Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century – And After

Author: R. J. Crampton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134712219

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 2979

Covering all key Eastern European states and their history right up to the collapse of communism, this second edition of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century – And After is a comprehensive political history of Eastern Europe taking in the whole of the century and the geographical area. Focusing on the attempt to create and maintain a functioning democracy, this new edition now: examines events in Bosnia and Herzegovina includes a new consideration of the evolution of the region since the revolutions of 1989–91 surveys the development of a market economy analyzes the realignment of Eastern Europe towards the West details the emergence of organized crime discusses each state individually includes an up-to-date bibliography. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century – And After provides an accessible introduction to this key area which is invaluable to students of modern and political history.
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Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth Century Eastern Europe: History, Data and Analysis

History, Data and Analysis

Author: Piotr Eberhardt,Jan Owsinski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317470966

Category: History

Page: 712

View: 9625

This unique reference traces the changing borders and ethnic balances that characterized the history of Eastern Europe during the twentieth century. After a preliminary overview, the book divides Eastern Europe into five regions, from the Baltic to the Balkans, and closely analyzes the ethnic structure of each region's constituent units over time. Summary chapters at the end of the volume present a comprehensive ethno-demographic portrait of the region at the start of the century, between the two world wars, and from the post-World War II period to the century's end. The volume is richly illustrated with more than sixty figures, hundreds of tables, and multi-lingual indexes of place names and ethnic groups.
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Property in East Central Europe

Notions, Institutions, and Practices of Landownership in the Twentieth Century

Author: Hannes Siegrist,Dietmar Müller

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782384626

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 7252

Property is a complex phenomenon comprising cultural, social, and legal rules. During the twentieth century, property rights in land suffered massive interference in Central and Eastern Europe. The promise of universal and formally equal rights of land ownership, ensuring predictability of social processes and individual autonomy, was largely not fulfilled. The national appropriation of property in the interwar period and the communist era represent an onerous legacy for the postcommunist (re)construction of a liberal-individualist property regime. However, as the scholars in this collection show, after the demise of communism in Eastern Europe property is again a major factor in shaping individual identity and in providing the political order and culture with a foundational institution. This volume analyzes both historical and contemporary forms of land ownership in Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia in a multidisciplinary framework including economic history, legal and political studies, and social anthropology.
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The Political History of Eastern Europe in the 20th Century

The Struggle Between Democracy and Dictatorship

Author: Sten Berglund,Frank H. Aarebrot

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 196

View: 7767

The Political History of Eastern Europe in the 20th Century presents a fresh, up-to-date introduction to the struggle between democracy and dictatorship in Eastern Europe since 1900.
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Thinking the Twentieth Century

Author: Tony Judt

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 110155987X

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 3628

"Ideas crackle" in this triumphant final book of Tony Judt, taking readers on "a wild ride through the ideological currents and shoals of 20th century thought.” (Los Angeles Times) The final book of the brilliant historian and indomitable public critic Tony Judt, Thinking the Twentieth Century maps the issues and concerns of a turbulent age on to a life of intellectual conflict and engagement. The twentieth century comes to life as an age of ideas--a time when, for good and for ill, the thoughts of the few reigned over the lives of the many. Judt presents the triumphs and the failures of prominent intellectuals, adeptly explaining both their ideas and the risks of their political commitments. Spanning an era with unprecedented clarity and insight, Thinking the Twentieth Century is a tour-de-force, a classic engagement of modern thought by one of the century’s most incisive thinkers. The exceptional nature of this work is evident in its very structure--a series of intimate conversations between Judt and his friend and fellow historian Timothy Snyder, grounded in the texts of the time and focused by the intensity of their vision. Judt's astounding eloquence and range are here on display as never before. Traversing the complexities of modern life with ease, he and Snyder revive both thoughts and thinkers, guiding us through the debates that made our world. As forgotten ideas are revisited and fashionable trends scrutinized, the shape of a century emerges. Judt and Snyder draw us deep into their analysis, making us feel that we too are part of the conversation. We become aware of the obligations of the present to the past, and the force of historical perspective and moral considerations in the critique and reform of society, then and now. In restoring and indeed exemplifying the best of intellectual life in the twentieth century, Thinking the Twentieth Century opens pathways to a moral life for the twenty-first. This is a book about the past, but it is also an argument for the kind of future we should strive for: Thinking the Twentieth Century is about the life of the mind--and the mindful life.
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Gender and War in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe

Author: Nancy M. Wingfield,Maria Bucur

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253111937

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 4696

This volume explores the role of gender on both the home and fighting fronts in eastern Europe during World Wars I and II. By using gender as a category of analysis, the authors seek to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the subjective nature of wartime experience and its representations. While historians have long equated the fighting front with the masculine and the home front with the feminine, the contributors challenge these dichotomies, demonstrating that they are based on culturally embedded assumptions about heroism and sacrifice. Major themes include the ways in which wartime experiences challenge traditional gender roles; postwar restoration of gender order; collaboration and resistance; the body; and memory and commemoration.
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Europe in the Twentieth Century

Author: Robert O. Paxton,Julie Hessler

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 0495913197

Category: History

Page: 752

View: 555

EUROPE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY is a comprehensive text with a teachable chronological approach that is a bestseller because of its depth and breadth of coverage as well as the strength of its scholarship and the reputation of its authors. With the help of new co-author, Julie Hessler, the Fifth Edition is enhanced to include greater coverage of the post-war period. In addition, socio-cultural issues have been brought to the forefront for both Eastern and Western Europe, including youth movements and feminism. The first half of the text has been streamlined to allow for these revisions. Finally, this edition includes several new photographs and updated maps. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
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A History of Eastern Europe

Crisis and Change

Author: Robert Bideleux,Ian Jeffries

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134213182

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 1913

This welcome second edition of A History of Eastern Europe provides a thematic historical survey of the formative processes of political, social and economic change which have played paramount roles in shaping the evolution and development of the region. Subjects covered include: Eastern Europe in ancient, medieval and early modern times the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire the impact of the region's powerful Russian and Germanic neighbours rival concepts of 'Central' and 'Eastern' Europe the experience and consequences of the two World Wars varieties of fascism in Eastern Europe the impact of Communism from the 1940s to the 1980s post-Communist democratization and marketization the eastward enlargement of the EU. A History of Eastern Europe now includes two new chronologies – one for the Balkans and one for East-Central Europe – and a glossary of key terms and concepts, providing comprehensive coverage of a complex past, from antiquity to the present day.
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Atlas of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century

Author: Richard Crampton,Benjamin Crampton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317799526

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1792

Marshalling 129 maps, numerous diagrams and incisive textual commentary, the Atlas of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century draws a definitive picture of the changing shape of Eastern and some of central Europe from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, charting the emergence of a volatile world from the abrupt collapse of the communist system. An invaluable guide to a complex subject, this Atlas: * gives a general introduction to the physical, ethnic and religious composition of the region * includes summary maps of Eastern Europe in 1900, 1923, 1945 and 1994 * charts the ebb and flow of the first and second world wars in Eastern Europe * presents detailed information relating to consituent territories, elections, economic developments, land holding patterns for key individual countries in the inter-war years * provides crucial social and economic data, evidencing changes under communist domination * gives maps of the new states of the post-communist years with details of elections and economic indicators for Albania, Belarus, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, The Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Slovakia, and others. * contains an extensive glossary listing the major towns of the area under their linguistic variants
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A Social History of Twentieth- Century Europe

Author: Béla Tomka

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415628431

Category: History

Page: 526

View: 8965

A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe offers a systematic overview on major aspects of social life, including population, family and households, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare state, work, consumption and leisure, social cleavages in politics, urbanization as well as education, religion and culture. It also addresses major debates and diverging interpretations of historical and social research regarding the history of European societies in the past one hundred years. Organized in ten thematic chapters, this book takes an interdisciplinary approach, making use of the methods and results of not only history, but also sociology, demography, economics and political science. Béla Tomka presents both the diversity and the commonalities of European societies looking not just to Western European countries, but Eastern, Central and Southern European countries as well. A perfect introduction for all students of European history.
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Inventing Eastern Europe

The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment

Author: Larry Wolff

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804727020

Category: History

Page: 419

View: 4896

Wolff explores how Western thinkers contributed to defining and characterizing Eastern Europe as half-civilized and barbaric.
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The Orthodox Church in Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century

Author: Christine Chaillot

Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9783034307093

Category: Religion

Page: 464

View: 890

It is common knowledge that the majority of the population of Eastern Europe belong to the Christian Orthodox tradition. But how many people have an adequate knowledge of the past or even of the present of these Orthodox churches? This book aims to present an introduction to this history written for a general audience, both Christian and non-Christian.<BR> After the 1917 revolution in Russia, communism spread to most of the countries of Eastern Europe. By 1953, at the time of Stalin's death, the division between Eastern and Western Europe seemed absolute. However, the advent of <I>perestroika at the end of the 1980s brought about political changes that have enabled the Orthodox Church to develop once again in Eastern Europe.<BR> The foundation of the European Union in 1993 has had a broader significance for Orthodox communities, who can now participate in the future development of Europe. Some Orthodox Churches already have their representatives at the European Union in Brussels. These include the patriarchates of Constantinople, Russia and Romania, along with the Church of Greece and the Church of Cyprus.<BR> Today, Europe is becoming increasingly religiously diverse, even within Christianity itself. A growing number of Orthodox Christians have come to work and settle in Western Europe. An understanding of the history of the Orthodox communities in Eastern Europe in the twentieth century will contribute, in a spirit of informed dialogue, to the shaping of a new united Europe that is still in the process of expansion.<BR> This book is translated from the French version (published 2009).
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Historiography in the Twentieth Century

From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge

Author: Georg G. Iggers

Publisher: Wesleyan University Press

ISBN: 0819573795

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 5173

In this book, now published in 10 languages, a preeminent intellectual historian examines the profound changes in ideas about the nature of history and historiography. Georg G. Iggers traces the basic assumptions upon which historical research and writing have been based, and describes how the newly emerging social sciences transformed historiography following World War II. The discipline's greatest challenge may have come in the last two decades, when postmodern ideas forced a reevaluation of the relationship of historians to their subject and questioned the very possibility of objective history. Iggers sees the contemporary discipline as a hybrid, moving away from a classical, macrohistorical approach toward microhistory, cultural history, and the history of everyday life. The new epilogue, by the author, examines the movement away from postmodernism towards new social science approaches that give greater attention to cultural factors and to the problems of globalization.
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Food and War in Mid-Twentieth-Century East Asia

Author: Professor Katarzyna J Cwiertka

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409474488

Category: History

Page: 210

View: 5262

War has been both an agent of destruction and a catalyst for innovation. These two, at first sight contradictory, yet mutually constitutive outcomes of war-waging are particularly pronounced in twentieth-century Asia. While 1945 marked the beginning of peaceful recovery for Europe, military conflicts continued to play a critical role in the historical development of this part of the world. In essence, all wars in twentieth-century Asia stemmed from the political vacuum that developed after the fall of the Japanese Wartime Empire, intricately connecting one region with another. Yet, they have had often very diverse consequences, shattering the homes of some and bringing about affluence to others. Disarray of war may halt economic activities and render many aspects of life insignificant. The need for food, however, cannot be ignored and the social action that it requires continues in all circumstances. This book documents the effects of war on the lives of ordinary people through the investigation of a variety of connections that developed between war-waging and the production, distribution, preparation and consumption of food throughout Asia since the 1930s. The topics addressed range from issues at stake at the time of the conflicts, such as provisioning the troops and food rationing and food relief for civilians, to long-term, often surprising consequences of war waging and wartime mobilization of resources on the food systems, diets, and tastes of the societies involved. The main argument of this volume is that war has not been a mere disruption, but rather a central force in the social and cultural trajectories of twentieth-century Asia. Due to its close connection with human nourishment and comfort, food stands central in the life of the individual. On the other hand, owing to its connection with profit and power, food plays a critical role in the social and economic organization of a society. What happens to food and eating is, therefore, an important index of change, a privileged basis for the exploration of historical processes.
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Contesting Democracy

Author: Jan-Werner Muller

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030018090X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 9240

DIVThis book is the first major account of political thought in twentieth-century Europe, both West and East, to appear since the end of the Cold War. Skillfully blending intellectual, political, and cultural history, Jan-Werner Müller elucidates the ideas that shaped the period of ideological extremes before 1945 and the liberalization of West European politics after the Second World War. He also offers vivid portraits of famous as well as unjustly forgotten political thinkers and the movements and institutions they inspired. Müller pays particular attention to ideas advanced to justify fascism and how they relate to the special kind of liberal democracy that was created in postwar Western Europe. He also explains the impact of the 1960s and neoliberalism, ending with a critical assessment of today's self-consciously post-ideological age./div
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The Food Industries of Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Author: Professor Alain Drouard,Professor Derek J Oddy

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472408268

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 6789

The industrialization of food preservation and processing has been a dramatic development across Europe during modern times. This book sets out its story from the beginning of the nineteenth century when preservation of food from one harvest to another was essential to prevent hunger and even famine. Population growth and urbanization depended upon a break out from the ‘biological ancien regime’ in which hunger was an ever-present threat. The application of mass production techniques by the food industries was essential to the modernization of Europe. From the mid-nineteenth century the development of food industries followed a marked regional pattern. After an initial growth in north-west Europe, the spread towards south-east Europe was slowed by social, cultural and political constraints. This was notable in the post-Second World War era. The picture of change in this volume is presented by case studies of countries ranging from the United Kingdom in the west to Romania in the east. All illustrate the role of food industries in creating new products that expanded the traditional cereal-based diet of pre-industrial Europe. Industrially preserved and processed foods provided new flavours and appetizing novelties which led to brand names recognized by consumers everywhere. Product marketing and advertising became fundamental to modern food retailing so that Europe’s largest food producers, Danone, Nestlé and Unilever, are numbered amongst the world’s biggest companies.
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Food and War in Twentieth Century Europe

Author: Rachel Duffett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317134419

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 8173

Wars cannot be fought and sustained without food and this unique collection explores the impact of war on food production, allocation and consumption in Europe in the twentieth century. A comparative perspective which incorporates belligerent, occupied and neutral countries provides new insights into the relationship between food and war. The analysis ranges from military provisioning and systems of food rationing to civilians' survival strategies and the role of war in stimulating innovation and modernization.
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Peasant Violence and Antisemitism in Early Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe

Author: Irina Marin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319760696

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 5087

This book is a transnational study of rural and anti-Semitic violence around the triple frontier between Austria-Hungary, Romania and Tsarist Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. It focuses on the devastating Romanian peasant uprising in 1907 and traces the reverberations of the crisis across the triple frontier, analysing the fears, spectres and knee-jerk reactions it triggered in the borderlands of Austria-Hungary and Tsarist Russia. The uprising came close on the heels of the 1905-1907 social turmoil in Tsarist Russia, and brought into play the major issues that characterized social and political life in the region at the time: rural poverty, the Jewish Question, state modernization, and social upheavals. The book comparatively explores the causes and mechanisms of violence propagation, the function of rumour in the spread of the uprising, land reforms and their legal underpinnings, the policing capabilities of the borderlands around the triple frontier, as well as newspaper coverage and diplomatic reactions.
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Neutrality in Twentieth-century Europe

Intersections of Science, Culture, and Politics After the First World War

Author: Rebecka Lettevall,Geert Somsen,Sven Widmalm

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415893771

Category: History

Page: 351

View: 9793

Whether in science or in international politics, neutrality has sometimes been promoted, not only as a viable political alternative but as a lofty ideal – in politics by nations proclaiming their peacefulness, in science as an underpinning of epistemology, in journalism and other intellectual pursuits as a foundation of a professional ethos. Time and again scientists and other intellectuals have claimed their endeavors to be neutral, elevated above the world of partisan conflict and power politics. This volume studies the resonances between neutrality in science and culture and neutrality in politics. By analyzing the activities of scientists, intellectuals, and politicians (sometimes overlapping categories) of mostly neutral nations in the First World War and after, it traces how an ideology of neutralism was developed that soon was embraced by international organizations. This book explores how the notion of neutrality has been used and how a neutralist discourse developed in history. None of the contributions take claims of neutrality at face value – some even show how they were made to advance partisan interests. The concept was typically clustered with notions, such as peace, internationalism, objectivity, rationality, and civilization. But its meaning was changeable – varying with professional, ideological, or national context. As such, Neutrality in Twentieth-Century Europe presents a different perspective on the century than the story of the great belligerent powers, and one in which science, culture, and politics are inextricably mixed.
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The Palgrave Handbook of Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century Russia and the Soviet Union

Author: Melanie Ilic

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 113754905X

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 669

This handbook brings together recent and emerging research in the broad areas of women and gender studies focusing on pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and the post-Soviet Russian Federation. For the Soviet period in particular, individual chapters extend the geographic coverage of the book beyond Russia itself to examine women and gender relations in the Soviet ‘East’ (Tatarstan), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Within the boundaries of the Russian Federation, the scope moves beyond the typically studied urban centres of Moscow and St Petersburg to examine the regions (Krasnodar, Novosibirsk), rural societies and village life. Its chapters examine the construction of gender identities and shifts in gender roles during the twentieth century, as well as the changing status and roles of women vis-a-vis men in Soviet political institutions, the workplace and society more generally. This volume draws on a broad range of disciplinary and methodological approaches currently being employed in the academic field of Russian studies. The origins of the individual contributions can be identified in a range of conventional subject disciplines – history, literature, sociology, political science, cultural studies – but the chapters also adopt a cross- and inter-disciplinary approach to the topic of study. This handbook therefore builds on and extends the foundations of Russian women’s and gender studies as it has emerged and developed in recent decades, and demonstrate the international, indeed global, reach of such research
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