Forced Migration and Mental Health

Rethinking the Care of Refugees and Displaced Persons

Author: David Ingleby

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387226931

Category: Medical

Page: 218

View: 5203

Although forced migration is not new in human history it has become, in our time, one of the world's major problems. In the last few decades, armed conflict and political unrest have created vast numbers of asylum seekers, refugees and displaced persons. This has led, in turn to increasing involvement of professional care workers and agencies, both governmental and nongovernmental. While there is no doubt on the part of helping parties that care is necessary, there is considerable debate about the kind of care that is needed. This book presents a critical review of mental health care provisions for people who have had to leave their homeland, and explores the controversies surrounding this topic. Providing fresh perspectives on an age old problem, this book covers humanitarian aid and reconstruction programs as well as service provision in host countries. It is of interest to all those who provide health services, create policy, and initiate legislation for these populations.
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Refuge and Resilience

Promoting Resilience and Mental Health among Resettled Refugees and Forced Migrants

Author: Laura Simich,Lisa Andermann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400779232

Category: Social Science

Page: 226

View: 6859

Taking an interdisciplinary approach and focusing on the social and psychological resources that promote resilience among forced migrants, this book presents theory and evidence about what keeps refugees healthy during resettlement. The book draws on contributions from cultural psychiatry, anthropology, ethics, nursing, psychiatric epidemiology, sociology and social work. Concern about immigrant mental health and social integration in resettlement countries has given rise to public debates that challenge scientists and policy makers to assemble facts and solutions to perceived problems. Since the 1980s, refugee mental health research has been productive but arguably overly-focused on mental disorders and problems rather than solutions. Social science perspectives are not well integrated with medical science and treatment, which is at odds with social reality and underlies inadequacy and fragmentation in policy and service delivery. Research and practice that contribute to positive refugee mental health from Canada and the U.S. show that refugee mental health promotion must take into account social and policy contexts of immigration and health care in addition to medical issues. Despite traumatic experiences, most refugees are not mentally ill in a clinical sense and those who do need medical attention often do not receive appropriate care. As recent studies show, social and cultural determinants of health may play a larger role in refugee health and adaptation outcomes than do biological factors or pre-migration experiences. This book’s goal therefore is to broaden the refugee mental health field with social and cultural perspectives on resilience and mental health.
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The Mental Health of Refugees

Ecological Approaches To Healing and Adaptation

Author: Kenneth E. Miller,Lisa M. Rasco

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135636664

Category: Medical

Page: 448

View: 7419

It is estimated that at least 33 million people around the world have been displaced from their homes by war or persecution. Numerous studies have documented high rates of psychological distress among these survivors of extreme violence and forced migration, yet very few have access to clinic-based mental health care. In any case, clinic-based services cannot adequately address the constellation of displacement-related stressors that affect refugees daily, whether in a new region of their homeland or a new country--stressors such as social isolation, the loss of previously valued social roles, poverty and a lack of employment opportunities, and difficulties obtaining education and medical care. Additionally, many refugees from non-western societies find western methods of psychiatric and psychological healing culturally alien or stigmatizing, and therefore underutilize such services. This book brings together an international group of experts on the mental health of refugees who have pioneered a new approach to healing the psychological wounds of war and forced migration. Their work is guided by an ecological model, which, in contrast to the prevailing medical model of psychiatry and clinical psychology, emphasizes the development of culturally grounded mental health interventions in non-stigmatized community settings. The ecological model also prioritizes synergy with natural community resources to promote adaptation, prevention over treatment, the active involvement of community members in all phases of the intervention process, and the empowerment of marginalized communities to address their own mental health needs. Drawing on their expertise in community psychology, prevention science, anthropology, social psychology, social psychiatry, public health and child development, the authors present a variety of highly innovative, culturally grounded interventions designed to improve the mental health and psychosocial well-being of communities that have survived the nightmares of political repression, civil war, and genocide. They discuss the various conceptions of well-being and distress that have informed their projects, their own integrations of western and indigenous approaches to understanding and relieving psychological distress, and in several instances their creative use of well-trained paraprofessionals. They examine with remarkable candor the challenges they have faced in carrying out their work in extraordinarily demanding conditions. An extended introductory chapter reviews and analyzes what we know about the impact of political violence and exile on mental health, and lays out the ecological model in rich theoretical and empirical context. The first of two concluding chapters addresses the critical and often-neglected issue of the evaluation of community-based interventions in conflict and post-conflict settings; the second sums up the implications of the achievements and limitations of the programs described, poses questions that must be answered, such as "How adequate is the PTSD construct in capturing the nature of refugee trauma?", and suggests numerous directions for future research and practice. The Mental Health of Refugees: Ecological Approaches to Healing and Adaptation is an essential reference for all professionals who seek to serve members of this vulnerable population, for those who train and supervise them, and for program administrators and policymakers concerned with refugee well-being. It is also an excellent resource for graduate courses in public mental health, community psychology and psychiatry, refugee and immigrant studies, psychological trauma, medical anthropology, and ethnopolitical violence.
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Globalisation, Migration and Health

Challenges and Opportunities

Author: Andre M N Renzaho

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1783268905

Category: Medical

Page: 608

View: 4963

As globalisation gains momentum, international migration continues to divide opinion and polarise policy makers, politicians, and advocates. This polarisation has been reflected in research and publications, with pro-globalisation being pitched against anti-globalisation on the one hand, and an explosion of research on migration on the other. This book examines the interaction between the two and their impact on health for the first time, highlighting the myths and realities from an international, multi-disciplinary perspective. The book starts with an examination of the complex and multifaceted aspects of the globalisation phenomenon and its impact on population displacement and health, and concludes with a regional level analysis supported by country-specific examples. By highlighting common issues and differences across the globe, this book shows policy makers, political leaders, and international committees on migration the specificities of global migration and good practice across the world. Particular attention is paid to practical policy responses and governance as well as legal frameworks to manage the dynamics of migration, engage international institutions, and to maximise the benefits that internal and international migration bring. Contents:Globalisation, Migration and Health: An Introduction (André M N Renzaho)Forced and Voluntary Migration: Patterns of Internal and International Migration, Burden of Diseases and Policy Response:Forced Internal Displacement: Pattern, Health Impacts and Policy Response (André M N Renzaho)The Social and Health Dimensions of Refugees and Complex Humanitarian Emergencies (Joseph Kamara and André M N Renzaho)Health, Social, and Economic Impact of Voluntary Migration (André M N Renzaho)Case Studies — Asylum Seekers, Healthy Migrant Effect, and Access and Utilisation of Health Services:Invisible and Suffering: Prolonged and Systematic Detention of Asylum Seekers Living in Substandard Conditions in Greece (Sheila Cyril and André M N Renzaho)The Health Status, Service Needs and Barriers to Accessing Care for Detention and Community-Based Asylum Seekers in Australia (Emily Hadgkiss and André M N Renzaho)Women, Children and Men Trapped in Unsafe Corridors (Kevin Pottie, Chuck Hui and Fabien Schneider)Migration and Health Effects in the Netherlands (Paul Herfs and Olta Gishti)Health Equity: Evidence-Based Guidelines, E-Learning and Physician Advocacy for Migrant Populations in Canada (Kevin Pottie and Doug Gruner)Hispanic Immigration and the Epidemiological Paradox (Mary Lou de Leon Siantz)Migration and the Healthy Migrant Effect in Australia: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Opportunity for Future Research (André M N Renzaho)The Social Dimensions of Internal Migration and Health in China (André M N Renzaho)Migration Challenges and Health Policy in South Korea (André M N Renzaho)Migrant Health in the Workplace: A Multi-Country Comparison (Lata Satyen, John W Toumbourou, David Mellor, Ilmiye Secer and Matin Ghayour-Minaie)The Morbid Effect Associated with Racism Experienced by Immigrants: Findings from Australia (Kevin Dunn, Yin Paradies, Rosalie Atie and Naomi Priest)Conclusion:Globalisation and Migration: Reflections, Policy Directions and Conclusion (André M N Renzaho) Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in humanitarian and development studies, public health experts and practitioners, policy makers, and political leaders. Key Features:Examines the dynamics of migration and their impact on health from a global perspectiveStudies the impact globalisation has on population displacementCountry-specific case studies are analysed in this bookKeywords:Globalisation;Migration and Health;Forced Migration;Voluntary Migration;Hukou;China
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The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies

Author: Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh,Gil Loescher,Katy Long,Nando Sigona

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645885

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 7865

Refugee and Forced Migration Studies has grown from being a concern of a relatively small number of scholars and policy researchers in the 1980s to a global field of interest with thousands of students worldwide studying displacement either from traditional disciplinary perspectives or as a core component of newer programmes across the Humanities and Social and Political Sciences. Today the field encompasses both rigorous academic research which may or may not ultimately inform policy and practice, as well as action-research focused on advocating in favour of refugees' needs and rights. This authoritative Handbook critically evaluates the birth and development of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, and analyses the key contemporary and future challenges faced by academics and practitioners working with and for forcibly displaced populations around the world. The 52 state-of-the-art chapters, written by leading academics, practitioners, and policymakers working in universities, research centres, think tanks, NGOs and international organizations, provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge overview of the key intellectual, political, social and institutional challenges arising from mass displacement in the world today. The chapters vividly illustrate the vibrant and engaging debates that characterise this rapidly expanding field of research and practice.
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Geographies of Health

An Introduction

Author: Anthony C. Gatrell,Susan J. Elliott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118274857

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 6893

Setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy
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Fields of Combat

Understanding PTSD among Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

Author: Erin P. Finley

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461187

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 5404

For many of the 1.6 million U.S. service members who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan since 2001, the trip home is only the beginning of a longer journey. Many undergo an awkward period of readjustment to civilian life after long deployments. Some veterans may find themselves drinking too much, unable to sleep or waking from unspeakable dreams, lashing out at friends and loved ones. Over time, some will struggle so profoundly that they eventually are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress Disorder (PTSD). Both heartbreaking and hopeful, Fields of Combat tells the story of how American veterans and their families navigate the return home. Following a group of veterans and their their personal stories of war, trauma, and recovery, Erin P. Finley illustrates the devastating impact PTSD can have on veterans and their families. Finley sensitively explores issues of substance abuse, failed relationships, domestic violence, and even suicide and also challenges popular ideas of PTSD as incurable and permanently debilitating. Drawing on rich, often searing ethnographic material, Finley examines the cultural, political, and historical influences that shape individual experiences of PTSD and how its sufferers are perceived by the military, medical personnel, and society at large. Despite widespread media coverage and public controversy over the military's response to wounded and traumatized service members, debate continues over how best to provide treatment and compensation for service-related disabilities. Meanwhile, new and highly effective treatments are revolutionizing how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides trauma care, redefining the way PTSD itself is understood in the process. Carefully and compassionately untangling each of these conflicts, Fields of Combat reveals the very real implications they have for veterans living with PTSD and offers recommendations to improve how we care for this vulnerable but resilient population.
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Ritual and Recovery in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka

Author: Jane Derges

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136214887

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 4755

Following over twenty years of war, Sri Lanka’s longest cease-fire (2002-2006) provided a final opportunity for an inclusive peace settlement between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). However, hostilities resumed with ever increasing desperation and ferocity on both sides, until the LTTE were overcome and largely eradicated in 2009. This book provides a contextualised analysis of the effects of war on a small Tamil community living in northern Sri Lanka during the cease-fire period. It examines how the society changed and adapted in order to accommodate the upheaval and destruction of war, and its inevitable resumption. In particular, it focuses on the nature of suffering through an exploration of a well-known ritual: Thuukkukkaavadi that transformed the experience of pain and suffering and contributed to a process whereby many village communities could come together in a demonstration of strength and resilience. It contributes to studies on violence, reparation processes of so-called ‘post-conflict’ societies and the medical anthropology of healing. It questions assumptions concerning the nature of suffering and critiques the application of western categories in settings like northern Sri Lanka, where entire communities have been silenced by political violence. The book therefore presents a claim for more culturally specific understandings of what constitutes suffering and is of interest to students and scholars of South Asian Studies, Conflict Resolution, and Social and Cultural Anthropology.
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Migration and Mental Health

Author: Dinesh Bhugra,Susham Gupta

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494007

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 8858

Human migration is a global phenomenon and is on the increase. It occurs as a result of 'push' factors (asylum, natural disaster), or as a result of 'pull' factors (seeking economic or educational improvement). Whatever the cause of the relocation, the outcome requires individuals to adjust to their new surroundings and cope with the stresses involved, and as a result, there is considerable potential for disruption to mental health. This volume explores all aspects of migration, on all scales, and its effect on mental health. It covers migration in the widest sense and does not limit itself to refugee studies. It covers issues specific to the elderly and the young, as well as providing practical tips for clinicians on how to improve their own cultural competence in the work setting. The book will be of interest to all mental health professionals and those involved in establishing health and social policy.
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Childhood Deployed

Remaking Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

Author: Susan Shepler

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814760929

Category: Social Science

Page: 223

View: 2265

Childhood Deployed examines the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. Based on eighteen months of participant-observer ethnographic fieldwork and ten years of follow-up research, the book argues that there is a fundamental disconnect between the Western idea of the child soldier and the individual lived experiences of the child soldiers of Sierra Leone. Susan Shepler contends that the reintegration of former child soldiers is a political process having to do with changing notions of childhood as one of the central structures of society. For most Westerners the tragedy of the idea of “child soldier” centers around perceptions of lost and violated innocence. In contrast, Shepler finds that for most Sierra Leoneans, the problem is not lost innocence but the horror of being separated from one’s family and the resulting generational break in youth education. Further, Shepler argues that Sierra Leonean former child soldiers find themselves forced to strategically perform (or refuse to perform) as the“child soldier” Western human rights initiatives expect in order to most effectively gain access to the resources available for their social reintegration. The strategies don’t always work—in some cases, Shepler finds, Western human rights initiatives do more harm than good. While this volume focuses on the well-known case of child soldiers in Sierra Leone, it speaks to the larger concerns of childhood studies with a detailed ethnography of people struggling over the situated meaning of the categories of childhood.It offers an example of the cultural politics of childhood in action, in which the very definition of childhood is at stake and an important site of political contestation.
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Psychosocial Wellness of Refugees

Issues in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Author: Frederick L. Ahearn

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571812049

Category: Psychology

Page: 251

View: 1879

In recent years, scholars in the fields of refugee studies and forced migration have extended their areas of interest and research into the phenomenon of displacement, human response to it, and ways to intervene to assist those affected, increasingly focusing on the emotional and social impact of displacement on refugees and their adjustment to the traumatic experiences. In the process, the positive concept of "psychosocial wellness" was developed as discussed in this volume. In it noted scholars address the strengths and limitations of their investigations, citing examples from their work with refugees from Afghanistan, Cambodia, Vietnam, Palestine, Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, Eastern Europe, Bosnia, and Chile. The authors discuss how they define "psychosocial wellness," as well as the issues of sample selection, measurement, reliability and validity, refugee narratives and "voices," and the ability to generalize findings and apply these to other populations. The key question that has guided many of these investigations and underlies the premise of this book is "what happens to an ordinary person who has experienced an extraordinary event?" This volume also highlights the fact that those involved in such research must also deal with their own emotional responses as they hear victims tell of killing, torture, humiliation, and dispossesion. The volume will therefore appeal to practitioners of psychology, psychiatry, social work, nursing, and anthropology. However, its breadth and the evaluation of the strengths and disadvantages of both qualitative and quantitative methods also make it an excellent text for students.
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Migration and Mental Health

Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Author: Steven Stillman,David McKenzie,John Gibson

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: N.A

Category: Anxiety

Page: 31

View: 2325

People migrate to improve their well-being, whether through an expansion of economic and social opportunities or a reduction in persecution. Yet a large literature suggests that migration can be a stressful process, with potentially negative impacts on mental health, reducing the net benefits of migration. However, to truly understand the effect of migration on mental health one must compare the mental health of migrants to what their mental health would have been had they stayed in their home country. The existing literature is not able to do this and typically settles for comparing the mental health of migrants to that of natives in the destination country, which takes no account of any preexisting differences between these groups. This paper overcomes the selection problems afffecting previous studies of the effect of migration on mental health by examining a migrant lottery program. New Zealand allows a quota of Tongans to immigrate each year with a lottery used to choose amony the excess number of applicants. A unique survey conducted by the authors in these two countries allows experimental estimates of mental health of migrants who were successful applicants in the lottery to the mental health of those who applied to migrate under the quota, but whose names were not drawn in the lottery. Migration is found to lead to improvements in mental health, particularly for women and those with poor mental health in their home country.
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Refugees

Perspectives on the Experience of Forced Migration

Author: Alastair Ager

Publisher: Pinter Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 7960

The growth of the world's refugee population has been a major phenomenon of the late twentieth century. This volume brings together senior authors from a range of disciplinary backgrounds to analyse the key forces that shape the contemporary experience of forced migration. It considers global, social and personal dimensions of displacement, demonstrating their close interrelationship in forging the experience of refuge. Recurrent themes include the importance o f valuing the resources, capacities and meanings indigenous to refugee communities, and the intimate linkage of the personal and political in the lives of refugees. In addition to providing deeper insight into the challenges and tensions of the refugee experience, the book seeks to provide a foundation for more informed debate on refugee assistance and asylum policies and practice.
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Psychosocial Concepts in Humanitarian Work with Children

A Review of the Concepts and Related Literature

Author: Program on Forced Migration and Health at the Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Roundtable on the Demography of Forced Migration

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309168014

Category: Medical

Page: 144

View: 6819

This report is concerned with reviewing psychosocial concepts in research related to humanitarian work, with particular emphasis on research related to children affected by prolonged violence and armed conflict.
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Humanitarianism and Mass Migration

Confronting the World Crisis

Author: N.A

Publisher: University of California Press

ISBN: 0520297148

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 7565

The world is witnessing a rapid rise in the number of victims of human trafficking and of migrants—voluntary and involuntary, internal and international, authorized and unauthorized. In the first two decades of this century alone, more than 65 million people have been forced to escape home into the unknown. The slow-motion disintegration of failing states with feeble institutions, war and terror, demographic imbalances, unchecked climate change, and cataclysmic environmental disruptions have contributed to the catastrophic migrations that are placing millions of human beings at grave risk. Humanitarianism and Mass Migration fills a scholarly gap by examining the uncharted contours of mass migration. Exceptionally curated, it contains contributions from Jacqueline Bhabha, Richard Mollica, Irina Bokova, Pedro Noguera, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, James A. Banks, Mary Waters, and many others. The volume’s interdisciplinary and comparative approach showcases new research that reveals how current structures of health, mental health, and education are anachronistic and out of touch with the new cartographies of mass migrations. Envisioning a hopeful and realistic future, this book provides clear and concrete recommendations for what must be done to mine the inherent agency, cultural resources, resilience, and capacity for self-healing that will help forcefully displaced populations.
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Climate Change and Displacement

Multidisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Jane McAdam

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 184731600X

Category: Law

Page: 274

View: 7517

Environmental migration is not new. Nevertheless, the events and processes accompanying global climate change threaten to increase human movement both within states and across international borders. The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted an increased frequency and severity of climate events such as storms, cyclones and hurricanes, as well as longer-term sea level rise and desertification, which will impact upon people's ability to survive in certain parts of the world. This book brings together a variety of disciplinary perspectives on the phenomenon of climate-induced displacement. With chapters by leading scholars in their field, it collects in one place a rigorous, holistic analysis of the phenomenon, which can better inform academic understanding and policy development alike. Governments have not been prepared to take a leading role in developing responses to the issue, in large part due to the absence of strong theoretical frameworks from which sound policy can be constructed. The specialist expertise of the authors in this book means that each chapter identifies key issues that need to be considered in shaping domestic, regional and international responses, including the complex causes of movement, the conceptualisation of migration responses to climate change, the terminology that should be used to describe those who move, and attitudes to migration that may affect decisions to stay or leave. The book will help to facilitate the creation of principled, research-based responses, and establish climate-induced displacement as an important aspect of both the climate change and global migration debates.
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