Epistemology After Protagoras

Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus

Author: Mi-Kyoung Lee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199262229

Category: Philosophy

Page: 291

View: 8036

"Relativism was first formulated in Western philosophy by Protagoras in the fifth century BC. Protagoras is famous for his claim that 'man is the measure of all things'. Mi-Kyoung Lee examines this and the work of Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus"--Provided by publisher.
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Prophetic Rage

Author: Johnny Bernard Hill

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 0802869777

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 1383

In this book Johnny Bernard Hill argues that prophetic rage, or righteous anger, is a necessary response to our present culture of imperialism and nihilism. The most powerful way to resist meaninglessness, he says, is refusing to accept the realities of structural injustice, such as poverty, escalating militarism, genocide, and housing discrimination. Hill s Prophetic Rage is interdisciplinary, integrating art, music, and literature with theology. It is constructive, passionate, and provocative. Hill weaves through a myriad of creative and prophetic voices of protest -- from Jesus to W. E. B. DuBois, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and President Barack Obama -- as well as multiple approaches, including liberation theology and black religion, to reflect theologically on the nature of liberation, justice, and hope on contemporary culture.
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Protagoras and the Challenge of Relativism

Plato's Subtlest Enemy

Author: Ugo Zilioli

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317074475

Category: Philosophy

Page: 172

View: 9921

Protagoras was an important Greek thinker of the fifth century BC, the most famous of the so called Sophists, though most of what we know of him and his thought comes to us mainly through the dialogues of his strenuous opponent Plato. In this book, Ugo Zilioli offers a sustained and philosophically sophisticated examination of what is, in philosophical terms, the most interesting feature of Protagoras' thought for modern readers: his role as the first Western thinker to argue for relativism. Zilioli relates Protagoras' relativism with modern forms of relativism, in particular the 'robust relativism' of Joseph Margolis, gives an integrated account both of the perceptual relativism examined in Plato's Theaetetus and the ethical or social relativism presented in the first part of Plato's Protagoras and offers an integrated and positive analysis of Protagoras' thought, rather than focusing on ancient criticisms and responses to his thought. This is a deeply scholarly work which brings much argument to bear to the claim that Protagoras was and remains Plato's subtlest philosophical enemy.
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Alien Life and Human Purpose

A Rhetorical Examination through History

Author: Joseph Packer

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 1498513026

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 312

View: 6328

Alien Life and Human Purpose: A Rhetorical Examination through History provides a rhetorical examination of the way major historical figures connect their arguments for the absence of alien life, or “unity,” to their philosophical, religious, and ethical agendas. Although the unity myth has often existed in the background of society, shaping institutions and values, during periods where relativism gained prominence, its opponents actively wielded the unity myth as a response; Plato used the unity myth against the sophists, Anglican theologian and philosopher William Whewell against the utilitarians, co-discoverer of evolution Alfred Russell Wallace against the social Darwinists, university professors Frank J. Tipler and John D. Barrow against the postmodernists, etc. These individuals presented scientific defenses of unity and then used the “fact” of unity to claim the universe is teleological, knowable, and ordered, rather than chaotic and relativistic. This book argues that unity and its complimentary mythic function have played an important role in shaping values throughout history and more importantly continue to do so today.
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Metaepistemology and Relativism

Author: J. Carter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137336641

Category: Music

Page: 298

View: 4669

Is knowledge relative? Many academics across the humanities say that it is. However those who work in mainstream epistemology generally consider that it is not. Metaepistemology and Relativism questions whether the kind of anti-relativistic background that underlies typical projects in mainstream epistemology can on closer inspection be vindicated.
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Ancient Self-Refutation

The Logic and History of the Self-Refutation Argument from Democritus to Augustine

Author: Luca Castagnoli

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521896312

Category: History

Page: 394

View: 7163

This book-length treatment provides a unified account of what is distinctive in the ancient approach to the self-refutation argument.
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Strategies of Argument

Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic

Author: Mi-Kyoung Lee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019989048X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 384

View: 5577

This volume features fifteen new papers by an international group of scholars in ancient philosophy, with a particular focus on new work in ancient Greek and Roman ethics, epistemology, logic, and science. The papers are organized around five broad topics: Plato, Aristotle's ethics and practical reasoning, Aristotelian logic, Hellenistic ethics, and Hellenistic epistemology. Specific topics covered include the refutation of the hedonist in Plato's Philebus, the question of whether modern interpreters are right to read Plato's Timaeus as "proto-historical," Aristotle's argument concerning virtue, Aristotle's discussion of practical reasoning in the realm of ethics, Aristotle's logical theory, classification and division of goods in ancient ethical theories, and belief, appearances, and assent in Hellenistic epistemology.
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Belief and Truth

A Skeptic Reading of Plato

Author: Katja Maria Vogt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199916810

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 9456

Belief and Truth: A Skeptic Reading of Plato explores a Socratic intuition about belief, doxa — belief is "shameful." In aiming for knowledge, one must aim to get rid of beliefs. Vogt shows how deeply this proposal differs from contemporary views, but that it nevertheless speaks to intuitions we are likely to share with Plato, ancient skeptics, and Stoic epistemologists.
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The Midwife of Platonism

Text and Subtext in Plato's Theaetetus

Author: David Sedley

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199267030

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 201

View: 2866

Plato's Theaetetus is an acknowledged masterpiece, and among the most influential texts in the history of epistemology. Since antiquity it has been debated whether this dialogue was written by Plato to support his familiar metaphysical doctrines, or represents a self-distancing from these. David Sedley's book offers a via media, founded on a radical separation of the author, Plato, from his main speaker, Socrates. The dialogue, it is argued, is addressed to readersfamiliar with Plato's mature doctrines, and sets out to show how these doctrines, far from being an abandonment of his Socratic heritage, are its natural outcome. The Socrates portrayed here is the same Socrates as already portrayed in Plato's early dialogues. While not a Platonist, he is exhibited - to put it interms of an image made famous by this dialogue - as having been Platonism's midwife. In a comprehensive rereading of the text, Sedley tracks the ways in which Socrates is shown unwittingly preparing the ground for Plato's mature doctrines, and reinterprets the dialogue's individual arguments from this perspective. The book is addressed to all readers interested in Plato, and does not require knowledge of Greek.
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Preface to Plato

Author: Eric A. HAVELOCK

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674038436

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 342

View: 351

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The Legacy of Parmenides

Eleatic Monism and Later Presocratic Thought

Author: Patricia Curd

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691011820

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 9128

Parmenides of Elea was the most important and influential philosopher before Plato. Patricia Curd here reinterprets Parmenides' views and offers a new account of his relation to his predecessors and successors. On the traditional interpretation, Parmenides argues that generation, destruction, and change are unreal and that only one thing exists. He therefore rejected as impossible the scientific inquiry practiced by the earlier Presocratic philosophers. But the philosophers who came after Parmenides attempted to explain natural change and they assumed the reality of a plurality of basic entities. Thus, on the traditional interpretation, the later Presocratics either ignored or contradicted his arguments. In this book, Patricia Curd argues that Parmenides sought to reform rather than to reject scientific inquiry and offers a more coherent account of his influence on the philosophers who came after him. The Legacy of Parmenides provides a detailed examination of Parmenides' arguments, considering his connection to earlier Greek thought and how his account of what-is could serve as a model for later philosophers. It then considers the theories of those who came after him, including the Pluralists (Anaxagoras and Empedocles), the Atomists (Leucippus and Democritus), the later Eleatics (Zeno and Melissus), and the later Presocratics Philolaus of Croton and Diogenes of Apollonia. The book closes with a discussion of the importance of Parmenides' views for the development of Plato's Theory of Forms.
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The Review of Metaphysics

A Philosophical Quarterly

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Metaphysics

Page: N.A

View: 3958

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Ancient Epistemology

Author: Lloyd P. Gerson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521871395

Category: History

Page: 179

View: 1116

Explores ancient accounts of the nature of knowledge and belief from Socrates' predecessors up to the Platonists of late antiquity.
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Rhizai

Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 366

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Ancient Philosophy

A Contemporary Introduction

Author: Christopher Shields

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136627588

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 7407

In this re-titled and substantially revised update of his Classical Philosophy (2003), Christopher Shields expands his coverage to include the Hellenistic era, and now offers an introduction to more than 1,000 years of ancient philosophy. From Thales and other Pre-Socratics through Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, and on to Epicureanism, Stoicism, and Scepticism, Ancient Philosophy traces the important connections between these periods and individuals without losing sight of the novelties and dynamics unique to each. The coverage of Plato and Aristotle also has been expanded. It now includes, for example, updated coverage of Plato's allegories of the cave and the divided line and the metaphor of the sun as well as features of Plato's epistemology. Shields also adds new discussion on Aristotle's theory of virtue and his approach to the Socratic problem of akrasia, or weakness of will. In terms of its structure, Ancient Philosophy is presented so that each philosophical position receives: (1) a brief introduction, (2) a sympathetic review of its principal motivations and primary supporting arguments, and (3) a short assessment, inviting readers to evaluate its plausibility. The result is a book that brings the ancient arguments to life, making the introduction truly contemporary. It will serve as both a first stop and a well visited resource for any student of the subject. Ancient Philosophy offers a vivid picture of the ideas that flourished at philosophy's long birth and considers their relevance, both to the historical development of the Western philosophical tradition, and to philosophy today.
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Form Without Matter

Empedocles and Aristotle on Color Perception

Author: Mark Eli Kalderon

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198717903

Category: Philosophy

Page: 216

View: 4782

Mark Eli Kalderon presents an original study of perception, taking as its starting point a puzzle in Empedocles' theory of vision: if perception is a mode of material assimilation, how can we perceive colours at a distance? Kalderon argues that the theory of perception offered by Aristotle in answer to the puzzle is both attractive and defensible.
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The Atomists, Leucippus and Democritus

Fragments : a Text and Translation with a Commentary

Author: Leucippus,Democritus,C. C. W. Taylor

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442612126

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 3277

A new presentation of the evidence for the thought of Leucippus and Democritus, based on the original sources. Includes the Greek text of the fragments with facing English translation, notes, commentary, and complete indexes and concordances.
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Phronesis

Author: Donald James Allan,Joseph Bright Skemp

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Electronic journals

Page: N.A

View: 9211

Phronesis is a journal for the study of ancient Greek and Roman thought (ancient philosophy, psychology, metaphysics, epistemology and the philosophy of science and medicine) from its origins down to the end of the sixth century A.D.
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The Birth of Rhetoric

Gorgias, Plato and their Successors

Author: Robert Wardy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134757298

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 5760

What is rhetoric? Is it the capacity to persuade? Or is it 'mere' rhetoric: the ability to get others to do what the speaker wants, regardless of what they want? This is the rhetoric of ideological manipulation and political seduction. Rhetoric is for some a distinctive mode of communication; for others, whenever someone speaks, rhetoric is present. This book is devoted to helping readers understand these rival accounts, by showing how it has happened that there are so many conceptions of rhetoric. Any such approach must be rooted in classical antiquity, since our ideas of rhetoric are the product of a complicated historical process starting in ancient Greece. Greek rhetoric was born in bitter controversy. The figure of Gorgias is at the centre of that debate and of this book: he invites us to confront the terrifying, exhilarating possibility that persuasion is just power.
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Bibliographie de la philosophie

Bibliography of philosophy

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9782271064011

Category: Philosophy

Page: 235

View: 8493

L'opposition entre Foucault et Habermas a donné lieu à l'un des moments légendaires de la philosophie sociale du XXe siècle. A juste titre sans doute, puisqu'il vit s'affronter deux conceptions de la nature et des finalités d'une analyse englobante de la société moderne qui ont compté parmi les plus riches et les plus cohérentes de l'après-guerre, étendant leurs ramifications dans de multiples directions : théorie du langage, conception de la subjectivité, épistémologie des sciences humaines, philosophie morale, étude des processus de rationalisation, élucidation du statut de la critique.L'objet de cet ouvrage est d'éclairer, dans toute leur richesse et leur diversité, les enjeux du différend entre Foucault et Habermas. Passé le temps des polémiques, demeure un dossier consistant dont l'exploration s'avère aujourd'hui décisive pour toute théorie de la société qui voudra concilier la pertinence historique et politique de son propos avec la conscience des fondements comme des limites de son propre discours.
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