Failure of Plastics and Rubber Products

Causes, Effects and Case Studies Involving Degradation

Author: D. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 185957517X

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 575

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Rubber Product Failure

Author: R. P. Brown

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 1859573304

Category: Science

Page: 120

View: 5051

Rubber components are used in many demanding applications, from tyres and seals to gloves and medical devices, and failure can be catastrophic. This review of Rubber Product Failure outlines and illustrates the common causes of failure, while addressing ways of avoiding it. There has been increasing pressure to improve performance so that rubbers can be used at higher temperatures and in harsher environments. For example, the under-the-bonnet temperature has increased in some vehicles and new medical devices require longer lifetimes in potentially degrading biological fluids. The expectations of tyre performance in particular are increasing, and retreads have been in the spotlight for failures. The definition of failure depends on the application. For example, a racing car engine seal that lasts for one race may be acceptable, but in a normal car a life span of 10 years is more reasonable. If appearance is critical as in surface coatings and paints, then discolouration is failure, whilst in seals leakage is not acceptable. Each rubber product must be fit for the use specified by the consumer. Failure analysis is critical to product improvement. the cause of the problem can be much harder to find. It can range from a design fault to poor material selection, to processing problems, to manufacturing errors such as poor dimensional tolerances, to poor installation, product abuse and unexpected service conditions. The rubber technologist must become a detective, gathering evidence, understanding the material type and using deductive reasoning. Testing and analysis of failed materials and components add to the information available for failure analysis. For example, stored aged tyres appeared superficially to be alright for use, but on drum testing small cracks grew more quickly than in new tyres leading to rapid failure in service. Quality control procedures such as product inspection, testing and material quality checks can help to reach 100 percent reliability. In critical applications such as electricians' gloves for high voltage working, gloves are inspected before each use, while engine seals may be routinely replaced before the expected lifetime to avoid problems. in the literature is not high. However, several reviews have been written on specific products and references can be found at the end of this review. Around 400 abstracts from papers in the Polymer Library are included with an index. Subjects covered include tyre wear and failure, seals, engine components, rubber bonding failure, rubber failure due to chloramine in water, tank treads, gloves and condoms, medical devices and EPDM roofing membranes.
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Plastics Failure

Cause and Prevention

Author: Myer Ezrin

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446428828

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 868

View: 1223

Plastics failure, to a certain extent, is the result of a phenomenal increase in the number and variety of applications in relatively few years. The focus of this book is on actual field and product failures. The treatment is comprehensive, emphasizing cause and prevention. The concept of the interdependence of material, design, and processing is applied to all examples and cases. The "how to" of prevention is brought out as a logical extension of the cause of failure. Contents: Nature, Causes, and Consequences of Plastics Failure. Fundamental Materials Variables Affecting Processing and Product Performance or Failure. Failures Related to Design and Material Selection. Examples. Processing-Related Factors to Failure. Failure Related to Service Conditions. Failure Analysis and Test Procedures. Quality Control. Legal Aspects of Plastic Product Liability and Failure. Examples of Failures in Various Applications
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Polymer Additive Analytics

Industrial Practice and Case Studies

Author: Jan C. J. Bart

Publisher: Firenze University Press

ISBN: 8884533791

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 322

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Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack

Author: David C. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859572696

Category: Chemistry, Physical and theoretical

Page: 106

View: 4503

Degradation reactions grouped under the heading chemical attack include oxidation hydrolysis, halogenation and other reactions. They also include some purely physical interactions between materials and fluids, dominated by the absorption of fluid into the material or vice versa. One particular mechanism described in some detail is acid induced stress corrosion cracking, which is the most frequent cause of premature failure of GRP products, and where the principle degradation reaction is between the fluid and the glass fibres. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
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Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-Oxidation

Author: D.C. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859572719

Category: Elastomers

Page: 132

View: 4412

The combined effects of oxidising media and heat result in degradation by thermo-oxidation. The principles and cases described in this review emphasise long term degradation in service. Two additional phenomena that influence thermo-oxidation are also described: catalysis by certain metal ions, and the influence of stress. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library gives useful references for further reading.
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Rigid Plastics Packaging

Materials, Processes and Applications

Author: F. Hannay

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573587

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 2598

This report starts with a simple overview of materials, processes and application for rigid plastics packaging and progresses to the latest developments. Processing methods are described briefly in the review with an overview of each type accompanied by a discussion of forthcoming developments. The properties of the different polymers and polymer grades related to packaging applications are also discussed. The review is accompanied by over 400 summaries of papers from the Rapra Polymer Library on developments in polymers, processes and applications for rigid packaging.
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Physical Testing of Rubber

Author: R. P. Brown

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9780080419657

Category:

Page: 94

View: 1012

Reasons for testing rubber materials and products fall into four categories: quality control, provision of design data, prediction of service performance and investigation of failure. Test methods have been standardised for almost all properties likely to be relevant to rubbers, and the appropriate standards are listed in this report. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.
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Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products

Author: T. J. O'Neill

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573648

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 5169

This review describes the process of life cycle analysis in some detail. It describes the different organisations involved in researching and applying these techniques and the database resources being used to generate comparative reports. The overview explains the factors to be considered, the terminology, the organisations involved in developing these techniques and the legislation which is driving the whole process forward. The ISO standards relating to environmental management are also discussed briefly in the document. Design for the environment is covered in the report. This review is accompanied by summaries of selected papers on life cycle analysis and environmental impact from the Rapra Polymer Library database.
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Compositional and Failure Analysis of Polymers

A Practical Approach

Author: John Scheirs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471625728

Category: Science

Page: 766

View: 1895

Intended as a practical guide for polymer technologists, engineersand analysts in the plastics, composites and rubber fields, thistitle describes a range of techniques and strategies forcompositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials andproducts. Numerous examples illustrate the application ofanalytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems in thepolymer industry. The reader is guided towards the most appropriatemethod of analysis and measurement and the most likely reasons forthe failure. Areas covered include: * Migration and interaction of additives * Mechanical stress and stress cracking * Crazing and fracture * Residual stress and weld lines * Contamination and discoloration Numerous pedagogical methods, illustrative flow diagrams, figuresand tables are used throughout the text to make it an invaluableguide to all analysts and polymer engineers in industrial oracademic laboratories.
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Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles

Author: Roy W. Buckley

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573952

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 5850

Technical d104iles are high performance speciality materials. Applications are found in inflatable structures, tents, as reinforcement in composites for construction, as body armour and vehicle protection, in filters, as a base for flexible printed circuits, hose, conveyor belts and tyres. Polymer Enhancement of Technical d104iles examines the potential for these materials. The review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database.
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Failure of Plastics

Author: Stanley Turner

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9780902348516

Category: Plastics

Page: 126

View: 7616

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Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives

Author: D. Mulligan

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573938

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 7184

This report focuses on in-line cure monitoring as a key way of optimising production. The bulk of this review is devoted to coverage of the range of techniques used for cure monitoring. Consideration is also given to other topics relevant to the implementation of cure monitoring processes. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
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Location of failure in adhesive-bonded butt joints

Author: J. Thomas Quirk,Theodore Thomas Kozlowski,Richard Frederick Blomquist,Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Adhesive joints

Page: 16

View: 2367

Describes location of failure in butt joints of slash pine bonded with two experimental epoxy-resin adhesives. Methods are described for determining whether failure occurred in adhesion at the interface between adhesive and substrate, or within either of these. (Author).
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Aging of Natural and Synthetic Rubber and Rubber Products

An Annotated Bibliography

Author: N.A

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Rubber

Page: 165

View: 4744

This annotated bibliography of over 900 references on the preservation of rubber, lists research reports from the major rubber companies, the armed services, civilian government agencies, and other sources.
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Waste Materials and By-Products in Concrete

Author: Rafat Siddique

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 8449

The amount and variety of waste that humanity dumps in landfill sites is nothing short of a scandal, believes Rafat Siddique, of Deemed University in Patiala, India. Instead, we ought to be building new homes out of it! Siddique shows in this important book that many non-hazardous waste materials and by-products which are landfilled, can in fact be used in making concrete and similar construction materials.
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Advances in Heterogeneous Material Mechanics 2008

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Heterogeneous Materials Mechanics, June 3-8, 2008, Huangshan, China

Author: Jinghong Fan,Haibo Chen

Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc

ISBN: 1932078800

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1714

View: 1747

This book offers over 400 never before published and rigorously refereed papers demonstrating the connections between nanoscale phenomena and the critical properties of dozens of engineered and natural materials—from polymer composites to human bone. Information is presented on new techniques for studying and quantifying the behavior of materials at nanoscale levels and linking this data to macroscale properties such as strength, fatigue, and failure points. The techniques include novel experiments and uses of instrumentation, as well as modeling and numerical methods. Virtually all the analyses in this book are offered here for the first time. They include information of value for materials investigators in defense, civil engineering, biomaterials, and transportation
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Handbook of Rubber Bonding

Author: Bryan G. Crowther

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573945

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 7483

Many books and papers have been published on adhesion of materials in general but the topics covered by this book have been selected to cover a wide range of interests, both in terms of products and applications. Although there is some discussion of relevant theory in various sections of d104, the emphasis in this volume has been to concentrate on the practicalities of bonding of rubbers, to themselves and substrates. It is considered that this type of information is of immediate interest to the practising technologist dealing with shop floor problems on a daily basis.
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