Fisheries Acoustics

Author: David MacLennan,E.J. Simmonds

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401715580

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 3821

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Acoustic Fish Reconnaissance

Author: I.L. Kalikhman,K. I. Yudanov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420004050

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 7096

Until now, there has not been any work that systematically presents the subject of acoustic fish reconnaissance, details all major aspects of applying acoustic equipment in commercial fish reconnaissance, and offers sufficient analysis of the effectiveness of fish-finding techniques. Acoustic Fish Reconnaissance responds to this need by providing the first overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of acoustic search, detection, interpretation, and population estimation for commercial benefit. This book pays particular attention to the theory and practice of accounting surveys for quantitative estimation of biological resources and fishing conditions in traditional fishing areas. It also analyzes various applications of acoustic technique, based upon the authors' extensive investigations. The text includes the results of the applicability of fish-finding instruments, and offers recommendations on the development of improved acoustic techniques for commercial fleets.
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Mangrove Dynamics and Management in North Brazil

Author: Ulrich Saint-Paul,Horacio Schneider

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642134579

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 2737

Mangrove ecosystems are being increasingly threatened by human activities. Their biotic productivity supplies food and other resources to the human populations that inhabit or make use of them. This volume highlights the results of a ten-year German / Brazilian research project, called MADAM, in one of the largest continuous mangrove areas of the world, located in northern Brazil. Based on the analysis of the ecosystem dynamics, management strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of mangroves are presented and discussed. Beyond the scientific results, this book also provides guidelines for the development of international cooperation projects.
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Coral Reef Remote Sensing

A Guide for Mapping, Monitoring and Management

Author: James A. Goodman,Samuel J. Purkis,Stuart R. Phinn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9048192927

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 436

View: 8272

Remote sensing stands as the defining technology in our ability to monitor coral reefs, as well as their biophysical properties and associated processes, at regional to global scales. With overwhelming evidence that much of Earth’s reefs are in decline, our need for large-scale, repeatable assessments of reefs has never been so great. Fortunately, the last two decades have seen a rapid expansion in the ability for remote sensing to map and monitor the coral reef ecosystem, its overlying water column, and surrounding environment. Remote sensing is now a fundamental tool for the mapping, monitoring and management of coral reef ecosystems. Remote sensing offers repeatable, quantitative assessments of habitat and environmental characteristics over spatially extensive areas. As the multi-disciplinary field of coral reef remote sensing continues to mature, results demonstrate that the techniques and capabilities continue to improve. New developments allow reef assessments and mapping to be performed with higher accuracy, across greater spatial areas, and with greater temporal frequency. The increased level of information that remote sensing now makes available also allows more complex scientific questions to be addressed. As defined for this book, remote sensing includes the vast array of geospatial data collected from land, water, ship, airborne and satellite platforms. The book is organized by technology, including: visible and infrared sensing using photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral instruments; active sensing using light detection and ranging (LiDAR); acoustic sensing using ship, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and in-water platforms; and thermal and radar instruments. Emphasis and Audience This book serves multiple roles. It offers an overview of the current state-of-the-art technologies for reef mapping, provides detailed technical information for coral reef remote sensing specialists, imparts insight on the scientific questions that can be tackled using this technology, and also includes a foundation for those new to reef remote sensing. The individual sections of the book include introductory overviews of four main types of remotely sensed data used to study coral reefs, followed by specific examples demonstrating practical applications of the different technologies being discussed. Guidelines for selecting the most appropriate sensor for particular applications are provided, including an overview of how to utilize remote sensing data as an effective tool in science and management. The text is richly illustrated with examples of each sensing technology applied to a range of scientific, monitoring and management questions in reefs around the world. As such, the book is broadly accessible to a general audience, as well as students, managers, remote sensing specialists and anyone else working with coral reef ecosystems.
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Biological Sampling in the Deep Sea

Author: Malcolm R. Clark,Mireille Consalvey,Ashley A. Rowden

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118332482

Category: Nature

Page: 472

View: 9313

The deep sea covers over 60% of the surface of the earth, yet less than 1% has been scientifically investigated. There is growing pressure on deep-sea resources and on researchers to deliver information on biodiversity and the effects of human impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Although scientific knowledge has increased rapidly in recent decades, there exist large gaps in global sampling coverage of the deep sea, and major efforts continue to be directed into offshore research. Biological Sampling in the Deep Sea represents the first comprehensive compilation of deep-sea sampling methodologies for a range of habitats. It reviews the real life applications of current, and in some instances developing, deep-sea sampling tools and techniques. In creating this book the authors have been able to draw upon the experiences of those at the ï¿1⁄2coal faceï¿1⁄2 of deep-sea sampling, expanding on the existing methodological texts whilst encompassing a level of technical detail often omitted from journal publications. Ultimately the book will promote international consistency in sampling approaches and data collection, advance the integration of information into global databases, and facilitate improved data analyses and consequently uptake of science results for the management and conservation of the deep-sea environment. The book will appeal to a range of readers, including students, early-career through to seasoned researchers, as well as environmental managers and policy makers wishing to understand how the deep-sea is sampled, the challenges associated with deep survey work, and the type of information that can be obtained.
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Marine Ecology

Processes, Systems, and Impacts

Author: Michel J Kaiser

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199227020

Category: Nature

Page: 501

View: 749

Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts offers a carefully balanced and stimulating survey of marine ecology, introducing the key processes and systems from which the marine environment is formed, and the issues and challenges which surround its future conservation.
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Escaping From Predators

An Integrative View of Escape Decisions

Author: William E. Cooper, Jr,Daniel T. Blumstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316368483

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 2426

When a predator attacks, prey are faced with a series of 'if', 'when' and 'how' escape decisions – these critical questions are the foci of this book. Cooper and Blumstein bring together a balance of theory and empirical research to summarise over fifty years of scattered research and benchmark current thinking in the rapidly expanding literature on the behavioural ecology of escaping. The book consolidates current and new behaviour models with taxonomically divided empirical chapters that demonstrate the application of escape theory to different groups. The chapters integrate behaviour with physiology, genetics and evolution to lead the reader through the complex decisions faced by prey during a predator attack, examining how these decisions interact with life history and individual variation. The chapter on best practice field methodology and the ideas for future research presented throughout, ensure this volume is practical as well as informative.
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Acoustics for Engineers

Troy Lectures

Author: Jens Blauert,Ning Xiang

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642033933

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 253

View: 2075

Blauert's and Xiang's "Acoustics for Engineers" provides the material for an introductory course in engineering acoustics for students with basic knowledge in mathematics. In the second, enlarged edition, the teaching aspects of the book have been substantially improved. Carefully selected examples illustrate the application of acoustic principles and problems are provided for training. "Acoustics for Engineers" is designed for extensive teaching at the university level. Under the guidance of an academic teacher it is sufficient as the sole textbook for the subject. Each chapter deals with a well defined topic and represents the material for a two-hour lecture. The 15 chapters alternate between more theoretical and more application-oriented concepts.
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Acoustic Array Systems

Theory, Implementation, and Application

Author: Mingsian R. Bai,Jeong-Guon Ih,Jacob Benesty

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470828374

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 3647

Presents a unified framework of far-field and near-field array techniques for noise source identification and sound field visualization, from theory to application. Acoustic Array Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Application provides an overview of microphone array technology with applications in noise source identification and sound field visualization. In the comprehensive treatment of microphone arrays, the topics covered include an introduction to the theory, far-field and near-field array signal processing algorithms, practical implementations, and common applications: vehicles, computing and communications equipment, compressors, fans, and household appliances, and hands-free speech. The author concludes with other emerging techniques and innovative algorithms. Encompasses theoretical background, implementation considerations and application know-how Shows how to tackle broader problems in signal processing, control, and transudcers Covers both farfield and nearfield techniques in a balanced way Introduces innovative algorithms including equivalent source imaging (NESI) and high-resolution nearfield arrays Selected code examples available for download for readers to practice on their own Presentation slides available for instructor use A valuable resource for Postgraduates and researchers in acoustics, noise control engineering, audio engineering, and signal processing.
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Marine Mammal Observer and Passive Acoustic Monitoring Handbook

Author: Victoria Todd,Ian Todd,Jane Gardiner,Erica Morrin

Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1907807705

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 4611

Marine Mammal Observer and Passive Acoustic Monitoring Handbook is the ultimate instruction manual for mitigation measures to minimise man-made acoustical and physical disturbances to marine mammals from industrial and defence activities.
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Fish Identification Tools for Biodiversity and Fisheries Assessments

Review and Guidance for Decision-makers

Author: Johanne Fischer

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org

ISBN: N.A

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 107

View: 8635

The current review intends to provide an overview of existing, state-of-the-art fish identification tools including those at the initial stages of development and to show their potential for providing the right solution in different real-life situations. The content of this review is based on the results and recommendations of the FAO/UVIGO Workshop on "Fish Identification Tools for Fishery Biodiversity and Fisheries Assessments". It is expected that the review will help fisheries managers, environmental administrators and other end users to select the best available species identification tools for their purposes. The experts involved in this review also hope that it will help renew the public interest in taxonomy and promote the need for taxonomic research including user-friendly species identification tools
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Marine Ecological Field Methods

A Guide for Marine Biologists and Fisheries Scientists

Author: Anne Gro Vea Salvanes,Jennifer Devine,Kjersti Sjotun,Knut Helge Jensen,Jon Thomassen Hestetun,Henrik Glenner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119184304

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 4200

A comprehensive, clear, and detailed guide to procedures for conducting marine ecological field studies Marine Ecological Field Methods is a comprehensive resource that offers the most relevant sampling methodologies for quantitative and qualitative studies of mesopelagic, demersal, littoral, and soft-bottom organisms, as well as relevant physical parameters. The authors describe how various sampling gears work, how to operate them, their limitations, guides on sorting and measuring collected organisms, and how to deal with subsamples of large catches. The text also explains how to use acoustic equipment for monitoring aggregations of organisms, for example fish shoals, as well as the use of sensors for registering environmental variables such as salinity, temperature, oxygen, and light. The text contains cutting-edge research techniques that are in their final stages of development for use in research surveys. Marine Ecological Field Methods is designed to help with the entire procedure for conducting a field study, including the generation of hypotheses, planning field collection of data, conducting field work, data exploration and statistical analysis with the use of R, and presentation of results in a final report. This essential resource: Covers a wide range of techniques and methods for the marine environment Includes tried and trusted methodologies and techniques from a team of noted experts in the field Contains information on sampling equipment ranging from those that are useful in the littoral zone to shallow nearshore areas, including bottles, secchi discs, and gillnets, and finally large trawls, benthic sleds, ROV and advanced technologies for remote sensing in the open ocean. Explores the step-by-step procedures for conducting a field study, from formulating hypotheses to the process of registering and reporting results Written for students and professionals in the field, this vital resource describes marine ecological sampling equipment, methods and analysis, ranging from physical parameters to fish, microalgae, zooplankton, benthos and macroalgae.
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Architectural Acoustics

Author: Marshall Long

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123982650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 984

View: 1130

Architectural Acoustics, Second Edition presents a thorough technical overview of the discipline, from basic concepts to specific design advice. Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization. In-depth treatment is given to the theoretical principles and practical applications of wave acoustics, sound transmission, vibration and vibration isolation, and noise transmission in floors and mechanical systems. Chapters on specific design problems demonstrate how to apply the theory, including treatment of multifamily dwellings, office buildings, rooms for speech, rooms for music, multipurpose rooms, auditoriums, sanctuaries, studios, listening rooms, and the design of sound reinforcement systems. Detailed figures illustrate the practical applications of acoustic principles, showing how to implement design ideas in actual structures. This compendium of theoretical and practical design information brings the relevant concepts, equations, techniques, and specific design problems together in one place, including both fundamentals and more advanced material. Practicing engineers will find it an invaluable reference for their daily work, while advanced students will appreciate its rigorous treatment of the basic building blocks of acoustical theory. Considered the most complete resource in the field – includes basic fundamental relations, derived from first principles, and examples needed to solve real engineering problems. Provides a well-organized text for students first approaching the subject as well as a reliable reference for experienced practitioners looking to refresh their technical knowledge base. New content for developing professionals includes case studies and coverage of specific focus areas such as audio visual design, theaters, and concert halls.
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Acoustics and Psychoacoustics

Author: David M. Howard,Jamie Angus

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317508297

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 510

View: 1616

The acoustics of a space can have a real impact on the sounds you create and capture. Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, Fifth Edition provides supportive tools and exercises to help you understand how music sounds and behaves in different spaces, whether during a performance or a recording, when planning a control room or listening space, and how it is perceived by performers, listeners, and recording engineers. With their clear and simple style, Howard and Angus cover both theory and practice by addressing the science of sound engineering and music production, the acoustics of musical instruments, the ways in which we hear musical sounds, the underlying principles of sound processing, and the application of these concepts to music spaces to create professional sound. This new edition is fully revised to reflect new psychoacoustic information related to timbre and temporal perception, including an updated discussion of vocal fold vibration principles, samples of recent acoustic treatments, and a description of variable acoustics in spaces, as well as coverage of the environment’s effect on production listening, sonification, and other topics. Devoted to the teaching of musical understanding, an accompanying website (www.routledge.com/cw/howard) features various audio clips, tutorial sheets, questions and answers, and trainings that will take your perception of sound to the next level. This book will help you: Gain a basic grounding in acoustics and psychoacoustics with respect to music audio technology systems Incorporate knowledge of psychoacoustics in future music technology system designs as appropriate Understand how we hear pitch, loudness, and timbre Learn to influence the acoustics of an enclosed space through designed physical modifications
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Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers, Third Edition

Theory, Design and Application

Author: Trevor Cox,Peter D’Antonio

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315352222

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 519

View: 5784

This definitive guide covers the design and application of absorbers and diffusers in acoustics. Surface diffusion is a relatively young subject area, and diffuser design, application and characterisation are often not well understood. Although there is greater knowledge of absorption, it is also informed by new research. As two of the main design tools for altering the acoustic conditions of rooms, the correct use of absorbers and diffusers is important to the creation of quality acoustics. This text details the evolution and the current state of the art in diffuser and absorber research and application. It covers a range of practical and theoretical aspects, with extensive examples of installations and case studies to cater to practitioners working in the measurement, modelling and design of rooms, semi-enclosed spaces as well as in noise control. It is also invaluable for students and researchers wanting a grounding in acoustic treatment, as well as understanding the latest developments. All chapters have been revised and brought up to date in this new edition, with new applications, absorbers and diffusers featured. Sustainability, portable vocal booths, and fast time domain models for diffusers are just a few of the new sections. Improved techniques for measurement and prediction are included, as well as bringing old methods up-to-date with the latest refinements from standards and research. Most of the prediction methods in the book are now linked to open source implementations and downloadable MATLAB scripts, enabling readers to exploit the knowledge in this book more readily in design and research.
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Acoustics and Noise Control

Author: R J Peters

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131790298X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 8664

Acoustics and Noise Control provides a detailed and comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of acoustics and noise control. Since the last edition was published in 1996 there have been many changes and additions to standards, laws and regulations, codes of practice relating to noise, and in noise measurement techniques and noise control technology so this new edition has been fully revised and updated throughout. The book assumes no previous knowledge of the subject and requires only a basic knowledge of mathematics and physics. There are worked examples in the text to aid understanding and a range of experiments help students use complicated apparatus. Thoroughly revised to cover the latest changes in standards, codes of practice and legislation, this new edition covers much of the Institute of Acoustics Diploma syllabus and has an increased emphasis on the legal issues relating to noise control.
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Seamounts

Ecology, Fisheries & Conservation

Author: Tony J. Pitcher,Telmo Morato,Paul J. B. Hart,Malcolm R. Clark,Nigel Haggan,Ricardo S. Santos

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691263

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 552

View: 9029

Seamounts are ubiquitous undersea mountains rising from the ocean seafloor that do not reach the surface. There are likely many hundreds of thousands of seamounts, they are usually formed from volcanoes in the deep sea and are defined by oceanographers as independent features that rise to at least 0.5 km above the seafloor, although smaller features may have the same origin. This book follows a logical progression from geological and physical processes, ecology, biology and biogeography, to exploitation, management and conservation concerns. In 21 Chapters written by 57 of the world’s leading seamount experts, the book reviews all aspects of their geology, ecology, biology, exploitation, conservation and management. In Section I of this book, several detection and estimation techniques for tallying seamounts are reviewed, along with a history of seamount research. This book represents a unique and fresh synthesis of knowledge of seamounts and their biota and is an essential reference work on the topic. It is an essential purchase for all fisheries scientists and managers, fish biologists, marine biologists and ecologists, environmental scientists, conservation biologists and oceanographers. It will also be of interest to members of fish and wildlife agencies and government departments covering conservation and management. Supplementary material is available at: www.seamountsbook.info
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Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Author: Herman Medwin,Clarence S. Clay

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080532165

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 6463

The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides
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Low End Theory

Bass, Bodies and the Materiality of Sonic Experience

Author: Paul C. Jasen

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 150133591X

Category: Music

Page: 296

View: 3417

Low End Theory probes the much-mythologized field of bass and low-frequency sound. It begins in music but quickly moves far beyond, following vibratory phenomena across time, disciplines and disparate cultural spheres (including hauntings, laboratories, organ workshops, burial mounds, sound art, studios, dancefloors, infrasonic anomalies, and a global mystery called The Hum). Low End Theory asks what it is about bass that has fascinated us for so long and made it such a busy site of bio-technological experimentation, driving developments in science, technology, the arts, and religious culture. The guiding question is not so much what we make of bass, but what it makes of us: how does it undulate and unsettle; how does it incite; how does it draw bodily thought into new equations with itself and its surroundings? Low End Theory is the first book to survey this sonorous terrain and devise a conceptual language proper to it. With its focus on sound's structuring agency and the multi-sensory aspects of sonic experience, it stands to make a transformative contribution to the study of music and sound, while pushing scholarship on affect, materiality, and the senses into fertile new territory. Through energetic and creative prose, Low End Theory works to put thought in touch with the vibratory encounter as no scholarly book has done before. For more information, visit: http://www.lowendtheorybook.com/
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