Epistemology After Protagoras

Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus

Author: Mi-Kyoung Lee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199262229

Category: Philosophy

Page: 291

View: 7534

"Relativism was first formulated in Western philosophy by Protagoras in the fifth century BC. Protagoras is famous for his claim that 'man is the measure of all things'. Mi-Kyoung Lee examines this and the work of Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus"--Provided by publisher.

Epistemology after Protagoras

Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus

Author: Mi-Kyoung Lee

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199549283

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 5610

Relativism, the position that things are for each as they seem to each, was first formulated by Protagoras in the fifth century BC. Mi-Kyoung Lee examines his challenge to the possibility of knowledge and truth, and how the three most important philosophers of the next generation, Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus, responded to it.

Strategies of Argument

Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic

Author: Mi-Kyoung Lee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019989048X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 3475

This volume features fifteen new papers by an international group of scholars in ancient philosophy, with a particular focus on new work in ancient Greek and Roman ethics, epistemology, logic, and science. The papers are organized around five broad topics: Plato, Aristotle's ethics and practical reasoning, Aristotelian logic, Hellenistic ethics, and Hellenistic epistemology. Specific topics covered include the refutation of the hedonist in Plato's Philebus, the question of whether modern interpreters are right to read Plato's Timaeus as "proto-historical," Aristotle's argument concerning virtue, Aristotle's discussion of practical reasoning in the realm of ethics, Aristotle's logical theory, classification and division of goods in ancient ethical theories, and belief, appearances, and assent in Hellenistic epistemology.

Prophetic Rage

Author: Johnny Bernard Hill

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 0802869777

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 3477

In this book Johnny Bernard Hill argues that prophetic rage, or righteous anger, is a necessary response to our present culture of imperialism and nihilism. The most powerful way to resist meaninglessness, he says, is refusing to accept the realities of structural injustice, such as poverty, escalating militarism, genocide, and housing discrimination. Hill s Prophetic Rage is interdisciplinary, integrating art, music, and literature with theology. It is constructive, passionate, and provocative. Hill weaves through a myriad of creative and prophetic voices of protest -- from Jesus to W. E. B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and President Barack Obama -- as well as multiple approaches, including liberation theology and black religion, to reflect theologically on the nature of liberation, justice, and hope on contemporary culture.

Plato and Protagoras

Truth and Relativism in Ancient Greek Philosophy

Author: Oded Balaban

Publisher: N.A


Category: Philosophy

Page: 345

View: 2434

Drawing on his years of teaching the two Greek thinkers to graduate students, Balaban (philosophy, U. of Haifa) compares their thought. He explains that Plato adopts the point of the view of the content of knowledge, which can be either true or false, and insists that a criterion for determining truth is available and that salvation consists in learning it by instruction. Protagoras he describes as adopting the perspective of the form of knowledge, which is the aspect of it that is neither true nor false, and concluding that such a criterion for determining truth is not available, and therefore all we need to do is change our natural dispositions, a task he reserves for education. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism

Author: Richard Bett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139828215

Category: Philosophy

Page: 380

View: 4848

This volume offers a comprehensive survey of the main periods, schools, and individual proponents of scepticism in the ancient Greek and Roman world. The contributors examine the major developments chronologically and historically, ranging from the early antecedents of scepticism to the Pyrrhonist tradition. They address the central philosophical and interpretive problems surrounding the sceptics' ideas on subjects including belief, action, and ethics. Finally, they explore the effects which these forms of scepticism had beyond the ancient period, and the ways in which ancient scepticism differs from scepticism as it has been understood since Descartes. The volume will serve as an accessible and wide-ranging introduction to the subject for non-specialists, while also offering considerable depth and detail for more advanced readers.

Protagoras and the Challenge of Relativism

Plato's Subtlest Enemy

Author: Ugo Zilioli

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9780754660781

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 2474

In this book, Zilioli relates Protagoras' relativism with modern forms of relativism, in particular the 'robust relativism' of Joseph Margolis. He also gives an integrated account both of the perceptual relativism examined in Plato's Theatetus and the ethical or social relativism presented in the first part of Plato's Protagoras and offers an integrated and positive analysis of Protagoras' thought, rather than focusing on ancient criticisms and responses to his thought. This is a deeply scholarly work which brings much argument to bear to the claim that Protagoras was and remains Plato's subtlest philosophical enemy.

The Midwife of Platonism

Text and Subtext in Plato's Theaetetus

Author: David Sedley

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199267030

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 201

View: 363

Plato's Theaetetus is an acknowledged masterpiece, and among the most influential texts in the history of epistemology. Since antiquity it has been debated whether this dialogue was written by Plato to support his familiar metaphysical doctrines, or represents a self-distancing from these. David Sedley's book offers a via media, founded on a radical separation of the author, Plato, from his main speaker, Socrates. The dialogue, it is argued, is addressed to readersfamiliar with Plato's mature doctrines, and sets out to show how these doctrines, far from being an abandonment of his Socratic heritage, are its natural outcome. The Socrates portrayed here is the same Socrates as already portrayed in Plato's early dialogues. While not a Platonist, he is exhibited - to put it interms of an image made famous by this dialogue - as having been Platonism's midwife. In a comprehensive rereading of the text, Sedley tracks the ways in which Socrates is shown unwittingly preparing the ground for Plato's mature doctrines, and reinterprets the dialogue's individual arguments from this perspective. The book is addressed to all readers interested in Plato, and does not require knowledge of Greek.

Preface to Plato

Author: Eric A. HAVELOCK

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674038436

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 342

View: 8649


Belief and Truth

A Skeptic Reading of Plato

Author: Katja Maria Vogt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199916810

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 692

Belief and Truth: A Skeptic Reading of Plato explores a Socratic intuition about belief, doxa — belief is "shameful." In aiming for knowledge, one must aim to get rid of beliefs. Vogt shows how deeply this proposal differs from contemporary views, but that it nevertheless speaks to intuitions we are likely to share with Plato, ancient skeptics, and Stoic epistemologists.

Ancient Epistemology

Author: Lloyd P. Gerson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521871395

Category: History

Page: 179

View: 7629

Explores ancient accounts of the nature of knowledge and belief from Socrates' predecessors up to the Platonists of late antiquity.

Form Without Matter

Empedocles and Aristotle on Color Perception

Author: Mark Eli Kalderon

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717903

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 8964

Mark Eli Kalderon presents an original study of perception, taking as its starting point a puzzle in Empedocles' theory of vision: if perception is a mode of material assimilation, how can we perceive colours at a distance? Kalderon argues that the theory of perception offered by Aristotle in answer to the puzzle is both attractive and defensible.

The Atomists, Leucippus and Democritus

Fragments : a Text and Translation with a Commentary

Author: Leucippus,Democritus,C. C. W. Taylor

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442612126

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 9761

A new presentation of the evidence for the thought of Leucippus and Democritus, based on the original sources. Includes the Greek text of the fragments with facing English translation, notes, commentary, and complete indexes and concordances.

The Middle Included

Logos in Aristotle

Author: Ömer Aygün

Publisher: Northwestern University Press

ISBN: 0810134020

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 510

The Middle Included is the first comprehensive account of the Ancient Greek word logos in Aristotelian philosophy. Logos means many things in the Aristotelian corpus: essential formula, proportion, reason, and language. Surveying these meanings in Aristotle’s logic, physics, and ethics, Ömer Aygün persuasively demonstrates that these divers meanings of logos all refer to a basic sense of “gathering” or “inclusiveness.” In this sense, logos functions as a counterpart to a formal version of the principles of non-contradiction and of the excluded middle in his corpus. Aygün thus shifts Aristotle’s traditional image from that of the father of formal logic, classificatory thinking, and exclusion to a more nuanced image of him as a thinker of inclusion. The Middle Included also explores human language in Aristotelian philosophy. After an account of acoustic phenomena and animal communication, Aygün argues that human language for Aristotle is the ability to understand and relay both first-hand experiences and non-first-hand experiences. This definition is key to understanding many core human experiences such as science, history, news media, education, sophistry, and indeed philosophy itself. Logos is thus never associated with any other animal nor with anything divine—it remains strictly and rigorously secular, humane, and yet full of the wonder.

The Review of Metaphysics

A Philosophical Quarterly

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Metaphysics

Page: N.A

View: 9318


Ancient Philosophy

A Contemporary Introduction

Author: Christopher Shields

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136627588

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 7315

In this re-titled and substantially revised update of his Classical Philosophy (2003), Christopher Shields expands his coverage to include the Hellenistic era, and now offers an introduction to more than 1,000 years of ancient philosophy. From Thales and other Pre-Socratics through Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and on to Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Scepticism, Ancient Philosophy traces the important connections between these periods and individuals without losing sight of the novelties and dynamics unique to each. The coverage of Plato and Aristotle also has been expanded. It now includes, for example, updated coverage of Plato's allegories of the cave and the divided line and the metaphor of the sun as well as features of Plato's epistemology. Shields also adds new discussion on Aristotle's theory of virtue and his approach to the Socratic problem of akrasia, or weakness of will. In terms of its structure, Ancient Philosophy is presented so that each philosophical position receives: (1) a brief introduction, (2) a sympathetic review of its principal motivations and primary supporting arguments, and (3) a short assessment, inviting readers to evaluate its plausibility. The result is a book that brings the ancient arguments to life, making the introduction truly contemporary. It will serve as both a first stop and a well visited resource for any student of the subject. Ancient Philosophy offers a vivid picture of the ideas that flourished at philosophy's long birth and considers their relevance, both to the historical development of the Western philosophical tradition, and to philosophy today.

Protagoras of Abdera

The Man, His Measure

Author: Johannes M. van Ophuijsen,Marlein van Raalte,Peter Stork

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004251243

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 6268

Protagoras of Abdera: The Man, His Measure makes a case for the Sophist Protagoras as a philosopher in his own right, while at the same time giving due weight to the complicated doxographical situation.