Eyewitness Testimony

Civil and Criminal

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789994814640

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 3957

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Eyewitness Testimony

Author: Elizabeth F. Loftus

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674287778

Category: Law

Page: 253

View: 8229

By shedding light on the many factors that can intervene and create inaccurate testimony, Elizabeth Loftus illustrates how memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned, and how new memories can be implanted and old ones changed in subtle ways.
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Witness for the Defense

The Accused, the Eyewitness, and the Expert Who Puts Memory on Trial

Author: Dr. Elizabeth Loftus,Katherine Ketcham

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1250086310

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 4953

"The study of memory had become my specialty, my passion. In the next few years I wrote dozens of papers about how memory works and how it fails, but unlike most researchers studying memory, my work kept reaching out into the real world. To what extent, I wondered, could a person's memory be shaped by suggestion? When people witness a serious automobile accident, how accurate is their recollection of the facts? If a witness is questioned by a police officer, will the manner of questioning alter the representation of the memory? Can memories be supplemented with additional, false information?" The "passion" Loftus describes in the lines above led her to a teaching career at the University of Washington and, perhaps more importantly, into hundreds of courtrooms as an expert witness on the fallibility of eyewitness accounts. As she has explained in numerous trials, and as she convincingly argues in this absorbing book, eyewitness accounts can be and often are so distorted that they no longer resemble the truth.
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Memory

Surprising New Insights Into How We Remember and Why We Forget

Author: Elizabeth F. Loftus

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 207

View: 4195

An analysis of the many dimensions of memory discusses how information is stored in the brain, how it is retrieved, why memory is an unreliable source for the "truth," and what factors drastically alter what people remember
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Human Memory

The Processing of Information

Author: G. R. Loftus,Elizabeth F. Loftus

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780898591354

Category: Psychology

Page: 179

View: 3024

First published in 1976. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Psychology, Law and Eyewitness Testimony

Author: Peter B. Ainsworth

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471982388

Category: Psychology

Page: 210

View: 7583

Psychology, Law and Eyewitness Testimony Peter B. Ainsworth, University of Manchester, UK Before giving evidence, witnesses have to swear to tell 'the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth'. Given current knowledge about human perception and memory, it is unlikely that witnesses will be able to keep this promise. Many professionals within the criminal justice and legal system are involved in recording and assessing eyewitness testimony, sometimes with unrealistic expectations of the ability of eyewitnesses to provide accurate and objective testimony: they, and students of psychology, law and criminology, will welcome this up-to-date, accessible survey of the concepts and research which now inform our knowledge of this field. Peter Ainsworth, an experienced lecturer and researcher, has written this book in a style suitable for non-specialists, and focuses on how and why witnesses make mistakes, how psychologists can help, and how legal procedures can be improved (for instance, by reducing the pressure on witnesses to guess). The text is authoritative, backed by references to key research, and well illustrated by examples of how psychology and law are interlinked in the study of eyewitness behaviour. "From some books you take new knowledge. Some books consolidate knowledge by clear writing. Occasionally, as in this book, you get both. Peter Ainsworth has done his readers a favour by presenting complex material simply yet succinctly. I hope the book enjoys the wide professional readership which it merits." Ken Pease, OBE, Professor of Criminology, University of Huddersfield, UK
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Jesus and the Eyewitnesses

The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony

Author: Richard Bauckham

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 1467446807

Category: Religion

Page: 704

View: 4702

A groundbreaking work in New Testament studies expanded and updated Winner of the 2007 Christianity Today Book Award in Biblical Studies, this momentous volume argues that the four Gospels are closely based on the eyewitness testimony of those who personally knew Jesus. Noted New Testament scholar Richard Bauckham challenges the prevailing assumption that the Jesus accounts circulated as "anonymous community traditions," asserting instead that they were transmitted in the names of the original eyewitnesses. In this expanded second edition Bauckham is adding a new preface, three substantial new chapters that respond to critics and clarify key points of his argument, and a comprehensive new bibliography.
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DNA and the Criminal Justice System

The Technology of Justice

Author: David Lazer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262621861

Category: Law

Page: 414

View: 9545

Examines the impact of DNA technology on issues of ethics, civil liberties, privacy, and security.
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The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918

With a New Preface

Author: Stephen Kern

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674021693

Category: History

Page: 372

View: 2416

Stephen Kern writes about the sweeping changes in technology and culture between 1880 and World War I that created new modes of understanding and experiencing time and space. To mark the book's twentieth anniversary, Kern provides an illuminating new preface about the breakthrough in interpretive approach that has made this a seminal work in interdisciplinary studies.
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Making Monsters

False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria

Author: Richard Ofshe,Ethan Watters

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520205833

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 8070

In the last decade, reports of incest have exploded into the national consciousness. Magazines, talk shows, and mass market paperbacks have taken on the subject as many Americans, primarily women, have come forward with graphic memories of childhood abuse. Making Monsters examines the methods of therapists who treat patients for depression by working to draw out memories or, with the use of hypnosis, to encourage fantasies of childhood abuse the patients are told they have repressed. Since this therapy may leave the patient more depressed and alienated than before, questions are appropriately raised here about the ethics and efficacy of such treatment. In the last decade, reports of incest have exploded into the national consciousness. Magazines, talk shows, and mass market paperbacks have taken on the subject as many Americans, primarily women, have come forward with graphic memories of childhood abuse. Making Monsters examines the methods of therapists who treat patients for depression by working to draw out memories or, with the use of hypnosis, to encourage fantasies of childhood abuse the patients are told they have repressed. Since this therapy may leave the patient more depressed and alienated than before, questions are appropriately raised here about the ethics and efficacy of such treatment.
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Psychology Applied to Law

Author: Mark Costanzo

Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing Company

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 4738

1. Psychology and Law: An Ambivalent Alliance. 2. Interrogations, Confessions, and Lie Detection. 3. Profiles and Syndromes. 4. Competence and Insanity. 5. Juries and Judges. 6. Memory as Evidence: Eyewitness Testimony and Child Sexual Abuse. 7. Risk Assessment and Determination of Child Custody. 8. Workplace Law: Harassment, Discrimination, and Fairness. 9. Sentencing, Imprisonment, and the Death Penalty.
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The Myth of Repressed Memory

False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse

Author: Dr. Elizabeth Loftus,Katherine Ketcham

Publisher: St. Martin's Griffin

ISBN: 1466848863

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 1546

According to many clinical psychologists, when the mind is forced to endure a horrifying experience, it has the ability to bury the entire memory of it so deeply within the unconscious that it can only be recalled in the form of a flashback triggered by a sight, a smell, or a sound. Indeed, therapists and lawyers have created an industry based on treating and litigating the cases of people who suddenly claim to have "recovered" memories of everything from child abuse to murder. This book reveals that despite decades of research, there is absolutely no controlled scientific support for the idea that memories of trauma are routinely banished into the unconscious and then reliably recovered years later. Since it is not actually a legitimate psychological phenomenon, the idea of "recovered memory"--and the movement that has developed alongside it--is thus closer to a dangerous fad or trendy witch hunt.
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Identifying the Culprit

Assessing Eyewitness Identification

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309310628

Category: Law

Page: 170

View: 1159

Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness identification procedures has given us an increasingly clear picture of how identifications are made, and more importantly, an improved understanding of the principled limits on vision and memory that can lead to failure of identification. Factors such as viewing conditions, duress, elevated emotions, and biases influence the visual perception experience. Perceptual experiences are stored by a system of memory that is highly malleable and continuously evolving, neither retaining nor divulging content in an informational vacuum. As such, the fidelity of our memories to actual events may be compromised by many factors at all stages of processing, from encoding to storage and retrieval. Unknown to the individual, memories are forgotten, reconstructed, updated, and distorted. Complicating the process further, policies governing law enforcement procedures for conducting and recording identifications are not standard, and policies and practices to address the issue of misidentification vary widely. These limitations can produce mistaken identifications with significant consequences. What can we do to make certain that eyewitness identification convicts the guilty and exonerates the innocent? Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda. Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures.
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Night

Author: Elie Wiesel

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 1466805366

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 144

View: 8413

A New Translation From The French By Marion Wiesel Night is Elie Wiesel's masterpiece, a candid, horrific, and deeply poignant autobiographical account of his survival as a teenager in the Nazi death camps. This new translation by Marion Wiesel, Elie's wife and frequent translator, presents this seminal memoir in the language and spirit truest to the author's original intent. And in a substantive new preface, Elie reflects on the enduring importance of Night and his lifelong, passionate dedication to ensuring that the world never forgets man's capacity for inhumanity to man. Night offers much more than a litany of the daily terrors, everyday perversions, and rampant sadism at Auschwitz and Buchenwald; it also eloquently addresses many of the philosophical as well as personal questions implicit in any serious consideration of what the Holocaust was, what it meant, and what its legacy is and will be.
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Democracy is in the Streets

From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago

Author: James Miller,Jim Miller

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674197251

Category: Education

Page: 431

View: 8423

On June 12, 1962, sixty young activists drafted a manifesto for their generation--"The Port Huron Statement"--that ignited a decade of dissent. "Democracy Is in the Streets" is the definitive history of the people and ideas that shaped the New Left in America during the turbulent 1960s. From the ideal of "participatory democracy" to the reality of community organizing, from the most publicized radical leaders to less well known theorists and activists, James Miller brings to life the hopes and struggles, the triumphs and tragedies, of the students and organizers who took the political vision of "The Port Huron Statement" to heart--and to the streets.
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Lifespan Development of Human Memory

Author: Peter Graf (PhD.),Nobuo Ohta

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262072366

Category: Psychology

Page: 299

View: 5637

An original approach to memory development that views memory as a continuous process of growth and loss over the human lifespan rather than as a series of separate periods.
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Memory and Manuscript

Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity ; With, Tradition and Transmission in Early Christianity

Author: Birger Gerhardsson,Eric John Sharpe

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 9780802843661

Category: Religion

Page: 426

View: 3628

Explores the way in which Jewish rabbis during the first Christian centuries preserved and passed on their sacred tradition, and he shows how early Christianity is better understood in light of how that tradition developed in Rabbinic Judaism.
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The Devil's Advocates

Greatest Closing Arguments in Criminal Law

Author: Michael S Lief,H. Mitchell Caldwell

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1416571868

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 2324

From the authors of the acclaimed Ladies and Gentlemen of the Jury, and featuring some of the most important cases in criminal law, The Devil's Advocates is the final volume of a must-have trilogy of the best closing arguments in American legal history. Criminal law is considered by many to be the most exciting of the legal specialties, and here the authors turn to the type of dramatic crimes and trials that have so captivated the public -- becoming fodder for countless television shows and legal thrillers. But the eight cases in this collection have also set historical precedents and illuminated underlying principles of the American criminal justice system. Future president John Adams makes clear that even the most despised and vilified criminal is entitled to a legal defense in the argument he delivers on behalf of the British soldiers who shot and killed five Americans during the Boston Massacre. The always-controversial temporary-insanity defense makes its debut within sight of the White House when, in front of horrified onlookers, a prominent congressman guns down the district attorney over an extramarital affair. Clarence Darrow provides a ringing defense of a black family charged with using deadly force to defend themselves from a violent mob -- an argument that refines the concept of self-defense and its applicability to all races. The treason trial of Aaron Burr, accused of plotting to "steal" the western territories of the United States and form a new country with himself as its head, offers a fascinating glimpse into a rare type of prosecution, as well as a look at one of the most interesting traitors in the nation's history. Perhaps the best-known case in the book is that of Ernesto Miranda, the accused rapist whose trial led to the Supreme Court decision requiring police to advise suspects of their rights to remain silent and to have an attorney present -- their Miranda rights. Each of the eight cases presented here is given legal and cultural context, including a brief historical introduction, a biographical sketch of the attorneys involved, highlights of trial testimony, analysis of the closing arguments, and a summary of the trial's impact on its participants and our country. In clear, jargon-free prose, Michael S Lief and H. Mitchell Caldwell make these pivotal cases come to vibrant life for every reader.
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The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry

Author: Vasily Grossman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351484656

Category: Social Science

Page: 579

View: 5809

The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewryis a collection of eyewitness testimonies, letters, diaries, affidavits, and other documents on the activities of the Nazis against Jews in the camps, ghettoes, and towns of Eastern Europe. Arguably, the only apt comparism is to The Gulag Archipelago of Alexander Solzhenitsyn. This definitive edition of The Black Book, including for the first time materials omitted from previous editions, is a major addition to the literature on the Holocaust. It will be of particular interest to students, teachers, and scholars of the Holocaust and those interested in the history of Europe. By the end of 1942, 1.4 million Jews had been killed by the Einsatzgruppen that followed the German army eastward; by the end of the war, nearly two million had been murdered in Russia and Eastern Europe. Of the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust, about one-third fell in the territories of the USSR. The single most important text documenting that slaughter is The Black Book, compiled by two renowned Russian authors Ilya Ehrenburg and Vasily Grossman. Until now, The Black Book was only available in English in truncated editions. Because of its profound significance, this new and definitive English translation of The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry is a major literary and intellectual event. From the time of the outbreak of the war, Ehrenburg and Grossman collected the eyewitness testimonies that went into The Black Book. As early as 1943 they were planning its publication; the first edition appeared in 1944. During the years immediately after the war, Grossman assisted Ehrenburg in compiling additional materials for a second edition, which appeared in 1946 (in English as well as Russian). Since the fall of the Soviet regime, Irina Ehrenburg, the daughter of Ilya Ehrenburg, has recovered the lost portions of the manuscript sent to Yad Vashem. The texts recove
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Russia's Dead End

An Insider's Testimony from Gorbachev to Putin

Author: Andrei A. Kovalev

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 1612348939

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 392

View: 4514

"An internal account of the political activities taking place inside the Kremlin from the fall of the USSR under the administration of Gorbachev to the future of Russia under Putin"--Provided by publisher.
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