Failure of Plastics and Rubber Products

Causes, Effects and Case Studies Involving Degradation

Author: D. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 185957517X

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 1908

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Rubber Product Failure

Author: R. P. Brown

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 1859573304

Category: Science

Page: 120

View: 6554

Rubber components are used in many demanding applications, from tyres and seals to gloves and medical devices, and failure can be catastrophic. This review of Rubber Product Failure outlines and illustrates the common causes of failure, while addressing ways of avoiding it. There has been increasing pressure to improve performance so that rubbers can be used at higher temperatures and in harsher environments. For example, the under-the-bonnet temperature has increased in some vehicles and new medical devices require longer lifetimes in potentially degrading biological fluids. The expectations of tyre performance in particular are increasing, and retreads have been in the spotlight for failures. The definition of failure depends on the application. For example, a racing car engine seal that lasts for one race may be acceptable, but in a normal car a life span of 10 years is more reasonable. If appearance is critical as in surface coatings and paints, then discolouration is failure, whilst in seals leakage is not acceptable. Each rubber product must be fit for the use specified by the consumer. Failure analysis is critical to product improvement. the cause of the problem can be much harder to find. It can range from a design fault to poor material selection, to processing problems, to manufacturing errors such as poor dimensional tolerances, to poor installation, product abuse and unexpected service conditions. The rubber technologist must become a detective, gathering evidence, understanding the material type and using deductive reasoning. Testing and analysis of failed materials and components add to the information available for failure analysis. For example, stored aged tyres appeared superficially to be alright for use, but on drum testing small cracks grew more quickly than in new tyres leading to rapid failure in service. Quality control procedures such as product inspection, testing and material quality checks can help to reach 100 percent reliability. In critical applications such as electricians' gloves for high voltage working, gloves are inspected before each use, while engine seals may be routinely replaced before the expected lifetime to avoid problems. in the literature is not high. However, several reviews have been written on specific products and references can be found at the end of this review. Around 400 abstracts from papers in the Polymer Library are included with an index. Subjects covered include tyre wear and failure, seals, engine components, rubber bonding failure, rubber failure due to chloramine in water, tank treads, gloves and condoms, medical devices and EPDM roofing membranes.
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Plastics Failure

Cause and Prevention

Author: Myer Ezrin

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446428828

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 868

View: 6552

Plastics failure, to a certain extent, is the result of a phenomenal increase in the number and variety of applications in relatively few years. The focus of this book is on actual field and product failures. The treatment is comprehensive, emphasizing cause and prevention. The concept of the interdependence of material, design, and processing is applied to all examples and cases. The "how to" of prevention is brought out as a logical extension of the cause of failure. Contents: Nature, Causes, and Consequences of Plastics Failure. Fundamental Materials Variables Affecting Processing and Product Performance or Failure. Failures Related to Design and Material Selection. Examples. Processing-Related Factors to Failure. Failure Related to Service Conditions. Failure Analysis and Test Procedures. Quality Control. Legal Aspects of Plastic Product Liability and Failure. Examples of Failures in Various Applications
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Polymer Additive Analytics

Industrial Practice and Case Studies

Author: Jan C. J. Bart

Publisher: Firenze University Press

ISBN: 8884533791

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 2825

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Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack

Author: David C. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859572696

Category: Chemistry, Physical and theoretical

Page: 106

View: 6797

Degradation reactions grouped under the heading chemical attack include oxidation hydrolysis, halogenation and other reactions. They also include some purely physical interactions between materials and fluids, dominated by the absorption of fluid into the material or vice versa. One particular mechanism described in some detail is acid induced stress corrosion cracking, which is the most frequent cause of premature failure of GRP products, and where the principle degradation reaction is between the fluid and the glass fibres. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
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Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-Oxidation

Author: D.C. Wright

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859572719

Category: Elastomers

Page: 132

View: 709

The combined effects of oxidising media and heat result in degradation by thermo-oxidation. The principles and cases described in this review emphasise long term degradation in service. Two additional phenomena that influence thermo-oxidation are also described: catalysis by certain metal ions, and the influence of stress. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library gives useful references for further reading.
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Rigid Plastics Packaging

Materials, Processes and Applications

Author: F. Hannay

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573587

Category: Science

Page: 140

View: 568

This report starts with a simple overview of materials, processes and application for rigid plastics packaging and progresses to the latest developments. Processing methods are described briefly in the review with an overview of each type accompanied by a discussion of forthcoming developments. The properties of the different polymers and polymer grades related to packaging applications are also discussed. The review is accompanied by over 400 summaries of papers from the Rapra Polymer Library on developments in polymers, processes and applications for rigid packaging.
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Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products

Author: T. J. O'Neill

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573648

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 9349

This review describes the process of life cycle analysis in some detail. It describes the different organisations involved in researching and applying these techniques and the database resources being used to generate comparative reports. The overview explains the factors to be considered, the terminology, the organisations involved in developing these techniques and the legislation which is driving the whole process forward. The ISO standards relating to environmental management are also discussed briefly in the document. Design for the environment is covered in the report. This review is accompanied by summaries of selected papers on life cycle analysis and environmental impact from the Rapra Polymer Library database.
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Physical Testing of Rubber

Author: R. P. Brown

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9780080419657

Category:

Page: 94

View: 642

Reasons for testing rubber materials and products fall into four categories: quality control, provision of design data, prediction of service performance and investigation of failure. Test methods have been standardised for almost all properties likely to be relevant to rubbers, and the appropriate standards are listed in this report. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.
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Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles

Author: Roy W. Buckley

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573952

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 1200

Technical d104iles are high performance speciality materials. Applications are found in inflatable structures, tents, as reinforcement in composites for construction, as body armour and vehicle protection, in filters, as a base for flexible printed circuits, hose, conveyor belts and tyres. Polymer Enhancement of Technical d104iles examines the potential for these materials. The review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database.
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Failure of Plastics

Author: Stanley Turner

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9780902348516

Category: Plastics

Page: 126

View: 4423

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Compositional and failure analysis of polymers

a practical approach

Author: John Scheirs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 766

View: 9428

Intended as a practical guide for polymer technologists, engineers and analysts in the plastics, composites and rubber fields, this title describes a range of techniques and strategies for compositional and failure analysis of polymeric materials and products. Numerous examples illustrate the application of analytical methods for solving commonly encountered problems in the polymer industry. The reader is guided towards the most appropriate method of analysis and measurement and the most likely reasons for the failure. Areas covered include: * Migration and interaction of additives * Mechanical stress and stress cracking * Crazing and fracture * Residual stress and weld lines * Contamination and discoloration Numerous pedagogical methods, illustrative flow diagrams, figures and tables are used throughout the text to make it an invaluable guide to all analysts and polymer engineers in industrial or academic laboratories.
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Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives

Author: D. Mulligan

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859573938

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 6750

This report focuses on in-line cure monitoring as a key way of optimising production. The bulk of this review is devoted to coverage of the range of techniques used for cure monitoring. Consideration is also given to other topics relevant to the implementation of cure monitoring processes. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
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Polymer Engineering

Author: Peter Eyerer,Thomas Hirth,Peter Elsner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540724028

Category: Science

Page: 676

View: 3773

Erste in sich geschlossene Darstellung zum Polymer Engineering! Das Buch entstand aus dem ersten Kapitel der 6. Auflage von "Domininghaus - Kunststoffe" und enthält ebf. die zwei notwendigen und wichtigen Kapitel "Oberflächentechnologien für Kunststoffbauteile" und die "Prüfung von Kunststoffen und Bauteilen". Plus: umfangreich ergänzte Inhalte, ausgewählte Technologien.
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Polymer Product Failure

Author: P.R. Lewis

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859571927

Category: Polymers

Page: 104

View: 8702

Use of polymers in product design has continued to grow at a rate unrivalled by conventional materials such as metal, ceramics or glass. More polymeric materials are becoming available to the designer, and this report highlights the need for caution in new design work, for careful use of new materials, and for awareness of the product environment. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
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Aging of Natural and Synthetic Rubber and Rubber Products

An Annotated Bibliography

Author: N.A

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Rubber

Page: 165

View: 3775

This annotated bibliography of over 900 references on the preservation of rubber, lists research reports from the major rubber companies, the armed services, civilian government agencies, and other sources.
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Waste Materials and By-Products in Concrete

Author: Rafat Siddique

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742948

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 414

View: 9164

The amount and variety of waste that humanity dumps in landfill sites is nothing short of a scandal, believes Rafat Siddique, of Deemed University in Patiala, India. Instead, we ought to be building new homes out of it! Siddique shows in this important book that many non-hazardous waste materials and by-products which are landfilled, can in fact be used in making concrete and similar construction materials.
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Der gleichläufige Doppelschneckenextruder

Grundlagen, Technologie, Anwendungen

Author: Klemens Kohlgrüber

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446452354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 842

View: 8187

Alles zum gleichläufigen Doppelschneckenextruder Bei der Herstellung von Kunststoffen, insbesondere bei der Aufbereitung und Verarbeitung bis zum Fertigprodukt werden Extruder eingesetzt, wobei der gleichläufige Doppelschneckenextruder eine dominante Rolle spielt. Aber auch in anderen Industriezweigen, z. B. der Kautschuk- und Lebensmittelindustrie und zunehmend in der Pharmaindustrie kommen die Gleichdrallschnecken vielfältig zum Einsatz. Eine multifunktionale Maschine Das Fachbuch gibt umfassenden Einblick in die verfahrens- und maschinentechnischen Grundlagen und legt großen Fokus auf Praxisbeispiele. Meist sind die Schnecken modular aufgebaut und können damit sehr flexibel an veränderte Aufgabenstellung und Produkteigenschaften angepasst werden. Für die optimale Auslegung eines Doppelschneckenextruders sind vertiefte Kenntnisse über die Maschine und den Prozess erforderlich. Ein Praxisbuch für Einsteiger und Profis Die zweite Auflage entstand unter Mitwirkung vieler Fachautoren von renommierten Firmen und Hochschulen. Alle inzwischen erfolgten Weiterentwicklungen wurden berücksichtigt. Die zweite Auflage wurde durchgehend neu bearbeitet, ist deutlich erweitert, komplett in Farbe und in neuem Layout. Mit Zusatzmaterial auf der Website des Herausgebers: Videos, Bilder, Beispiel-Aufgaben, Rechentools EXTRA: E-Book inside
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