Exploring Mathematics

An Engaging Introduction to Proof

Author: John Meier,Derek Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107128986

Category: Mathematics

Page: 300

View: 8617

Exploring Mathematics gives students experience with doing mathematics - interrogating mathematical claims, exploring definitions, forming conjectures, attempting proofs, and presenting results - and engages them with examples, exercises, and projects that pique their interest. Written with a minimal number of pre-requisites, this text can be used by college students in their first and second years of study, and by independent readers who want an accessible introduction to theoretical mathematics. Core topics include proof techniques, sets, functions, relations, and cardinality, with selected additional topics that provide many possibilities for further exploration. With a problem-based approach to investigating the material, students develop interesting examples and theorems through numerous exercises and projects. In-text exercises, with complete solutions or robust hints included in an appendix, help students explore and master the topics being presented. The end-of-chapter exercises and projects provide students with opportunities to confirm their understanding of core material, learn new concepts, and develop mathematical creativity.

A Logical Introduction to Proof

Author: Daniel W. Cunningham

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461436311

Category: Mathematics

Page: 356

View: 3337

The book is intended for students who want to learn how to prove theorems and be better prepared for the rigors required in more advance mathematics. One of the key components in this textbook is the development of a methodology to lay bare the structure underpinning the construction of a proof, much as diagramming a sentence lays bare its grammatical structure. Diagramming a proof is a way of presenting the relationships between the various parts of a proof. A proof diagram provides a tool for showing students how to write correct mathematical proofs.

Continuous Symmetry

From Euclid to Klein

Author: William H. Barker,Roger Howe

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821839004

Category: Mathematics

Page: 546

View: 5880

The fundamental idea of geometry is that of symmetry. With that principle as the starting point, Barker and Howe begin an insightful and rewarding study of Euclidean geometry. The primary focus of the book is on transformations of the plane. The transformational point of view provides both a path for deeper understanding of traditional synthetic geometry and tools for providing proofs that spring from a consistent point of view. As a result, proofs become more comprehensible, as techniques can be used and reused in similar settings. The approach to the material is very concrete, with complete explanations of all the important ideas, including foundational background. The discussions of the nine-point circle and wallpaper groups are particular examples of how the strength of the transformational point of view and the care of the authors' exposition combine to give a remarkable presentation of topics in geometry. This text is for a one-semester undergraduate course on geometry. It is richly illustrated and contains hundreds of exercises.

An Introduction to Proof Through Real Analysis

Author: Daniel J. Madden,Jason A. Aubrey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119314720

Category: Education

Page: 448

View: 5853

An engaging and accessible introduction to mathematical proof incorporating ideas from real analysis A mathematical proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement. Since the time of the ancient Greek mathematicians, the proof has been a cornerstone of the science of mathematics. The goal of this book is to help students learn to follow and understand the function and structure of mathematical proof and to produce proofs of their own. An Introduction to Proof through Real Analysis is based on course material developed and refined over thirty years by Professor Daniel J. Madden and was designed to function as a complete text for both first proofs and first analysis courses. Written in an engaging and accessible narrative style, this book systematically covers the basic techniques of proof writing, beginning with real numbers and progressing to logic, set theory, topology, and continuity. The book proceeds from natural numbers to rational numbers in a familiar way, and justifies the need for a rigorous definition of real numbers. The mathematical climax of the story it tells is the Intermediate Value Theorem, which justifies the notion that the real numbers are sufficient for solving all geometric problems. • Concentrates solely on designing proofs by placing instruction on proof writing on top of discussions of specific mathematical subjects • Departs from traditional guides to proofs by incorporating elements of both real analysis and algebraic representation • Written in an engaging narrative style to tell the story of proof and its meaning, function, and construction • Uses a particular mathematical idea as the focus of each type of proof presented • Developed from material that has been class-tested and fine-tuned over thirty years in university introductory courses An Introduction to Proof through Real Analysis is the ideal introductory text to proofs for second and third-year undergraduate mathematics students, especially those who have completed a calculus sequence, students learning real analysis for the first time, and those learning proofs for the first time. Daniel J. Madden, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. He has taught a junior level course introducing students to the idea of a rigorous proof based on real analysis almost every semester since 1990. Dr. Madden is the winner of the 2015 Southwest Section of the Mathematical Association of America Distinguished Teacher Award. Jason A. Aubrey, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Director, Mathematics Center of the University of Arizona.

Basic Discrete Mathematics

Logic, Set Theory, and Probability

Author: Richard Kohar

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814730416

Category: Mathematics

Page: 732

View: 7654

This lively introductory text exposes the student in the humanities to the world of discrete mathematics. A problem-solving based approach grounded in the ideas of George Pólya are at the heart of this book. Students learn to handle and solve new problems on their own. A straightforward, clear writing style and well-crafted examples with diagrams invite the students to develop into precise and critical thinkers. Particular attention has been given to the material that some students find challenging, such as proofs. This book illustrates how to spot invalid arguments, to enumerate possibilities, and to construct probabilities. It also presents case studies to students about the possible detrimental effects of ignoring these basic principles. The book is invaluable for a discrete and finite mathematics course at the freshman undergraduate level or for self-study since there are full solutions to the exercises in an appendix. "Written with clarity, humor and relevant real-world examples, Basic Discrete Mathematics is a wonderful introduction to discrete mathematical reasoning."- Arthur Benjamin, Professor of Mathematics at Harvey Mudd College, and author of The Magic of Math

An Introduction to Hilbert Space

Author: N. Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107717167

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 6973

This textbook is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space and its applications. The notion of Hilbert space is central in functional analysis and is used in numerous branches of pure and applied mathematics. Dr Young has stressed applications of the theory, particularly to the solution of partial differential equations in mathematical physics and to the approximation of functions in complex analysis. Some basic familiarity with real analysis, linear algebra and metric spaces is assumed, but otherwise the book is self-contained. It is based on courses given at the University of Glasgow and contains numerous examples and exercises (many with solutions). Thus it will make an excellent first course in Hilbert space theory at either undergraduate or graduate level and will also be of interest to electrical engineers and physicists, particularly those involved in control theory and filter design.

A First Course in Analysis

Author: John B. Conway

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107173140

Category: Mathematics

Page: 375

View: 4601

This rigorous textbook is intended for a year-long analysis or advanced calculus course for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Starting with detailed, slow-paced proofs that allow students to acquire facility in reading and writing proofs, it clearly and concisely explains the basics of differentiation and integration of functions of one and several variables, and covers the theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. Minimal prerequisites are assumed, and relevant linear algebra topics are reviewed right before they are needed, making the material accessible to students from diverse backgrounds. Abstract topics are preceded by concrete examples to facilitate understanding, for example, before introducing differential forms, the text examines low-dimensional examples. The meaning and importance of results are thoroughly discussed, and numerous exercises of varying difficulty give students ample opportunity to test and improve their knowledge of this difficult yet vital subject.

Yet Another Introduction to Analysis

Author: Victor Bryant

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107717221

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 9052

Mathematics education in schools has seen a revolution in recent years. Students everywhere expect the subject to be well-motivated, relevant and practical. When such students reach higher education the traditional development of analysis, often rather divorced from the calculus which they learnt at school, seems highly inappropriate. Shouldn't every step in a first course in analysis arise naturally from the student's experience of functions and calculus at school? And shouldn't such a course take every opportunity to endorse and extend the student's basic knowledge of functions? In Yet Another Introduction to Analysis the author steers a simple and well-motivated path through the central ideas of real analysis. Each concept is introduced only after its need has become clear and after it has already been used informally. Wherever appropriate the new ideas are related to school topics and are used to extend the reader's understanding of those topics. A first course in analysis at college is always regarded as one of the hardest in the curriculum. However, in this book the reader is led carefully through every step in such a way that he/she will soon be predicting the next step for him/herself. In this way the subject is developed naturally: students will end up not only understanding analysis, but also enjoying it.

Understanding Mathematical Proof

Author: John Taylor,Rowan Garnier

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466514914

Category: Mathematics

Page: 414

View: 3994

The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.

Probability with Martingales

Author: David Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139642987

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 3905

Probability theory is nowadays applied in a huge variety of fields including physics, engineering, biology, economics and the social sciences. This book is a modern, lively and rigorous account which has Doob's theory of martingales in discrete time as its main theme. It proves important results such as Kolmogorov's Strong Law of Large Numbers and the Three-Series Theorem by martingale techniques, and the Central Limit Theorem via the use of characteristic functions. A distinguishing feature is its determination to keep the probability flowing at a nice tempo. It achieves this by being selective rather than encyclopaedic, presenting only what is essential to understand the fundamentals; and it assumes certain key results from measure theory in the main text. These measure-theoretic results are proved in full in appendices, so that the book is completely self-contained. The book is written for students, not for researchers, and has evolved through several years of class testing. Exercises play a vital rôle. Interesting and challenging problems, some with hints, consolidate what has already been learnt, and provide motivation to discover more of the subject than can be covered in a single introduction.

Chance, Strategy, and Choice

An Introduction to the Mathematics of Games and Elections

Author: Samuel Bruce Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316033708

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 3648

Games and elections are fundamental activities in society with applications in economics, political science, and sociology. These topics offer familiar, current, and lively subjects for a course in mathematics. This classroom-tested textbook, primarily intended for a general education course in game theory at the freshman or sophomore level, provides an elementary treatment of games and elections. Starting with basics such as gambling, zero-sum and combinatorial games, Nash equilibria, social dilemmas, and fairness and impossibility theorems for elections, the text then goes further into the theory with accessible proofs of advanced topics such as the Sprague–Grundy theorem and Arrow's impossibility theorem. • Uses an integrative approach to probability, game, and social choice theory • Provides a gentle introduction to the logic of mathematical proof, thus equipping readers with the necessary tools for further mathematical studies • Contains numerous exercises and examples of varying levels of difficulty • Requires only a high school mathematical background.

All the Mathematics You Missed

But Need to Know for Graduate School

Author: N.A

Publisher: 清华大学出版社有限公司

ISBN: 9787302090854

Category: Mathematics

Page: 347

View: 539


An Algebraic Introduction to K-Theory

Author: Bruce A. Magurn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521800785

Category: Mathematics

Page: 676

View: 1808

An introduction to algebraic K-theory with no prerequisite beyond a first semester of algebra.

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs

Author: Antonella Cupillari

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123822181

Category: Mathematics

Page: 296

View: 6762

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs provides basic logic of mathematical proofs and shows how mathematical proofs work. It offers techniques for both reading and writing proofs. The second chapter of the book discusses the techniques in proving if/then statements by contrapositive and proofing by contradiction. It also includes the negation statement, and/or. It examines various theorems, such as the if and only-if, or equivalence theorems, the existence theorems, and the uniqueness theorems. In addition, use of counter examples, mathematical induction, composite statements including multiple hypothesis and multiple conclusions, and equality of numbers are covered in this chapter. The book also provides mathematical topics for practicing proof techniques. Included here are the Cartesian products, indexed families, functions, and relations. The last chapter of the book provides review exercises on various topics. Undergraduate students in engineering and physical science will find this book invaluable. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary—gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics

Introduction to Combinators and (lambda) Calculus

Author: J. R. Hindley,J. P. Seldin

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521268967

Category: Mathematics

Page: 360

View: 2829

Combinatory logic and lambda-conversion were originally devised in the 1920s for investigating the foundations of mathematics using the basic concept of 'operation' instead of 'set'. They have now developed into linguistic tools, useful in several branches of logic and computer science, especially in the study of programming languages. These notes form a simple introduction to the two topics, suitable for a reader who has no previous knowledge of combinatory logic, but has taken an undergraduate course in predicate calculus and recursive functions. The key ideas and basic results are presented, as well as a number of more specialised topics, and man), exercises are included to provide manipulative practice.

How to Prove It

A Structured Approach

Author: Daniel J. Velleman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139450972

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 5016

Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.

Pattern Formation

An Introduction to Methods

Author: Rebecca B. Hoyle

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521817509

Category: Mathematics

Page: 422

View: 4331

Fully illustrated mathematical guide to pattern formation. Includes instructive exercises and examples.

An Introduction to Gödel's Theorems

Author: Peter Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107022843

Category: Mathematics

Page: 406

View: 4623

A clear and accessible treatment of Gödel's famous, intriguing, but much misunderstood incompleteness theorems, extensively revised in a second edition.

Guide to Analysis

Author: F. Mary Hart

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1349093904

Category: Applied mathematics

Page: 202

View: 3388

Guide to Analysis aims to minimise the difficulties which arise from the contrast between analysis and sixth form mathematics. It includes historical notes and anecdotes which will help the reader to appreciate how the subject developed to its present form. Plenty of worked and unworked examples, the latter with hints for solution and answers, are also included.

Introduction to Applied Mathematics

Author: Gilbert Strang

Publisher: Wellesley-Cambridge Press

ISBN: 9780961408800

Category: Mathematics

Page: 760

View: 1652

Renowned applied mathematician Gilbert Strang teaches applied mathematics with the clear explanations, examples and insights of an experienced teacher. This book progresses steadily through a range of topics from symmetric linear systems to differential equations to least squares and Kalman filtering and optimization. It clearly demonstrates the power of matrix algebra in engineering problem solving. This is an ideal book (beloved by many readers) for a first course on applied mathematics and a reference for more advanced applied mathematicians. The only prerequisite is a basic course in linear algebra.