Ecology of Desert Systems

Author: Walter G. Whitford

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080504995

Category: Science

Page: 343

View: 6555

Conventional wisdom considers deserts stark, harsh regions that support few living things. Most people also believe that water alone makes the desert bloom. Ecology of Desert Systems challenges these conventional views. This volume explores a broad range of topics of interest to ecosystem, population, community, and physiological ecologists. Climate, weather patterns, geomorphology, and wind and water processes are examined as variables that affect the distribution of biota through fundamental ecosystem processes. Descriptions of morphological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations of desert biota illuminate, through the lens of patch dynamics, principles for understanding observed patterns of primary production, nutrient cycling, and the effects of consumers. Desertification, and the techniques for monitoring and quantifying it, is examined within the framework of desert ecosystem patterns and processes. * Focuses on the interactions of climate, soil, and biota along a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales * Details the role of animals in desert ecosystems and landscape processes * Examines watershed scale processes, the ecology of ephemeral lakes, and the ecological changes identified with desertification * Outlines the fundamental concepts relevant to sustainable development of arid lands
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Ecology of Desert Systems

Author: Walter G. Whitford

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780127472614

Category: Nature

Page: 343

View: 5027

Conventional wisdom considers deserts stark, harsh regions that support few living things. Most people also believe that water alone makes the desert bloom. Ecology of Desert Systems challenges these conventional views. This volume explores a broad range of topics of interest to ecosystem, population, community, and physiological ecologists. Climate, weather patterns, geomorphology, and wind and water processes are examined as variables that affect the distribution of biota through fundamental ecosystem processes. Descriptions of morphological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations of desert biota illuminate, through the lens of patch dynamics, principles for understanding observed patterns of primary production, nutrient cycling, and the effects of consumers. Desertification, and the techniques for monitoring and quantifying it, is examined within the framework of desert ecosystem patterns and processes. * Focuses on the interactions of climate, soil, and biota along a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales * Details the role of animals in desert ecosystems and landscape processes * Examines watershed scale processes, the ecology of ephemeral lakes, and the ecological changes identified with desertification * Outlines the fundamental concepts relevant to sustainable development of arid lands
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The Ecology of Desert Communities

Author: Gary A. Polis

Publisher: Century Collection

ISBN: 9780816535392

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 6436

"Provides interesting and thought-provoking reading and is highly recommended to anyone interested in desert ecosystems or community ecology. The book . . . should serve as an inspiration to many for future research."--Journal of Biogeography "This book is not just about deserts; it is an update of the contributions that research in desert systems is making to community ecology. . . This book will provide a useful reference for desert ecologists, as well as indicate critical directions where progress needs to be made."--Ecology "This important book fills a significant gap in previous syntheses by presenting a detailed series of reviews of current understanding of community patterns and structure in desert environments. . . . Each chapter is thorough and well written and . . . closes with a discussion of suggested future research. . . . [T]hese ideas will do much to focus interest on the importance of desert systems in understanding community. Thus, this book has interest well beyond desert ecologists alone."--BioScience "Valuable reading and reference for ecology students, teachers and researchers."--Quarterly Review of Biology
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Desert Ecology

An Introduction to Life in the Arid Southwest

Author: John Sowell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 193

View: 8034

"Unlike books that merely identify which plants and animals live in the desert, Desert Ecology explores how these organisms live where they do.
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Ecology of Desert Rivers

Author: Richard Kingsford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521818257

Category: Nature

Page: 354

View: 1530

Summarises current understanding of desert river ecology and its dependence on unpredictable river flows.
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Structure and Function of a Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem

The Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Site

Author: Kris M. Havstad,Laura F. Huenneke,William H. Schlesinger

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195344271

Category: Science

Page: 492

View: 8873

The Jornada Basin LTER is located in the Chihuahuan Desert, the largest in North America. This region of south central New Mexico has a history of nearly 100 years as the basis for scientific research. This work gives a thorough, encompassing review of the tremendous array of observations resulting from experiments conducted in this ecosystem. Beginning with thorough descriptions of the most salient features of the region, the book then reviews a wide range of archived and active data sets on a diversity of biotic and abiotic features. It next presents a syntheses of important topics including livestock grazing and remediation efforts. A concluding chapter provides a synthesis of the principles that have emerged from this body of work, and how these relate to the broader fields of ecology and natural resource management. It concludes with recommendations for future research directions. The insightful views expressed in this volume should guide management of arid landscapes globally. This is the sixth volume in the Long Term Ecological Network Series.
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The Biology of Deserts

Author: David Ward

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198732759

Category:

Page: 416

View: 2169

This book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to desert ecology and adopts a strong evolutionary focus. As with other titles in the Biology of Habitats Series, the emphasis in the book is on the organisms that dominate this harsh environment, although theoretical and experimental aspects are also discussed. In this updated second edition, there is a greater focus on the effects of climate change and some of its likely effects on deserts, seeing desertification as among the most serious results of climate change, leading ultimately to the increasing size of arid and semi-arid regions. The Biology of Deserts Second Edition includes a wide range of ecological and evolutionary issues including morphological and physiological adaptations of desert plants and animals, species interactions, the importance of predation and parasitism, food webs, biodiversity, and conservation. It features a balance of plant and animal (both invertebrate and vertebrate) examples, and also emphasizes topical applied issues such as desertification and invasive species. The book concludes by considering the positive aspects of desert conservation. This accessible textbook is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professional ecologists, conservation practitioners, and resource managers working in the field of desert ecology.
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Author: Bernard C. Patten

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483262774

Category: Science

Page: 606

View: 596

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume II, concludes the original concept for Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, and at the same time initiates a continuing series under the same title. The original idea, in 1968, was to draw together a collection of systems ecology articles as a convenient benchmark to the state of this emerging new field and as a stimulus to broader interest. These purposes will continue to motivate the series in highlighting, from time to time, accomplishments, trends, and prospects. The present volume is organized into four parts. Part I outlines for ecologists the concepts upon which systems science as a discipline is built. Part II presents example applications of systems analysis methods to ecosystems. Part III is devoted to new theory, including an investigation into the feasibility of several nonlinear formulations for use in compartment modeling of ecosystems; and the important topic of connectivity in systems. Part IV presents a sampling of systems ecology applications. It provides a reasonably balanced and accurate picture of the practical capability of ecological systems analysis and simulation. Performance does not come up to publicity, but prospects for rapid improvement are good given a willingness to let pragmatism guide sound scientific development without demanding unrealistic short-term successes.
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Ecology and Natural History of Desert Lizards

Analyses of the Ecological Niche and Community Structure

Author: Eric R. Pianka

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400886147

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 6903

Eric Pianka offers a synthesis of his life's work on the comparative ecology of lizard assemblages in the Great Basin. Mojave and Sonoran deserts of western North America, the Kalahari semi-desert of southern Africa, and the Great Victoria desert of Western Australia. Originally published in 1986. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
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Encyclopedia of Deserts

Author: Michael A. Mares,Oklahoma Museum of Natural History (Norman, Okla.)

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 0806131462

Category: Nature

Page: 654

View: 6652

Encyclopedia of Deserts represents a milestone: it is the first comprehensive reference to the first comprehensive reference to deserts and semideserts of the world. Approximately seven hundred entries treat subjects ranging from desert survival to the way deserts are formed. Topics include biology (birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, invertebrates, plants, bacteria, physiology, evolution), geography, climatology, geology, hydrology, anthropology, and history. The thirty-seven contributors, including volume editor Michael A. Mares, have had extensive careers in deserts research, encompassing all of the world’s arid and semiarid regions. The Encyclopedia opens with a subject list by topic, an organizational guide that helps the reader grasp interrelationships and complexities in desert systems. Each entry concludes with cross-references to other entries in the volume, inviting the reader to embark on a personal expedition into fascinating, previously unknown terrain. In addition a list of important readings facilitates in-depth study of each topic. An exhaustive index permits quick access to places, topics, and taxonomic listings of all plants and animals discussed. More than one hundred photographs, drawings, and maps enhance our appreciation of the remarkable life, landforms, history, and challenges of the world’s arid land.
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Ecology of North America

Author: Brian R. Chapman,Eric G. Bolen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111897154X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3209

North America contains an incredibly diverse array of natural environments, each supporting unique systems of plant and animal life. These systems, the largest of which are biomes, form intricate webs of life that have taken millennia to evolve. This richly illustrated book introduces readers to this extraordinary array of natural communities and their subtle biological and geological interactions. Completely revised and updated throughout, the second edition of this successful text takes a qualitative, intuitive approach to the subject, beginning with an overview of essential ecological terms and concepts, such as competitive exclusion, taxa, niches, and succession. It then goes on to describe the major biomes and communities that characterize the rich biota of the continent, starting with the Tundra and continuing with Boreal Forest, Deciduous Forest, Grasslands, Deserts, Montane Forests, and Temperature Rain Forest, among others. Coastal environments, including the Laguna Madre, seagrasses, Chesapeake Bay, and barrier islands appear in a new chapter. Additionally, the book covers many unique features such as pitcher plant bogs, muskeg, the polar ice cap, the cloud forests of Mexico, and the LaBrea tar pits. “Infoboxes” have been added; these include biographies of historical figures who provided significant contributions to the development of ecology, unique circumstances such as frogs and insects that survive freezing, and conservation issues such as those concerning puffins and island foxes. Throughout the text, ecological concepts are worked into the text; these include biogeography, competitive exclusion, succession, soil formation, and the mechanics of natural selection. Ecology of North America 2e is an ideal first text for students interested in natural resources, environmental science, and biology, and it is a useful and attractive addition to the library of anyone interested in understanding and protecting the natural environment.
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Aridland Springs in North America

Ecology and Conservation

Author: Lawrence E. Stevens,Vicky J. Meretsky

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816526451

Category: Nature

Page: 406

View: 3990

A collection of articles on the ecology of North American desert springs, by authors from the fields of biology, botany, ichthyology, conservation, geology and law; and covering both the special traits of springs and the ways in which they might be managed in order to survive.
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Nonlinear Physics of Ecosystems

Author: Ehud Meron

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439826323

Category: Nature

Page: 359

View: 5457

Nonlinear Physics of Ecosystems introduces the concepts and tools of pattern formation theory and demonstrates their utility in ecological research using problems from spatial ecology. Written in language understandable to both physicists and ecologists in most parts, the book reveals the mechanisms of pattern formation and pattern dynamics. It also explores the implications of these mechanisms in important ecological problems. The first part of the book gives an overview of pattern formation and spatial ecology, showing how these disparate research fields are strongly related to one another. The next part presents an advanced account of pattern formation theory. The final part describes applications of pattern formation theory to ecological problems, including self-organized vegetation patchiness, desertification, and biodiversity in changing environments. Focusing on the emerging interface between spatial ecology and pattern formation, this book shows how pattern formation methods address a variety of ecological problems using water-limited ecosystems as a case study. Readers with basic knowledge of linear algebra and ordinary differential equations will develop a general understanding of pattern formation theory while more advanced readers who are familiar with partial differential equations will appreciate the descriptions of analytical tools used to study pattern formation and dynamics.
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Spatializing the History of Ecology

Sites, Journeys, Mappings

Author: Raf De Bont

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351750925

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1203

Throughout its history, the discipline of ecology has always been profoundly entangled with the history of space and place. On the one hand, ecology is a field science that has thrived on the study of concrete spatial entities, such as islands, forests or rivers. These spaces are the workplaces in which ecological phenomena are identified, observed and experimented on. They provide both epistemic opportunities and constraints that structure the agenda and the analytical sensibilities of ecological researchers. On the other hand, ecological knowledge and practices have become important resources through which spaces and places are classified, delineated, explained, experienced and managed. The impact of these activities reaches far beyond the realms of the ecological discipline. Many ecological concepts such as "biotopes," "ecosystems" and "the biosphere" have become entities that widely resonate in public life and policy making. This book explores the mutual entanglement between space and knowledge-making in the history of ecology. Its first goal is to explore to which extent a spatial perspective can shed new light on the history of ecological science. Second, it uses ecology as a critical site to gain broader insights into the history of the environment in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Via a series of case studies - discussing topics that range from ecological field stations in the early-twentieth century Caribbean over wisent breeding in Nazi Germany to computer modelling in North American deserts - the book offers a tour through the changing landscapes of modern ecology.
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Desert Plants

Biology and Biotechnology

Author: Kishan Gopal Ramawat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642025501

Category: Science

Page: 503

View: 9903

Deserts appear very fascinating during our short visits. However, the lives of plants and animals are very dif?cult under the harsh climatic conditions of high tempe- ture and scant water supply in deserts, sometimes associated with high concent- tions of salt. The editor of this book was born and brought up in the Great Indian Desert, and has spent much of his life studying the growth and metabolism of desert plants. It is very charming on a cool summer evening to sit at the top of a sand dune listening only to blowing air and nothing else. It has been my dream to prepare a volume on desert plants encompassing various aspects of desert plant biology. In this book, I have tried to present functional and useful aspects of the vegetation resources of deserts along with scienti?c input aimed at understanding and impr- ing the utility of these plants. The scant vegetation of deserts supports animal life and provides many useful medicines, timber and fuel wood for humans. Therefore, there are chapters devoted to medicinal plants (Chap. 1), halophytes (Chaps. 13, 14), and fruit plants (Chaps. 17, 20). Desert plants have a unique reproductive biology (Chaps. 9–11), well-adapted eco-physiological and anatomical charact- istics (Chap. 7), and specialised metabolism and survival abilities. These plants are dif?cult to propagate and pose many problems to researchers developing biote- nological approaches for their amelioration (Chaps. 18–20).
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Management of Semi-Arid Ecosystems

Author: B.H. Walker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444599975

Category: Nature

Page: 409

View: 754

Extensive regions of the world have a climate which, whilst permitting development of a continuous vegetative cover, is too dry for successful annual cropping. These are the semi-arid areas where land use is based on the natural vegetation. Easily degraded and difficult to maintain, they are under increasing pressure as expanding human populations move in and endeavour to force a living from them. As a result they contain some of the worst examples of resource degradation. This book examines the problems and opportunities involved in man's use of semi-arid areas. The authors are all actively involved in research and land management in the areas discussed. Each chapter begins with a detailed, up-to-date account of the ecology of the region (its climate, soils, vegetation, fauna and main ecological characteristics). This is followed by a history of land use, problems involved in its management, a review of current research and recommended land use practices. The common features of semi-arid ecosystems are brought together in a final section.
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Microbial Ecology of Arid Terrestrial Systems

Author: Thulani P. Makhalanyane,Don Cowan,Jean-Baptiste Ramond

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 288919969X

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 4411

Water is usually referred to as the ‘Molecule of Life’. It constitutes the most abundant molecule in living (micro)organisms and is also essential for critical biochemical reactions, both for the global functioning and maintenance of Ecosystems (e.g., Photosynthesis) and individual (microbial) cells (e.g., ATP hydrolysis). However, most of Earth’s terrestrial environments present deficiencies in bioavailable water. Arid environments cover around a third of the land’s surface, are found on the six continents and, with the anthropogenic desertification phenomenon, will increase. Commonly defined by having a ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P/PET) below 1, arid environments, being either hot or cold, are characterized by scant and erratic plant growth and low densities in macro-fauna. Consequently, these ecosystems are microbially mediated with microbial communities particularly driving the essential Na and C biogeochemical cycles. Due to the relatively simple trophic structure of these biomes, arid terrestrial environments have subsequently been used as ideal ecosystems to capture and model interactions in edaphic microbial communities. To date, we have been able to demonstrate that edaphic microorganisms (i.e., Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses) in arid environments are abundant, highly diverse, different from those of other terrestrial systems (both in terms of diversity and function), and are important for the stability and productivity of these ecosystems. Moreover, arid terrestrial systems are generally considered Mars-like environments. Thus, they have been the favored destination for astro(micro)biologists aiming to better understand life’s potential distribution and adaptation strategies in the Universe and develop terraforming approaches. Altogether, these points demonstrate the importance of significantly improving our knowledge in the microbial community composition (particularly for Fungi, Archaea and Viruses), assembly processes and functional potentials of arid terrestrial systems, as well as their adaptation mechanisms to aridity (and generally to various other environmental stresses). This Research Topic was proposed to provide further insights on the microbial ecology of hot and cold arid edaphic systems. We provide a detailed review and nine research articles, spanning hot and cold deserts, edaphic, rhizospheric, BSC and endolithic environments as well as culture-dependent and -independant approaches.
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Desert Puma

Evolutionary Ecology And Conservation Of An Enduring Carnivore

Author: Kenneth A. Logan,Linda L. Sweanor

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 1610910583

Category: Nature

Page: 464

View: 2250

Scientists and conservationists are beginning to understand the importance of top carnivores to the health and integrity of fully functioning ecosystems. As burgeoning human populations continue to impinge on natural landscapes, the need for understanding carnivore populations and how we affect them is becoming increasingly acute.Desert Puma represents one of the most detailed assessments ever produced of the biology and ecology of a top carnivore. The husband-and-wife team of Kenneth Logan and Linda Sweanor set forth extensive data gathered from their ten-year field study of pumas in the Chihuahua Desert of New Mexico, also drawing on other reliable scientific data gathered throughout the puma's geographic range. Chapters examine: the evolutionary and modern history of pumas, their taxonomy, and physical description a detailed description and history of the study area in the Chihuahua Desert field techniques that were used in the research puma population dynamics and life history strategies the implications of puma behavior and social organization the relationships of pumas and their preyThe authors provide important new information about both the biology of pumas and their evolutionary ecology -- not only what pumas do, but why they do it. Logan and Sweanor explain how an understanding of puma evolutionary ecology can, and must, inform long-term conservation strategies. They end the book with their ideas regarding strategies for puma management and conservation, along with a consideration of the future of pumas and humans. Desert Puma makes a significant and original contribution to the science not only of pumas in desert ecosystems but of the role of top predators in all environments. It is an essential contribution to the bookshelf of any wildlife biologist or conservationist involved in large-scale land management or wildlife management.
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Ecology and Conservation of the San Pedro River

Author: Juliet C. Stromberg,Barbara Tellman

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816527526

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 4025

contributors - biologists, ecologists, geomorphologists, historians, hydrologists, lawyers, and political scientists - weave together threads from their diverse perspectives to reveal the processes that shape the past, present, and future of the San Pedro's riparian and aquatic ecosystems. They review the biological communities of the San Pedro and the stream hydrology and geomorphology that affects its riparian biota. They then look at conservation and management challenges along three sections of the San Pedro, from its headwaters in Mexico in its confluence with the Gila River, describing legal and policy issues and their interface with science; activities related to mitigation, conservation, and restoration; and a prognosis of the potential for sustaining the basin's riparian system." "Complemented by a foreword written by James Shuttleworth, these chapters demonstrate the complexity of the San Pedro's ecological and hydrological conditions, showing that there are no easy --
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