Forest Canopies

Author: Margaret Lowman,H. Bruce Rinker

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124575536

Category: Nature

Page: 517

View: 3056

The treetops of the world's forests are where discovery and opportunity abound, however they have been relatively inaccessible until recently. This book represents an authoritative synthesis of data, anecdotes, case studies, observations, and recommendations from researchers and educators who have risked life and limb in their advocacy of the High Frontier. With innovative rope techniques, cranes, walkways, dirigibles, and towers, they finally gained access to the rich biodiversity that lives far above the forest floor and the emerging science of canopy ecology. In this new edition of Forest Canopies, nearly 60 scientists and educators from around the world look at the biodiversity, ecology, evolution, and conservation of forest canopy ecosystems. -Comprehensive literature list -State-of-the-art results and data sets from current field work -Foremost scientists in the field of canopy ecology -Expanded collaboration of researchers and international projects -User-friendly format with sidebars and case studies -Keywords and outlines for each chapter
Release

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Principles, Processes and Models

Author: J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080922546

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 7791

Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment
Release

Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management

Author: J. J. Landsberg,S. T. Gower

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080527383

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 354

View: 4789

Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future
Release

Tropical Forest Canopies: Ecology and Management

Proceedings of ESF Conference, Oxford University, 12–16 December 1998

Author: K. Eduard Linsenmair,C.M. Davis,Brigitte Fiala,M.R. Speight

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401736065

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 370

View: 6150

Almost half of all life on earth may exist in the world's forest canopies. They may also play a vital role in maintaining the planet's climate, yet they remain largely unexplored owing to difficulties of access. They are renowned for their great diversity and role in forest functioning, yet there are still great gaps in the understanding of this `last biological frontier'. This seminal book shows how canopy science is now in a position to answer many of the outstanding questions, among which are some of the most pressing environmental issues society is presently facing. It represents a major summary of the current understanding of canopy ecology, and maps a path forward into a greater understanding of tropical forest ecology and management at a time when the very future of this ecosystem is threatened by humanity's actions.
Release

Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387783413

Category: Science

Page: 605

View: 7296

Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.
Release

Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management

Author: J. J. Landsberg,S. T. Gower

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080527383

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 354

View: 2673

Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future
Release

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Principles, Processes and Models

Author: J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080922546

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 9954

Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment
Release

Scaling Physiological Processes

Leaf to Globe

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323139574

Category: Science

Page: 388

View: 4514

Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling
Release

Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications

Author: Kouki Hikosaka,Ülo Niinemets,Niels P.R. Anten

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401772916

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 6643

The last 30 years has seen the development of increasingly sophisticated models that quantify canopy carbon exchange. These models are now essential parts of larger models for prediction and simulation of crop production, climate change, and regional and global carbon dynamics. There is thus an urgent need for increasing expertise in developing, use and understanding of these models. This in turn calls for an advanced, yet easily accessible textbook that summarizes the “canopy science” and introduces the present and the future scientists to the theoretical background of the current canopy models. This book presents current knowledge of functioning of plant canopies, models and strategies employed to simulate canopy function, and the significance of canopy architecture, physiology and dynamics in ecosystems, landscape and biosphere.
Release

Plant Physiological Ecology

Field methods and instrumentation

Author: Robert W. Pearcy,J.R. Ehleringer,Harold Mooney,Philip W. Rundel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401090130

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 7000

capable of providing at least a relative measure of stomatal aperture were first used shortly thereafter (Darwin and Pertz, 1911). The Carnegie Institution of Washington's Desert Research Laboratory in Tucson from 1905 to 1927 was the first effort by plant physiologists and ecologists to conduct team research on the water relations of desert plants. Measurements by Stocker in the North African deserts and Indonesia (Stocker, 1928, 1935) and by Lundegardh (1922) in forest understories were pioneering attempts to understand the environmental controls on photosynthesis in the field. While these early physiological ecologists were keen observers and often posed hypotheses still relevant today they were strongly limited by the methods and technologies available to them. Their measurements provided only rough approximations of the actual plant responses. The available laboratory equip ment was either unsuited or much more difficult to operate under field than laboratory conditions. Laboratory physiologists distrusted the results and ecologists were largely not persuaded of its relevance. Consequently, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that physiological ecology began its current resurgence. While the reasons for this are complicated, the development and application of more sophisticated instruments such as the infrared gas analyzer played a major role. In addition, the development of micrometeorology led to new methods of characterizing the plant environments.
Release

Resource Physiology of Conifers

Acquisition, Allocation, and Utilization

Author: William Kirby Smith,Thomas M. Hinckley

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780126528701

Category: Nature

Page: 396

View: 2083

Coniferous forests are among the most important of ecosystems. These forests are widespread and influence both the financial and biological health of our globe. This book focuses attention on conifers and how these trees acquire, allocate, and utilize the resources that sustain this crucial productivity. An international team of experts has surveyed and synthesized information from an expanding area of inquiry. The first half of the book describes how resources are acquired both by means of photosynthesis and through root systems. The latter half of the volume focuses upon how resources are stored and used. As conifers continue as a resource and ever increasingly important contributor to the regional and global environmental sustainability, this book will help establish how much sustainability can be expected and maintained.
Release

The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants

Author: Theodore T. Kozlowski,Paul J. Kramer,Stephen G. Pallardy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323138004

Category: Science

Page: 657

View: 3876

The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs
Release

Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants

Ecophysiological Processes Above- and Belowground

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323139272

Category: Science

Page: 429

View: 6541

There is a new emerging interest in the effects of gaps and patches on succession and biodiversity. This innovative volume is a synthesis of studies of plant responses to temporal and spatial heterogeneity, the exploitation of resources from pulses and patches by plants, and their competition with neighbors in the face of this variability. Aboveground, the book focuses upon the nature of canopy patchiness, consequences of this heterogeneity for the light environment, and the mechanisms by which plants respond to and exploit this patchiness. Belowground, the text explores the heterogeneity of soil environments and how root systems obtain nutrients and water in the context of this temporal and spatial variability. As a new reference in an evolving and growing field, this text is sure to be a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students in plant physiology, ecology, agronomy, and forestry alike.
Release

Ecology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Animal ecology

Page: N.A

View: 1663

Release

Ecology of Lianas

Author: Stefan Schnitzer,Frans Bongers,Robyn J. Burnham,Francis E. Putz

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118392485

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 1754

Lianas are woody vines that were the focus of intense study by early ecologists, such as Darwin, who devoted an entire book to the natural history of climbing plants. Over the past quarter century, there has been a resurgence in the study of lianas, and liana are again recognized as important components of many forests, particularly in the tropics. The increasing amount of research on lianas has resulted in a fundamentally deeper understanding of liana ecology, evolution, and life-history, as well as the myriad roles lianas play in forest dynamics and functioning. This book provides insight into the ecology and evolution of lianas, their anatomy, physiology, and natural history, their global abundance and distribution, and their wide-ranging effects on the myriad organisms that inhabit tropical and temperate forests.
Release

The Physiological Ecology of Vertebrates

A View from Energetics

Author: Brian Keith McNab

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801439131

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 2381

Physiological ecology has grown in importance as an area of biology in the past thirty years and integrates the diverse approaches used in the comparative biology of organisms. Biologists segregate their approaches by technique and concept, but the boundaries among ecology, behavior, anatomy, and physiology are arbitrary and of no significance to organisms. Physiological ecology emphasizes the diversity of not only organisms, but also of solutions to (and evasions of) problems posed by the environment.In a comprehensive and authoritative synthesis of physiological ecology supported by more than 3,100 references, Brian K. McNab demonstrates the intellectual cohesion of the field. To ground his discussion in clearly understood contexts, McNab emphasizes the common thread of energy expenditure throughout the text and limits the discussion to vertebrates, which have familiar habitats and comparatively well-known evolutionary histories.A thorough scientific resource and reference tool, Physiological Ecology of Vertebrates is the first book to cover this complex subject. It will be the standard reference and basis for much future research in this fast-growing field of study.
Release

Ecophysiology of Coniferous Forests

Author: William K. Smith

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080925936

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 6135

Conifers--pine, fir, and spruce trees--are dominant species in forests around the world. This book focuses on the physiology of conifers and how these physiological systems operate. Special consideration is devoted to the means by which ecophysiological processes influence organismal function and distribution. Chapters focus on the genetics of conifers, their geographic distribution and the factors that influence this distribution, the impact of insect herbivory on ecophysiological parameters, the effects of air pollution, and the potential impact that global climatic changes will have upon conifers. Because of the growing realization that forests have a crucial role to play in global environmental health, this book will appeal to a developing union of ecologists, physiologists and more theoretically minded foresters.
Release

Physical and Physiological Forest Ecology

Author: Pertti Hari,Kari Heliövaara,Liisa Kulmala

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400756038

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 7994

This book introduces a holistic synthesis of carbon and nitrogen fluxes in forest ecosystems from cell to stand level during the lifetime of trees. Establishing that metabolism and physical phenomena give rise to concentration, pressure and temperature differences that generate the material and energy fluxes between living organisms and their environment. The editors and authors utilize physiological, physical and anatomical background information to formulate theoretical ideas dealing with the effects of the environment and the state of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments on metabolism. The emergent properties play an important role in the transitions from detailed to more aggregate levels in the ecosystem. Conservation of mass and energy allow the construction of dynamic models of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and pools at various levels in the hierarchy of forest ecosystems.
Release

The Biology and Ecology of Giant Kelp Forests

Author: David R. Schiel,Michael S. Foster

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520961099

Category: Nature

Page: 416

View: 6418

The largest seaweed, giant kelp (Macrocystis) is the fastest growing and most prolific of all plants found on earth. Growing from the seafloor and extending along the ocean surface in lush canopies, giant kelp provides an extensive vertical habitat in a largely two-dimensional seascape. It is the foundation for one of the most species-rich, productive, and widely distributed ecological communities in the world. Schiel and Foster’s scholarly review and synthesis take the reader from Darwin’s early observations to contemporary research, providing a historical perspective for the modern understanding of giant kelp evolution, biogeography, biology, and physiology. The authors furnish a comprehensive discussion of kelp species and forest ecology worldwide, with considerations of human uses and abuses, management and conservation, and the current and likely future impacts of global change. This volume promises to be the definitive treatise and reference on giant kelp and its forests for many years, and it will appeal to marine scientists and others who want a better appreciation and understanding of these wondrous forests of the sea.
Release