Ethics and Cyber Warfare

The Quest for Responsible Security in the Age of Digital Warfare

Author: George Lucas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190276525

Category:

Page: 256

View: 3235

From North Korea's recent attacks on Sony to perpetual news reports of successful hackings and criminal theft, cyber conflict has emerged as a major topic of public concern. Yet even as attacks on military, civilian, and commercial targets have escalated, there is not yet a clear set of ethical guidelines that apply to cyber warfare. Indeed, like terrorism, cyber warfare is commonly believed to be a war without rules. Given the prevalence cyber warfare, developing a practical moral code for this new form of conflict is more important than ever. In Ethics and Cyber Warfare, internationally-respected ethicist George Lucas delves into the confounding realm of cyber conflict. Comparing "state-sponsored hacktivism" to the transformative impact of "irregular warfare" in conventional armed conflict, Lucas offers a critique of legal approaches to governance, and outlines a new approach to ethics and "just war" reasoning. Lucas draws upon the political philosophies of Alasdair MacIntyre, John Rawls, and Jurgen Habermas to provide a framework for understanding these newly-emerging standards for cyber conflict, and ultimately presents a professional code of ethics for a new generation of "cyber warriors." Lucas concludes with a discussion of whether preemptive self-defense efforts - such as the massive government surveillance programs revealed by Edward Snowden - can ever be justified, addressing controversial topics such as privacy, anonymity, and public trust. Well-reasoned and timely, Ethics and Cyber Warfare is a must-read for anyone with an interest in philosophy, ethics, or cybercrime. "
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Cyber War

Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Author: Claire Finkelstein,Jens David Ohlin,Kevin Govern

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717504

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 8065

Cyber weapons and cyber warfare have become one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyber weapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Unlike past forms of warfare circumscribed by centuries of just war tradition and Law of Armed Conflict prohibitions, cyber warfare occupies a particularly ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. Furthermore, cyber attacks put immense pressure on conventional notions of sovereignty, and the moral and legal doctrines that were developed to regulate them. This book, written by an unrivalled set of experts, assists in proactively addressing the ethical and legal issues that surround cyber warfare by considering, first, whether the Laws of Armed Conflict apply to cyberspace just as they do to traditional warfare, and second, the ethical position of cyber warfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The book explores these moral and legal issues in three categories. First, it addresses foundational questions regarding cyber attacks. What are they and what does it mean to talk about a cyber war? The book presents alternative views concerning whether the laws of war should apply, or whether transnational criminal law or some other peacetime framework is more appropriate, or if there is a tipping point that enables the laws of war to be used. Secondly, it examines the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber-conflicts, in particular those of proportionality and necessity. It also investigates the distinction between civilian and combatant in this context, and studies the level of causation necessary to elicit a response, looking at the notion of a 'proximate cause'. Finally, it analyzes the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes. This book is unmissable reading for anyone interested in the impact of cyber warfare on international law and the laws of war.
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Binary Bullets

The Ethics of Cyberwarfare

Author: Adam Henschke,Bradley Jay Strawser

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190221089

Category: Cyberspace operations (Military science)

Page: 320

View: 9710

Philosophical and ethical discussions of warfare are often tied to emerging technologies and techniques. Today we are presented with what many believe is a radical shift in the nature of war-the realization of conflict in the cyber-realm, the so-called "fifth domain" of warfare. Does an aggressive act in the cyber-realm constitute an act of war? If so, what rules should govern such warfare? Are the standard theories of just war capable of analyzing and assessing this mode of conflict? These changing circumstances present us with a series of questions demanding serious attention. Is there such a thing as cyberwarfare? How do the existing rules of engagement and theories from the just war tradition apply to cyberwarfare? How should we assess a cyber-attack conducted by a state agency against private enterprise and vice versa? Furthermore, how should actors behave in the cyber-realm? Are there ethical norms that can be applied to the cyber-realm? Are the classic just war constraints of non-combatant immunity and proportionality possible in this realm? Especially given the idea that events that are constrained within the cyber-realm do not directly physically harm anyone, what do traditional ethics of war conventions say about this new space? These questions strike at the very center of contemporary intellectual discussion over the ethics of war. In twelve original essays, plus a foreword from John Arquilla and an introduction, Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare, engages these questions head on with contributions from the top scholars working in this field today.
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Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations

A NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence Initiative

Author: Mariarosaria Taddeo,Ludovica Glorioso

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319453009

Category: Philosophy

Page: 252

View: 9628

This book presents 12 essays that focus on the analysis of the problems prompted by cyber operations (COs). It clarifies and discusses the ethical and regulatory problems raised by the deployment of cyber capabilities by a state’s army to inflict disruption or damage to an adversary’s targets in or through cyberspace. Written by world-leading philosophers, ethicists, policy-makers, and law and military experts, the essays cover such topics as the conceptual novelty of COs and the ethical problems that this engenders; the applicability of existing conceptual and regulatory frameworks to COs deployed in case of conflicts; the definition of deterrence strategies involving COs; and the analysis of models to foster cooperation in managing cyber crises. Each essay is an invited contribution or a revised version of a paper originally presented at the workshop on Ethics and Policies for Cyber Warfare, organized by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in collaboration with the University of Oxford. The volume endorses a multi-disciplinary approach, as such it offers a comprehensive overview of the ethical, legal, and policy problems posed by COs and of the different approaches and methods that can be used to solve them. It will appeal to a wide readership, including ethicists, philosophers, military experts, strategy planners, and law- and policy-makers.
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Cyber Warfare

Techniques, Tactics and Tools for Security Practitioners

Author: Jason Andress,Steve Winterfeld

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124166334

Category: Computers

Page: 324

View: 2946

Cyber Warfare, Second Edition, takes a comprehensive look at how and why digital warfare is waged. The book explores the participants, battlefields, and the tools and techniques used in today's digital conflicts. The concepts discussed gives students of information security a better idea of how cyber conflicts are carried out now, how they will change in the future, and how to detect and defend against espionage, hacktivism, insider threats and non-state actors such as organized criminals and terrorists. This book provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend a network against malicious attacks. It probes relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view, as well as the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result. Logical, physical, and psychological weapons used in cyber warfare are discussed. This text will appeal to information security practitioners, network security administrators, computer system administrators, and security analysts. Provides concrete examples and real-world guidance on how to identify and defend your network against malicious attacks Dives deeply into relevant technical and factual information from an insider's point of view Details the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber war and how computer criminal law may change as a result
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The Basics of Cyber Warfare

Understanding the Fundamentals of Cyber Warfare in Theory and Practice

Author: Steve Winterfeld,Jason Andress

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124051812

Category: Computers

Page: 164

View: 9086

The Basics of Cyber Warfare provides readers with fundamental knowledge of cyber war in both theoretical and practical aspects. This book explores the principles of cyber warfare, including military and cyber doctrine, social engineering, and offensive and defensive tools, tactics and procedures, including computer network exploitation (CNE), attack (CNA) and defense (CND). Readers learn the basics of how to defend against espionage, hacking, insider threats, state-sponsored attacks, and non-state actors (such as organized criminals and terrorists). Finally, the book looks ahead to emerging aspects of cyber security technology and trends, including cloud computing, mobile devices, biometrics and nanotechnology. The Basics of Cyber Warfare gives readers a concise overview of these threats and outlines the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber warfare. It is a valuable resource for policy makers, CEOs and CIOs, penetration testers, security administrators, and students and instructors in information security. Provides a sound understanding of the tools and tactics used in cyber warfare. Describes both offensive and defensive tactics from an insider's point of view. Presents doctrine and hands-on techniques to understand as cyber warfare evolves with technology.
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Soft War

Author: Michael L. Gross,Tamar Meisels

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110713224X

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 2966

Just war theory focuses primarily on bodily harm, such as killing, maiming, and torture, while other harms are often largely overlooked. At the same time, contemporary international conflicts increasingly involve the use of unarmed tactics, employing 'softer' alternatives or supplements to kinetic power that have not been sufficiently addressed by the ethics of war or international law. Soft war tactics include cyber-warfare and economic sanctions, media warfare, and propaganda, as well as non-violent resistance as it plays out in civil disobedience, boycotts, and 'lawfare.' While the just war tradition has much to say about 'hard' war - bullets, bombs, and bayonets - it is virtually silent on the subject of 'soft' war. Soft War: The Ethics of Unarmed Conflict illuminates this neglected aspect of international conflict.
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Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War

Just War Theory in the 21st Century

Author: Fritz Allhoff,Nicholas G. Evans,Adam Henschke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136260994

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 5271

This new Handbook offers a comprehensive overview of contemporary extensions and alternatives to the just war tradition in the field of the ethics of war. The modern history of just war has typically assumed the primacy of four particular elements: jus ad bellum, jus in bello, the state actor, and the solider. This book will put these four elements under close scrutiny, and will explore how they fare given the following challenges: • What role do the traditional elements of jus ad bellum and jus in bello—and the constituent principles that follow from this distinction—play in modern warfare? Do they adequately account for a normative theory of war? • What is the role of the state in warfare? Is it or should it be the primary actor in just war theory? • Can a just war be understood simply as a response to territorial aggression between state actors, or should other actions be accommodated under legitimate recourse to armed conflict? • Is the idea of combatant qua state-employed soldier a valid ethical characterization of actors in modern warfare? • What role does the technological backdrop of modern warfare play in understanding and realizing just war theories? Over the course of three key sections, the contributors examine these challenges to the just war tradition in a way that invigorates existing discussions and generates new debate on topical and prospective issues in just war theory. This book will be of great interest to students of just war theory, war and ethics, peace and conflict studies, philosophy and security studies.
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Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities

Author: Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council,Committee on Offensive Information Warfare

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309138507

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 6603

The United States is increasingly dependent on information and information technology for both civilian and military purposes, as are many other nations. Although there is a substantial literature on the potential impact of a cyberattack on the societal infrastructure of the United States, little has been written about the use of cyberattack as an instrument of U.S. policy. Cyberattacks--actions intended to damage adversary computer systems or networks--can be used for a variety of military purposes. But they also have application to certain missions of the intelligence community, such as covert action. They may be useful for certain domestic law enforcement purposes, and some analysts believe that they might be useful for certain private sector entities who are themselves under cyberattack. This report considers all of these applications from an integrated perspective that ties together technology, policy, legal, and ethical issues. Focusing on the use of cyberattack as an instrument of U.S. national policy, Technology, Policy, Law and Ethics Regarding U.S. Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities explores important characteristics of cyberattack. It describes the current international and domestic legal structure as it might apply to cyberattack, and considers analogies to other domains of conflict to develop relevant insights. Of special interest to the military, intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security communities, this report is also an essential point of departure for nongovernmental researchers interested in this rarely discussed topic.
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Cyber Warfare and the Laws of War

Author: Heather Harrison Dinniss

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107011086

Category: Law

Page: 331

View: 416

An analysis of the status of computer network attacks in international law.
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The Warrior, Military Ethics and Contemporary Warfare

Achilles Goes Asymmetrical

Author: Pauline M. Kaurin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317011775

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 154

View: 5639

When it comes to thinking about war and warriors, first there was Achilles, and then the rest followed. The choice of the term warrior is an important one for this discussion. While there has been extensive discussion on what counts as military professionalism, that is what makes a soldier, sailor or other military personnel a professional, the warrior archetype (varied for the various roles and service branches) still holds sway in the military self-conception, rooted as it is in the more existential notions of war, honor and meaning. In this volume, Kaurin uses Achilles as a touch stone for discussing the warrior, military ethics and the aspects of contemporary warfare that go by the name of 'asymmetrical war.' The title of the book cuts two ways-Achilles as a warrior archetype to help us think through the moral implications and challenges posed by asymmetrical warfare, but also as an archetype of our adversaries to help us think about asymmetric opponents.
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Ethics and War in the 21st Century

Author: Christopher Coker,Reader in the Department of International Relations Christopher Coker

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134054645

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 3500

This book explores the ethical implications of war in the contemporary world. The author, a leading theorist of warfare, explains why it is of crucial importance that Western countries should continue to apply traditional ethical rules and practices in war, even when engaging with international terrorist groups. The book uses the work of the late American philosopher Richard Rorty to explain the need to make ethical rules central to the conduct of military operations. Arguing that the question of ethics was re-opened by the ‘War on Terror’, the book then examines America’s post-9/11 redefinition of its own prevailing discourse of war. It ends with a discussion of other key challenges to the ethics of war, such as the rise of private security companies and the use of robots in war. In exploring these issues, this book seeks to place ethics at the centre of debates about the conduct of future warfare. This book will be of great interest to all students of military ethics, war studies, military history and strategic studies in general, and to military colleges in particular.
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Military Ethics and Emerging Technologies

Author: Timothy J. Demy,George R. Lucas Jr.,Bradley J. Strawser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317661656

Category: History

Page: 313

View: 1923

This volume looks at current and emerging technologies of war and some of the ethical issues surrounding their use. Although the nature and politics of war never change, the weapons and technologies used in war do change and are always undergoing development. Because of that, the arsenal of weapons for twenty-first century conflict is different from previous centuries. Weapons in today’s world include an array of instruments of war that include, robotics, cyber war capabilities, human performance enhancement for warriors, and the proliferation of an entire spectrum of unmanned weapons systems and platforms. Tactical weapons now have the potential of strategic results and have changed the understanding of the battle space creating ethical, legal, and political issues unknown in the pre-9/11 world. What do these technologies mean for things such as contemporary international relations, the just-war tradition, and civil-military relations? Directed at readers in the academic, scientific, military, and public policy communities, this volume offers current thought on ethics and emerging technologies from internationally-recognized scholars addressing the full spectrum of issues in present warfare technology. It includes current and ongoing topics of multi-discipline and international interest, such as ethics, law, international relations, war studies, public policy, science and technology. This book was originally published in various issues and volumes of the Journal of Military Ethics.
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The Ethics of Information Warfare

Author: Luciano Floridi,Mariarosaria Taddeo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319041355

Category: Philosophy

Page: 211

View: 2731

This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare. The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications. The second part collects contributions focusing on Just War Theory and its application to the case of Information Warfare. The third part adopts alternative approaches to Just War Theory for analysing the ethical implications of this phenomenon. Finally, an afterword by Neelie Kroes - Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner - concludes the volume. Her contribution describes the interests and commitments of the European Digital Agenda with respect to research for the development and deployment of robots in various circumstances, including warfare.
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The Ethics of Insurgency

Author: Michael L. Gross

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107019079

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 4759

As insurgencies rage, a burning question remains: how should insurgents fight technologically superior state armies? Commentators rarely ask this question because the catchphrase 'we fight by the rules, but they don't' is nearly axiomatic. But truly, are all forms of guerrilla warfare equally reprehensible? Can we think cogently about just guerrilla warfare? May guerrilla tactics such as laying improvised explosive devices (IEDs), assassinating informers, using human shields, seizing prisoners of war, conducting cyber strikes against civilians, manipulating the media, looting resources, or using nonviolence to provoke violence prove acceptable under the changing norms of contemporary warfare? The short answer is 'yes', but modern guerrilla warfare requires a great deal of qualification, explanation, and argumentation before it joins the repertoire of acceptable military behavior. Not all insurgents fight justly, but guerrilla tactics and strategies are also not always the heinous practices that state powers often portray them to be.
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Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism

Author: Janczewski, Lech

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1591409926

Category: Political Science

Page: 564

View: 2571

"This book reviews problems, issues, and presentations of the newest research in the field of cyberwarfare and cyberterrorism. While enormous efficiencies have been gained as a result of computers and telecommunications technologies, use of these systems and networks translates into a major concentration of information resources, createing a vulnerability to a host of attacks and exploitations"--Provided by publisher.
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Ethics as a Weapon of War

Militarism and Morality in Israel

Author: James Eastwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108415237

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6612

What role does ethics play in modern-day warfare? Is it possible for ethics and militarism to exist hand-in-hand? James Eastwood examines the Israeli military and its claim to be 'the most moral army in the world'. This claim has been strongly contested by human rights bodies and international institutions in their analysis of recent military engagements in the West Bank, Gaza and Lebanon. Yet at the same time, many in Israel believe this claim, including the general public, military personnel and politicians. Compiled from extensive research including interviews with soldiers, Eastwood unpacks the ethical pedagogy of the Israeli military, as well as soldier-led activism which voices a moral critique, and argues that the belief in moral warfare doesn't exist separately from the growing violence of Israel's occupation. This book is ideal for those interested in military ethics and Israeli politics, and provides crucial in-depth analysis for students and researchers alike.
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The Ethics of War and Peace

An Introduction

Author: Helen Frowe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317370600

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 668

The Ethics of War and Peace is a lively introduction to one of the oldest but still most relevant ethical debates. Focusing on the philosophical questions surrounding the ethics of modern war, Helen Frowe presents contemporary just war theory in a stimulating and accessible way. This 2nd edition includes new material on weapons and technology, and humanitarian intervention, in addition to: theories of self-defence and national defence jus ad bellum, jus in bello and jus post bellum the moral status of combatants the principle of non-combatant immunity and the nature of terrorism and the moral status of terrorists. Each chapter uses examples and concludes with a summary, discussion questions and suggestions for further reading to aid student engagement, learning and revision. The glossary has been expanded to cover the full range of relevant terminology. This is the ideal textbook for students of philosophy and politics approaching this important area for the first time.
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The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare

Counter-terrorism, Democratic Values and Military Ethics

Author: Th.A van Baarda,D.E.M. Verweij

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9047424603

Category: Law

Page: 544

View: 3789

PART I The superpower and asymmetry - PART II Jus ad bellum, jus in bello, jus post bellum - PART III Leadership and accountability - PART IV Soldiers’ perspectives - PART V Ethical Education and Decision-making for the Military - PART VI Stress and trauma - PART VII The media - PART VIII Democracy under Scrutiny - PART IX In Hindsight
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Cybersecurity Ethics

An Introduction

Author: Mary Manjikian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351766554

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 5263

This new textbook offers an accessible introduction to the topic of cybersecurity ethics. The book is split into three parts. Part I provides an introduction to the field of ethics, philosophy and philosophy of science, three ethical frameworks – virtue ethics, utilitarian ethics and communitarian ethics – and the notion of ethical hacking. Part II applies these frameworks to particular issues within the field of cybersecurity, including privacy rights, intellectual property and piracy, surveillance, and cyberethics in relation to military affairs. The third part concludes by exploring current codes of ethics used in cybersecurity. The overall aims of the book are to: provide ethical frameworks to aid decision making; present the key ethical issues in relation to computer security; highlight the connection between values and beliefs and the professional code of ethics. The textbook also includes three different features to aid students: ‘Going Deeper’ provides background information on key individuals and concepts; ‘Critical Issues’ features contemporary case studies; and ‘Applications’ examine specific technologies or practices which raise ethical issues. The book will be of much interest to students of cybersecurity, cyberethics, hacking, surveillance studies, ethics and information science.
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