On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems

Author: Allan H. Frey

Publisher: R G Landes Company

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 211

View: 6801

Presents recent advances in research on the interactions of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with biological systems. The book discusses the aspects and effects of various electromagnetic fields, as well as the reaction of brain receptor systems to electromagnetic field exposure.
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Electromagnetic Interaction with Biological Systems

Author: James Lin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468480596

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 5097

Ever since the early 1940's, electromagnetic energy in the nonionizing spectrum has contributed to the enhanced quality of life in a variety of ways. Aside from their well-known roles in communication, entertainment, industry and science, electromagnetic energy has come into wide spread use in biology and medicine. In addition to the intended purposes, these energies produce other effects which have been shown to influence the life processes of living organisms. It is noteworthy that these energies are not only harmless in ordinary quantities but are actually necessary for modern life, indeed without which life as we know it would be impossible. The purpose of this book is to present a succinct summary of the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems as they are now known. The subject matter is interdisciplinary and is based primarily on presentations scheduled for a joint symposium at the XXII General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science, held in Tel Aviv, Israel from Tuesday, August 25 to Wednesday, September 2, 1987. The symposium was jointly sponsored by the Bioelectromagnetics Society in cooperation with the International Radiation Protection Association. The choice of topics was made to facilitate the application and to stimulate the use of nonioni zing electromagnetic energy in biology and medicine, and to increase the awareness and to promote the consideration of radiation safety by electrical engineers and experimental physicists.
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Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems

Author: James C. Lin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439860629

Category: Medical

Page: 458

View: 9758

As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosimetry or coupling of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields into biological systems and the historical developments and recent trends in numerical dosimetry Mobile communication devices and the dosimetry or coupling of radiofrequency (RF) radiation into the human body Exposure and dosimetry associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy Available data on the interaction of terahertz radiation with biological tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules There is great potential for communication, industrial, scientific, and medical use of electromagnetic fields and radiation. To help advance knowledge of the biological effects of such fields and to exploit their potential medical applications, this book highlights critical issues relating to their effects on living systems.
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Biological Effects of Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields

Author: S. Ueno

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585316619

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 5261

The International Symposium on Biological Effects of Magnetic and Electrom- netic Fields was held from September 3-4, 1993 at Kyushu University in Fukuoka . Japan . Originally, it was only intended to be an informal gathering of many scientists who had accepted my invitation to visit Kyushu University after the XXIVth General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), held in Kyoto prior to our symposium . However, since so many distinguished scientists were able to come, it was decided that a more formal symposium would be possible . It was a very productive symposium and, as a result, many of the guests consented that it would be a good idea to gather all the information put forth at the meeting and have it published. In addition, although they were unfortunately unable to attend the symposium . many other distinguished scientists had also expressed their wish to contribute to this effort and, in so doing. help to increase understanding in this, as yet, relatively immature field of science . The question of both positive and negative effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on biological systems has become more and more important in our world today as they .
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Electromagnetic Environments and Health in Buildings

Author: Derek Clements-Croome

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415316569

Category: Architecture

Page: 535

View: 1087

With increasing use of mobile phones and VDUs, levels of background radiation and electromagnetism are rising, particularly in the workplace and also in the home. To some extent this is unavoidable, but the level of dangers is unclear: is it trivially small, moderate or high? What are the risks of illness, and how can these be reduced to minimal or tolerable levels? Are some people more vulnerable than others? What can or should employers, building engineers and designers, product designers, workers and other members of the public do? This book, of which the chapters derive from presentations given by distinguished authorities at a major international conference, aims to present sound technical information on the whole range of key issues in a clear and accessible way.
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Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition - 2 Volume Set

Author: Charles Polk,Elliot Postow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849306419

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 618

View: 7656

The first edition of this book has been recognized as the standard reference on biological effects of electric and magnetic fields from DC to microwaves. But much has changed in this science since the book's original publication in 1986. With contributions from eighteen leading researchers, this latest edition includes authoritative discussions of many new developments and will quickly become the new, must-have resource handbook. Dielectric properties of biological tissue are thoroughly examined, followed by chapters on physical mechanisms and biological effects of static and extremely low frequency magnetic fields. New chapters on topics that were treated very briefly in the first edition now receive extensive treatment. These topics include electric and magnetic fields for bone and soft tissue repair, electroporation, and epidemiology of ELF health effects. The chapter on computer methods for predicting field intensity has been substantially revised to describe new numerical techniques developed within the last few years and includes calculations of power absorbed in the human head from cellular telephones. The chapter discussing experimental results on RF interaction with living matter now contains information on effects of very high power, very short duration pulses. A new appendix on safety standards is based on the latest publications of governmental, as well as quasi-governmental organizations (such as the U.S. Council on Radiation Protection) in the United States, Europe, and Australia. With all its revisions, this updated version of the CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields provides the most comprehensive overview available of this rapidly changing science.
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Bioeffects and Therapeutic Applications of Electromagnetic Energy

Author: Riadh Habash

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420062854

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 2587

From cell phones to treating cancer, EM energy plays a part in many of the innovations that we take for granted everyday. A basic force of nature, like nuclear energy or gravity, this energy can be harnessed and used, but still holds the potential to be harmful. The question remains, how safe are EM products? Bioeffects and Therapeutic Applications of Electromagnetic Energy provides a review of cutting-edge research in EM health effects and EM therapy along with emerging areas of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book allows you to · Understand the necessary EM theory in the context of its interaction with the human body · Review cutting-edge research on EM health effects and EM therapy · Explore techniques developed to ensure adequate EM and thermal dosimetry required for health effects and thermal therapy · Strengthen your understanding of the rapidly emerging areas of bioengineering and biomedical engineering Taking a transdisciplinary approach drawn from several intellectual streams that include physics, epidemiology, medicine, environment, risk assessment, and various disciplines of engineering, this book ventures into the conflicting studies to access research on bioeffects and therapeutic applications of EM energy. It is the only resource currently available that covers bioeffects and risk assessment of both extremely low frequency (ELF) fields and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) along with the recent developments in thermal therapy and imaging techniques.
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The Physical Basis of Electromagnetic Interactions with Biological Systems

Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, June 15-17, 1977

Author: Leonard S. Taylor,Augustine Y. Cheung

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biophysics

Page: 400

View: 4414

The wide application of industrial, commercial and military devices and systems which radiate frequencies in the radiofrequency and microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum plus numerous only partially understood indications of microwave effects upon living organisms have raised important questions of the physical basis of the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These questions must be answered if the development of regulatory standards and of methods and techniques for controlling radiofrequency and microwave exposure is to be achieved. The same questions must be answered in connection with present and proposed therapeutic applications of these waves. The rapid increase in the use of these frequencies makes these questions matters of imperative concern, particularly in view of the possibilities of cumulative or delayed effects of exposure. The purpose of the Workshop on the Physical Basis of Electromagnetic Interactions with Biological Systems was to bring together the leading investigators in the field to present the results of recent research, to determine the present status of the field and the priority of significant problem areas, and to critically evaluate conflicting theoretical interpretations and experimental techniques.
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Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields

Author: Frank S. Barnes,Ben Greenebaum

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142000946X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 476

View: 362

Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields examines potential health hazards, exposure standards, and medical applications of electromagnetic (EM) fields. The second volume in the bestselling and newly revisedHandbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition, this book draws from the latest studies on the effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields. In addition to extensive reviews of physiological effects, the book contains now separate reviews of behavioral and cognitive responses to various exposures. The book also describes an approach to setting standards for exposure limits and explores a few of the beneficial uses of EM fields in medical applications, both diagnostics and in treatment. Biological and Medical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields provides a practical overview of the experiments and methods used to observe ELF and RF fields and the possible useful and hazardous implications of these observations.
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Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields

Author: Ben Greenebaum,Frank S. Barnes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420009478

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 440

View: 6065

Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields primarily contains discussions on the physics, engineering, and chemical aspects of electromagnetic (EM) fields at both the molecular level and larger scales, and investigates their interactions with biological systems. The first volume of the bestselling and newly updated Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Third Edition, this book adds material describing recent theoretical developments, as well as new data on material properties and interactions with weak and strong static magnetic fields. Newly separated and expanded chapters describe the external and internal electromagnetic environments of organisms and recent developments in the use of RF fields for imaging. Bioengineering and Biophysical Aspects of Electromagnetic Fields provides an accessible overview of the current understanding on the scientific underpinnings of these interactions, as well as a partial introduction to experiments on the interactions themselves.
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Basic Introduction to Bioelectromagnetics, Second Edition

Author: Cynthia Furse,Douglas A. Christensen,Carl H. Durney

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420055436

Category: Medical

Page: 288

View: 3774

Although classical electromagnetic (EM) field theory is typically embedded in vector calculus and differential equations, many of the basic concepts and characteristics can be understood with precursory mathematical knowledge. Completely revised and updated, Basic Introduction to Bioelectromagnetics, Second Edition facilitates the process of interdisciplinary research by introducing life scientists to the basic concepts of EM fields. This new edition outlines elements of EM that are helpful to life scientists working with physicists and electrical engineers. Each concept is presented with an associated application and discussion. Example applications include hyperthermia, neural stimulation, MRI, NMR, ultrasound, and cardiac pacing/defibrillation. With the liberal use of diagrams and graphs, this qualitative and illustrative point of access: Covers the entire frequency spectrum from direct current (DC) up through optical frequencies Includes more than 200 illustrations with 40 medical applications Incorporates examples from real applications to explain concepts Concentrates on the qualitative explanation of the key concepts, fundamental principles, and characteristic behaviors of EM fields, without mathematical rigor Offers practical rules of thumb to understand real situations Requires only an algebra background, in contrast to typical EM books that require vector calculus and partial differential equations Offering a simplified view of a very complex subject, this second edition provides an accessible introduction for life scientists and medical technologists on how EM fields work, what controls them, and the factors important to experimental setups.
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Electrostimulation

Theory, Applications, and Computational Model

Author: J. Patrick Reilly,Alan M. Diamant

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 160807109X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 1092

Electrostimulation is defined as the action of electrical energy on nerve and muscle OCo the two classes of excitable tissue. This cutting-edge resource offers you broad coverage of the subject, expanding the scope of electrostimulation discussions to include accidental, aversive, and possibly harmful biological effects of electrical energy. The book enables you to develop standards for human exposure to electric currents having various waveforms, determine classes of nerve fibers brought to excitation within specified regions of the body due to certain types of exposure, and quantify how harmonic distortions influence the excitability of sinusoidal extrostimulation. This practical reference also offers guidance in using the SENN (Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node) computer model that simulates the interaction of applied electric energy with myelinated neurons.Moreover, you learn how to compare efficacy and hazard potential of various stun weapons, assess unintended nerve stimulation from MRI exposure of patients with metallic implants, and compare the safety margins between electrostimulation thresholds of sensory and motor neurons relative to unintended cardiac excitation or painful sensory responses."
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Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation

Human Bioeffects and Safety

Author: Riadh W.Y. Habash

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351830279

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 424

View: 6317

This reference explores the sources, characteristics, bioeffects, and health hazards of extremely low-frequency (ELF) fields and radio frequency radiation (RFR), analyzing current research as well as the latest epidemiological studies to assess potential risks associated with exposure and to develop effective safety guidelines. Compiles reports and investigations from four decades of study on the effect of nonionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation on human health Summarizing modern engineering approaches to control exposure, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation discusses: EM interaction mechanisms in biological systems Explorations into the impact of EM fields on free radicals, cells, tissues, organs, whole organisms, and the population Regulatory standards in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia Pacific Evaluation of incident fields from various EM sources Measurement surveys for various sites including power lines, substations, mobile systems, cellular base stations, broadcast antennas, traffic radar devices, heating equipment, and other sources Dosimetry techniques for the determination of internal EM fields Conclusions reached by the Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization, and other institutions
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Electromagnetic Fields, Environment and Health

Author: Anne Perrin,Martine Souques

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 2817803639

Category: Medical

Page: 169

View: 2207

A good number of misconceptions are currently circulating on the effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous assumptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply validated and easily understandable scientific information on the electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects. After a general review of the physics of the waves and a presentation of non-ionizing radiations, the authors review the main emission sources encountered in our daily environment. They summarize simply but as accurately as possible the current knowledge on their biological effects. The safety limits recommended by international organizations are presented for the different frequency ranges. This book is intended for doctors, teachers, scientists, students, policy makers and anyone else interested in a deeper understanding of the health effects of electromagnetic fields. Intended to serve a broad readership, everyone will approach it according to their respective level of curiosity and knowledge. It is neither an exhaustive inventory of all the studies made to date, nor a survey text focusing only on some chosen studies. Nor is the objective to present all the sources of non-ionizing radiations. Interested readers will be given the opportunity to broaden their knowledge, also by consulting the selected bibliography presented by the authors at the end of each chapter.
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Mobile Communications Safety

Author: N. Kuster,Q. Balzano,James C. Lin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412750007

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 4611

Recently, there has been interest by regulators, the public and the manufacturers of wireless devices in the issues relating to the safety of radio frequency (RF) energy. These issues require an understanding of the scientific underpinnings of both physics of RF energy and cellular biology. This book is designed to provide precisely such cross-functional expertise. The editors of this book intend to provide a reliable source for a sound scientific understanding of the issues and to stimulate future scientific advances in this area. Therefore, the audience for this book includes such diverse groups as scientists, governmental policy-makers and regulatory bodies, representatives of industry and the public at large.
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Mechanistic Approaches to Interactions of Electric and Electromagnetic Fields with Living Systems

Author: Martin Blank,E. Findl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489919686

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 9923

Although there is general agreement that exogenous electric and electromagnetic fields influence and modulate the properties of biological systems. there is no concensus regarding the mechanisms by which such fields operate. It is the purpose of this volume to bring together and examine critically the mechanistic models and concepts that have been proposed. We have chosen to arrange the papers in terms of the level of biological organization emphasized by the contributors. Some papers overlap categories. but the progression from ions and membrane surfaces. through macromolecules and the membrane matrix to integrated systems. establishes a mechanistic chain of causality that links the basic interactions in the relatively well understood simple systems to the complex living systems. where all effects occur simultaneously. The backgrounds of the invited contributors include biochemistry. biophysics. cell biology. electrical engineering. electrochemistry. electrophysiology. medicine and physical chemistry. As a result of this diversity. the mechanistic models reflect the differing approaches used by these disciplines to explain the same phenomena. Areas of agreement define the common ground. while the areas of divergence provide opportunities for refining our ideas through further experimentation. To facilitate the interaction between the different points of view, the authors have clearly indicated those published observations that they are trying to explain. i.e. the experiments that have been critical in their thinking. This should establish a concensus regarding important observations. In the discussion of theories.
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Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics, Second Edition

Author: Matthew N.O. Sadiku

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849313950

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 760

View: 777

As the availability of powerful computer resources has grown over the last three decades, the art of computation of electromagnetic (EM) problems has also grown - exponentially. Despite this dramatic growth, however, the EM community lacked a comprehensive text on the computational techniques used to solve EM problems. The first edition of Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics filled that gap and became the reference of choice for thousands of engineers, researchers, and students. The Second Edition of this bestselling text reflects the continuing increase in awareness and use of numerical techniques and incorporates advances and refinements made in recent years. Most notable among these are the improvements made to the standard algorithm for the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and treatment of absorbing boundary conditions in FDTD, finite element, and transmission-line-matrix methods. The author also added a chapter on the method of lines. Numerical Techniques in Electromagnetics continues to teach readers how to pose, numerically analyze, and solve EM problems, give them the ability to expand their problem-solving skills using a variety of methods, and prepare them for research in electromagnetism. Now the Second Edition goes even further toward providing a comprehensive resource that addresses all of the most useful computation methods for EM problems.
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Antennas and Propagation for Body-Centric Wireless Communications, Second Edition

Author: Peter S. Hall,Yang Hao

Publisher: Artech House

ISBN: 1608073769

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 387

View: 8988

Now in a newly updated and revised edition, this timely resource provides you with complete and current details on the theory, design, and applications of wireless antennas for on-body electronic systems. the Second Edition offers readers brand new material on advances in physical phantom design and production, recent developments in simulation methods and numerical phantoms, descriptions of methods for simulation of moving bodies, and the use of the body as a transmission channel. You also find a completely revised chapter on channel characterization and antenna design at microwave frequencies. This cutting-edge volume brings you the state-of-the-art in existing applications like Bluetooth headsets together with detailed treatment of techniques, tools, and challenges in developing on-body antennas for an array of medical, emergency response, law enforcement, personal entertainment, and military applications on the horizon. the book briefs you on energy propagation around and into the body and how to estimate performance of on-body wireless links, and then dives into the nuts-and-bolts of designing antenna systems that deliver the goods. It covers on-body communication channels at microwave frequency bands and at low frequency bands, as well as ultra wideband systems for WPANs and WBANs. You get details on body-centric UWB antennas and channels, as well as advances in wearable mobile, EBG, and "smart fabric" antennas for cellular and WLAN communications. Chapters on telemedicine applications, such as remote diagnoses, and implantable medical devices cover crucial propagation issues and other obstacles that need to be addressed. Rounding out the coverage is a section on antenna design for body-sensor networks and their emerging military and space applications. Packed with hands-on guidance from noted experts, this volume will be indispensable for your efforts in designing and improving body-centric communication systems.
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