Flattening the Earth

Two Thousand Years of Map Projections

Author: John P. Snyder

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226767475

Category: History

Page: 365

View: 9133

As long as there have been maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in two dimensions. To solve this problem mapmakers have created hundreds of map projections - mathematical methods for drawing the round earth on a flat surface. Yet of the hundreds of existing projections, and the infinite number that are theoretically possible, none is perfectly accurate. Any projection inevitably distorts the geography it portrays. Flattening the Earth is the first detailed history of map projections since 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the hundreds of known projections from before 500 B.C. to the present, emphasizing developments since the Renaissance - when the concept of a round earth gained acceptance - as mapmakers used increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques to create ever more accurate projections. He closes with a look at the variety of projections, simple and complex, made possible today by the speed and power of computers. This book includes 170 illustrations, including outline maps from original sources and modern computerized reconstructions. The text is not mathematically based and is accessible to non-specialists, but a few equations are included to permit the more technical reader to plot some projections. Snyder also provides tables summarizing the features of nearly 200 different projections and listing those used in nineteenth- and twentieth-century atlases. As a survey of most known map projections, a discussion of cartographic technique, and a historical analysis of the development of map projections, this book will be an important resource for cartographers, geographers, and historians.
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The Map Reader

Theories of Mapping Practice and Cartographic Representation

Author: Martin Dodge,Rob Kitchin,Chris Perkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470980079

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 504

View: 1786

WINNER OF THE CANTEMIR PRIZE 2012 awarded by the Berendel Foundation The Map Reader brings together, for the first time, classic and hard-to-find articles on mapping. This book provides a wide-ranging and coherent edited compendium of key scholarly writing about the changing nature of cartography over the last half century. The editorial selection of fifty-four theoretical and thought provoking texts demonstrates how cartography works as a powerful representational form and explores how different mapping practices have been conceptualised in particular scholarly contexts. Themes covered include paradigms, politics, people, aesthetics and technology. Original interpretative essays set the literature into intellectual context within these themes. Excerpts are drawn from leading scholars and researchers in a range of cognate fields including: Cartography, Geography, Anthropology, Architecture, Engineering, Computer Science and Graphic Design. The Map Reader provides a new unique single source reference to the essential literature in the cartographic field: more than fifty specially edited excerpts from key, classic articles and monographs critical introductions by experienced experts in the field focused coverage of key mapping practices, techniques and ideas a valuable resource suited to a broad spectrum of researchers and students working in cartography and GIScience, geography, the social sciences, media studies, and visual arts full page colour illustrations of significant maps as provocative visual ‘think-pieces’ fully indexed, clearly structured and accessible ways into a fast changing field of cartographic research Co-edited by Martin Dodge and Chris Perkins, Senior Lecturers in Human Geography in the School of Environment and Development, the University of Manchester; and Rob Kitchin, Professor of Geography, National University of Ireland, Maynooth.
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Small-Scale Map Projection Design

Author: Frank Canters

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203472095

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 9202

The use of computers in cartography has made it a lot easier for map makers to transform data from one map projection to another and experiment with alternative representations of geographical data. Yet this has also created new challenges and opportunities for map projection scientists. Small Scale Map Projection Design focuses on numerical map projection research, and is written from the perspective of the map projection user. It demonstrates how advances in the measurement of map projection distortion and in the development of low error map projections can help map makers decide what type of map projection is best for their purpose, and shows how they can eventually design their own tailor-made map projections. A number of significant contributions have been made to the subject over recent decades, and these are reviewed along with a substantial amount of original, unpublished material. This theoretical material is tied to practical applications and issues such as map projection use, optimization and selection, which are far too often carried out with simple rules-of-thumb methods.
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A Dictionary of Human Geography

Author: Noel Castree,Alisdair Rogers,Rob Kitchin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199599866

Category: Reference

Page: 581

View: 8168

This new dictionary provides over 2,000 clear and concise entries on human geography, covering basic terms and concepts as well as biographies, organisations, and major periods and schools. Authoritative and accessible, this is a must-have for every student of human geography, as well as for professionals and interested members of the public.
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Map Projections

Cartographic Information Systems

Author: Erik W. Grafarend,Rey-Jer You,Rainer Syffus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642364942

Category: Science

Page: 935

View: 929

In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review of Map Projections. The first chapters are of foundational type. We introduce the mapping from a left Riemann manifold to a right one specified as conformal, equiaerial and equidistant, perspective and geodetic. In particular, the mapping from a Riemann manifold to a Euclidean manifold ("plane") and the design of various coordinate systems are reviewed . A speciality is the treatment of surfaces of Gaussian curvature zero. The largest part is devoted to the mapping the sphere and the ellipsoid-of-revolution to tangential plane, cylinder and cone (pseudo-cone) using the polar aspect, transverse as well as oblique aspect. Various Geodetic Mappings as well as the Datum Problem are reviewed. In the first extension we introduce optimal map projections by variational calculus for the sphere, respectively the ellipsoid generating harmonic maps. The second extension reviews alternative maps for structures , namely torus (pneu), hyperboloid (cooling tower), paraboloid (parabolic mirror), onion shape (church tower) as well as clothoid (Hight Speed Railways) used in Project Surveying. Third, we present the Datum Transformation described by the Conformal Group C10 (3) in a threedimensional Euclidean space , a ten parameter conformal transformation. It leaves infinitesimal angles and distance ratios equivariant. Numerical examples from classical and new map projections as well as twelve appendices document the Wonderful World of Map Projections.
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Mapping the Cold War

Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power

Author: Timothy Barney

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469618559

Category: History

Page: 338

View: 3925

In this fascinating history of Cold War cartography, Timothy Barney considers maps as central to the articulation of ideological tensions between American national interests and international aspirations. Barney argues that the borders, scales, projections, and other conventions of maps prescribed and constrained the means by which foreign policy elites, popular audiences, and social activists navigated conflicts between North and South, East and West. Maps also influenced how identities were formed in a world both shrunk by advancing technologies and marked by expanding and shifting geopolitical alliances and fissures. Pointing to the necessity of how politics and values were "spatialized" in recent U.S. history, Barney argues that Cold War–era maps themselves had rhetorical lives that began with their conception and production and played out in their circulation within foreign policy circles and popular media. Reflecting on the ramifications of spatial power during the period, Mapping the Cold War ultimately demonstrates that even in the twenty-first century, American visions of the world--and the maps that account for them--are inescapably rooted in the anxieties of that earlier era.
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Pro Oracle Spatial for Oracle Database 11g

Author: Ravikanth Kothuri,Albert Godfrind,Euro Beinat

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 143020446X

Category: Computers

Page: 787

View: 9269

Pro Oracle Spatial for Oracle Database 11g shows you how to take advantage of Oracle Database's built-in feature set for working with location-based data. The book addresses the special nature of spatial data and its role in professional and consumer applications. It also details issues in spatial data management and covers how spatial information is used to understand business and support decisions, to manage customer relations, and to better serve private and corporate users. When you read this book, you're learning from the very best, the authors are key players on the team that develops the Oracle Spatial feature set.
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Cartographic Perspectives

Bulletin of the North American Cartographic Information Society

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cartography

Page: N.A

View: 855

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Ethics in American public service

Author: Harry Wesley Reynolds,American Academy of Political and Social Science

Publisher: Sage Publications (CA)

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 213

View: 2554

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Enlightenment in America, 1720-1825

Author: Jose Torre

Publisher: Pickering & Chatto Publishers

ISBN: 9781851969364

Category: History

Page: 1360

View: 6496

Given the significance the new world held in the minds of Enlightenment thinkers, it is remarkable that scholars have not more fully documented the Enlightenment in America. So far, the body of work on the American Enlightenment has focused almost exclusively on two areas - politics and religion. In contrast, scholars have paid little attention to the polyglot efforts of American doctors, scientists, engineers, botanists, poets and other Enlightenment actors. "The Enlightenment in America" fills this significant gap in the discourse. "The Enlightenment in America" will modify the periodization for the American Enlightenment. Americans did accept an early and moderate Enlightenment characterised by the work of Locke and Newton. The collection highlights the uniquely functional nature of the Enlightenment in America. For Enlightenment era, thinkers knowledge could not be divorced from utility. This goal seems to have been most fully realized in the United States. By highlighting both the material and intellectual elements of the Enlightenment, "The Enlightenment in America" will help re-conceptualise the Enlightenment as more than an intellectual idea.
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Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization

Author: Terry A. Slocum

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 4653

This comprehensive book bridges the evolution in cartography by presenting both traditional methods and recently developed cartographic techniques. KEY TOPICS It provides a compendium of methods for symbolizing and visualizing spatial data, from the traditional methods that presume a communication model to computer-based techniques that provide a means of data visualization. For anyone interested in designing maps in the realm of GIS.
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Geomatica

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Surveying

Page: N.A

View: 6241

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Great events from history

The Renaissance & early modern era, 1454-1600

Author: Christina J. Moose

Publisher: Salem Pr Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 972

View: 1340

The Renaissance & Early Modern Era's start date, 1454, was selected because it immediately follows the end of the Hundred Years? War and the Fall of Constantinople. The following century was marked by the height of the Renaissance in Europe, the rise of the Ottomans and the Wars of the Roses in Britain. Also, European colonization expanded into Africa, Asia and the Americas, Japan became unified and the rise of both indigenous and colonial trade empires in Africa became important. The set discusses major changes in world economics and demographics.
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