logics, * correspondence and duality theory, * knowledge representation and description logics, * commonsense reasoning and approximate reasoning, * relational and deductive databases, and * complexity theory. The book is intended for anyone interested in the theory and application of logics in computer science and artificial intelligence.

Set Theory and the Continuum Hypothesis

Author: Paul J. Cohen,Martin Davis

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486469212

Category: Mathematics

Page: 154

View: 7139

This exploration of a notorious mathematical problem is the work of the man who discovered the solution. Written by an award-winning professor at Stanford University, it employs intuitive explanations as well as detailed mathematical proofs in a self-contained treatment. This unique text and reference is suitable for students and professionals. 1966 edition. Copyright renewed 1994.

Philosophy of Mathematics

Selected Readings

Author: Paul Benacerraf,Hilary Putnam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268133

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6897

The twentieth century has witnessed an unprecedented 'crisis in the foundations of mathematics', featuring a world-famous paradox (Russell's Paradox), a challenge to 'classical' mathematics from a world-famous mathematician (the 'mathematical intuitionism' of Brouwer), a new foundational school (Hilbert's Formalism), and the profound incompleteness results of Kurt Gödel. In the same period, the cross-fertilization of mathematics and philosophy resulted in a new sort of 'mathematical philosophy', associated most notably (but in different ways) with Bertrand Russell, W. V. Quine, and Gödel himself, and which remains at the focus of Anglo-Saxon philosophical discussion. The present collection brings together in a convenient form the seminal articles in the philosophy of mathematics by these and other major thinkers. It is a substantially revised version of the edition first published in 1964 and includes a revised bibliography. The volume will be welcomed as a major work of reference at this level in the field.

Relation Algebras by Games

Author: Robin Hirsch,Ian Hodkinson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080540450

Category: Mathematics

Page: 710

View: 4696

Relation algebras are algebras arising from the study of binary relations. They form a part of the field of algebraic logic, and have applications in proof theory, modal logic, and computer science. This research text uses combinatorial games to study the fundamental notion of representations of relation algebras. Games allow an intuitive and appealing approach to the subject, and permit substantial advances to be made. The book contains many new results and proofs not published elsewhere. It should be invaluable to graduate students and researchers interested in relation algebras and games. After an introduction describing the authors' perspective on the material, the text proper has six parts. The lengthy first part is devoted to background material, including the formal definitions of relation algebras, cylindric algebras, their basic properties, and some connections between them. Examples are given. Part 1 ends with a short survey of other work beyond the scope of the book. In part 2, games are introduced, and used to axiomatise various classes of algebras. Part 3 discusses approximations to representability, using bases, relation algebra reducts, and relativised representations. Part 4 presents some constructions of relation algebras, including Monk algebras and the 'rainbow construction', and uses them to show that various classes of representable algebras are non-finitely axiomatisable or even non-elementary. Part 5 shows that the representability problem for finite relation algebras is undecidable, and then in contrast proves some finite base property results. Part 6 contains a condensed summary of the book, and a list of problems. There are more than 400 exercises. The book is generally self-contained on relation algebras and on games, and introductory text is scattered throughout. Some familiarity with elementary aspects of first-order logic and set theory is assumed, though many of the definitions are given. Chapter 2 introduces the necessary universal algebra and model theory, and more specific model-theoretic ideas are explained as they arise.

Basic Simple Type Theory

Author: J. Roger Hindley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521465182

Category: Computers

Page: 186

View: 1332

Type theory is one of the most important tools in the design of higher-level programming languages, such as ML. This book introduces and teaches its techniques by focusing on one particularly neat system and studying it in detail. By concentrating on the principles that make the theory work in practice, the author covers all the key ideas without getting involved in the complications of more advanced systems. This book takes a type-assignment approach to type theory, and the system considered is the simplest polymorphic one. The author covers all the basic ideas, including the system's relation to propositional logic, and gives a careful treatment of the type-checking algorithm that lies at the heart of every such system. Also featured are two other interesting algorithms that until now have been buried in inaccessible technical literature. The mathematical presentation is rigorous but clear, making it the first book at this level that can be used as an introduction to type theory for computer scientists.

Foundations of Modern Probability

Author: Olav Kallenberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387227040

Category: Mathematics

Page: 523

View: 3751

Unique for its broad and yet comprehensive coverage of modern probability theory, ranging from first principles and standard textbook material to more advanced topics. In spite of the economical exposition, careful proofs are provided for all main results. After a detailed discussion of classical limit theorems, martingales, Markov chains, random walks, and stationary processes, the author moves on to a modern treatment of Brownian motion, L=82vy processes, weak convergence, It=93 calculus, Feller processes, and SDEs. The more advanced parts include material on local time, excursions, and additive functionals, diffusion processes, PDEs and potential theory, predictable processes, and general semimartingales. Though primarily intended as a general reference for researchers and graduate students in probability theory and related areas of analysis, the book is also suitable as a text for graduate and seminar courses on all levels, from elementary to advanced. Numerous easy to more challenging exercises are provided, especially for the early chapters. From the author of "Random Measures".

Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Commemorative Edition)

Author: John von Neumann,Oskar Morgenstern

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691130612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 739

View: 8386

First published in 1944, this book, co-written by an economist & a mathematician, conceived a groundbreaking theory of economic & social organisation based on a theory of games of strategy. The result was a revolution in economics & game theory has since emerged as a major tool of analysis in many other fields.

Infinity and the Mind

The Science and Philosophy of the Infinite

Author: Rudy Rucker

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400849047

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 1261

In Infinity and the Mind, Rudy Rucker leads an excursion to that stretch of the universe he calls the "Mindscape," where he explores infinity in all its forms: potential and actual, mathematical and physical, theological and mundane. Rucker acquaints us with Gödel's rotating universe, in which it is theoretically possible to travel into the past, and explains an interpretation of quantum mechanics in which billions of parallel worlds are produced every microsecond. It is in the realm of infinity, he maintains, that mathematics, science, and logic merge with the fantastic. By closely examining the paradoxes that arise from this merging, we can learn a great deal about the human mind, its powers, and its limitations. Using cartoons, puzzles, and quotations to enliven his text, Rucker guides us through such topics as the paradoxes of set theory, the possibilities of physical infinities, and the results of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. His personal encounters with Gödel the mathematician and philosopher provide a rare glimpse at genius and reveal what very few mathematicians have dared to admit: the transcendent implications of Platonic realism.